Skip to main content

Full text of "A biographical dictionary of freethinkers of all ages and nations"

See other formats





BL 2785 .W45 1889 
Wheeler, J. M. 1850-1898. 
A biographical dictionary o 
freethinkers of all ages 





Biographical Dictionary 







28 Stonecutter Street, E.G. 






John Stuart Mill in his " Autobiography " declares 
with truth that " the world would be astonished if it 
knew how great a proportion of its brightest ornaments, 
of those most distinguished even in popular estimation 
for wisdom and virtue are complete sceptics in 
religion." Many of these, as Mill points out, refrain 
from various motives from speaking out. The work 1 
have undertaken will, I trust, do something to show 
Low many of the world's worthiest men and women 
have been Freethinkers. 

My Dictionary does not pretend to be a complete list 
of those who have rendered services to Freethought. 
To form such a compilation would rather be the task 
of an international society than of an individual. 
Moreover details concerning many worthy workers 
are now inaccessible. Freethought boasts its noble 
army of martyrs of whom the world was not worthy, 
and who paid the penalty of their freedom in prison or 
at the stake. Some of the names of these are only 
known by the vituperation of their adversaries. I 
have done my best to preserve some trustworthy record 
of as many as possible. 

The only complete work with a similar design of 
which I have any knowledge, is the Dictionnaire des 
Athees anciens et modernes, by Sylvain Marechal with 
its supplements by Jerome de Lalande the Astronomer, 
An. VIII. (1800)-1805. That work, which is now ex- 


tremely rare, gave scarcely any biographical details, 
and unfortunately followed j)revious orthodox atheo- 
graphers, such as Buddeus, Eeimmann, Hardouin, 
Garasse, Mersenne, in classing as Atheists those to 
whom the title wa3 inapplicable. I have taken no 
names from these sources without examining the 

A work was issued by Richard Carliie in 1826, 
entitled A Dwtmiary oj Modern Anti-Superstionists : 
or, " an account, arranged alphabetically, of those who, 
whether called Atheists, Sceptics, Latitudinarians, 
Religious Reformers, or etc., have during the last ten 
centuries contributed towards the diminution of 
superstition. Compiled by a searcher after Truth." 
The compiler, as I have reason to know, was Julian 
Hibbert, who brought to his task adequate scholarship 
and leisure. It was, however, conceived on too ex- 
tensive a scale, and in 128 pages, all that was 
issued, it only reached to the name of Annet. 
Julian Hibbert also compiled chronological tables of 
English Freethinkers, which were published in the 
Reasoner for 1855. 

Of the Anti-Trmitarian Biography of the Rev. 
Robert Wallace, or of the previous compilations of 
Saudius and Bock, I have made but little use. To 
include the names of all who reject some of the 
Christian dogmas was quite beside my purpose, though 
1 have included those of early Unitarians and Uni- 
versalists who, I conceive, exhibited the true spirit of 
free inquiry in the face of persecution. To the 
Freydenker Lexikon of J. A. Trinius (1759) my obli- 
gations are slight, but should be acknowledged. To 
Bayle's Dictionary, Hoefer's Nouvelle Biographie 
Generale, Meyer's Konvcr sat ions Lexikon, Franck's 
Dictionnaire des Sciences Philosopliiques, and to 
Larousse's Grand Dictio?inaire Universel I must 


also express my indebtedness. In the case of disputed 
dates I have usually found Haydn's Dictionary of 
Biography (1886) most trustworthy, but I have also 
consulted Oettinger's valuable Moniteur des Dates. 

The particulars have in all cases been drawn from 
the best available sources. I have not attempted to 
give a full view of any of the lives dealt with, but 
merely sought to give some idea of their services and 
relation to Freethought. Nor have I enumerated the 
whole of the works of authors who have often dealt 
with a variety of subjects. As full a list as is feasible 
has, however, been given of their distinctive Free- 
thought works ; and the book will, I hope, be useful 
to anyone wishing information as to the bibliography 
of Freethought. The only work of a bibliographical 
kind is the Guide du Lib re Penseur, by M. Alfred 
Verliere, but his list is very far from complete even of 
the French authors, with whom it is almost entirely 
occupied. I should also mention La Lorgnette Philo- 
sophique, by M. Paquet, as giving lively sketches, 
though not biographies, of some modern French Free- 

In the compilation of my list of names I have re- 
ceived assistance from my friends, Mr. G. W. Foote 
(to whom I am also indebted for the opportunity of 
publication), Mr. \¥. J. Birch, Mr. E. Truelove and Mr. 
F. Malibran. For particulars in regard to some English 
Freethinkers I am indebted to Mr. Charles Bradlaugh, 
Mr. George Jacob Holyoake and Mr. E. T. Craig, while 
Professor Dal Yolta, of Florence, has kindly assisted me 
with some of the Italian names. I must also express 
my indebtedness to A. de Gubernatis, whose Dizionario 
Biografico degli Scrittori Contemporanei. I have found 
of considerable service. My thanks are also due to 
O. K. Fortescue, Esq., for permission to examine the 
titles of all Freethought works in the British Museum. 


Some readers may think my list contains names 
better omitted, while omitting others well deserving a 
place. I have, for instance, omitted many foreign 
Liberal Protestants while including Bishop Colenso, 
who, ostensibly, did not go so far. But my justification, 
if any, must be found in my purpose, which is to re- 
cord the names of those who have contributed in their 
generation to the advance of Freethought. No one 
can be more conscious of the imperfections of my 
work than myself, but I console myself with the 
reflection of Plato, that " though it be the merit of a 
good huntsman to find game in a wide wood, it is no 
discredit if he do not find it all " ; and the hope that 
what 1 have attempted some other will complete. 

The most onerous part of my task has been the 
examination of the claims of some thousand names, 
mostly foreign, which find no place in this dictionary. 
But the work throughout has been a labor of love. I 
designed it as my humble contribution to the cause of 
Freethought, and leave it with the hope that it will 
contribute towards the history of "the good old cause" ; 
a history which has yet to be written, and for which, 
perhaps, the time is not yet ripe. 

Should chis volume be received with an encouraging 
share of Eavor, I hope to follow it with a History of 
Freethought in England, for which I have long been 
collectincr materials. 


Abaelardus (Petrus), b. 1079. A teacher of philosophy at 
Paris, renowned for being loved by the celebrated Eloise. He 
was accused of teaching erroneous opinions, chiefly about the 
Creation and the Trinity, and was condemned by a council at 
Soissons in 1121 and by that of Sens 1140, at the instigation of 
St. Bernard. He was hunted about, but spent his last days as 
a monk at Cluni. He died 21 April, 1142. "Abelard," 
observes Hallam, " was almost the first who awakened man- 
kind, in the age of darkness, to a sympathy with intellectual 

Abano (Petrus de). See Petrus, de Ahano. 

Abauzit (Firmin), a French writer, descended from an 
Arabian family which settled in the South of France early in 
the ninth century, b. Uzes, 11 Nov. 1679. He travelled 
in Holland and became acquainted with Bayle, . attained 
a reputation for philosophy, and was consulted by Voltaire 
and Rousseau. Among his works are. Reflections on the 
Gospels, and an essay on the Apocalypse, in which he questions 
the authority of that work. Died at Geneva 20 March, 1767. 
His Miscellanies were translated in English by E. Harwood, 1774. 

Abbot (Francis EUingwood). American Freethinker, b. 
Boston, 6 Nov. 1836. He graduated at Harvard University 1859, 
began life as a Unitarian minister, but becoming too broad for 
that Church, resigned in 1869. He started the Index , a journal 
of free religious inquiry and anti-supernaturalism, at Toledo, 
but since 1874 at Boston. This he edited 1870-80. In 1872 
appeared his Impeachment of Christianty . In addition to his 
work on the Lidex, Mr. Abbot has lectured a great deal, and 
has contributed to the North American Review and other periodi- 


cals. He was the first president of the American National 
Liberal League. Mr. Abbot is an evolutionist and Theist, and 
defends his views in Scientific Theism, 1886. 

Ablaing van Giessenburg (R. C.) See Giessenburg. 

Abu Bakr Ibn Al-Tufail (Abu J'afar) Al Ishili. Spanish 
Arabian philosopher, b. at Guadys, wrote a i)hilosophical 
romance of pantheistic tendency Hai Ibn Yakdan, translated 
into Latin by Pocock, Oxford 1671, and into English by S. 
Ockley, 1711, under the title of The Improvement of Human Reason. 
Died at Morocco 1185. 

Abu-Fazil (Abu al Fadhl ibx MrBARAK, called Al Hindi), 
vizier to the great Emperor Akbar from 1572. Although by 
birth a Muhammadan, his investigations into the religions of 
India made him see equal worth in all, and, like his master, 
Akbar, he was tolerant of all sects. His chief work is the 
Ayin Akhary, a statistical account of the Indian Empire. It 
was translated by F. Gladwin, 1777. He was assassinated 1604. 

Abul-Abbas-Abdallah III. (Al Mamoun), the seventh 
Abbasside, caliph, son of Haroun al Rashid, was b. at Bagdad 
16 Sept. 786. He was a patron of science and literature, 
collected Geeek and Hebrew manuscripts, and invited the 
scholars of all nations to his capital. He wrote several treatises 
and poems. Died in war near Tarsus, 9 Aug. 833. 

Abul-Ola (Ahmad ibn Abd Allah ibn Sulaiman), cele- 
brated Arabian poet, b. at Maari, in Syria, Dec, 973. His free 
opinions gave much scandal to devout Moslems. He was blind 
through small- pox from the age of four years, but his poems 
exhibit much knowledge. He called himself " the doubly impri- 
soned captive," in allusion to his seclusion and loss of sight. 
He took no pains to conceal that he believed in no revealed 
religion. Died May, 1057, and ordered the following verse to 
be written on his tomb :— " I owe this to the fault of my father : 
none owe the like to mine." 

Abu TaMr (al Karmatti), the chief of a freethinking 
sect at Bahrein, on the Persian Gulf, who with a comparatively 
small number of followers captured Mecca (930), and took away 
the black stone. He suddenly attacked, defeated, and took 
prisoner Abissaj whom, at the head of thirty thousand men, the 
caliph had sent against him. Died in 943. 


Achillini (Alessandro), Italiiin physician and philosopher 
b. Bologna 29 Oct. 1463. He expounded the doctrines or 
Averroes, and wrote largely upon anatomy. Died 2 Aug. 1512. 
His collected works were published at Venice, 1545. 

Ackermann (Louise-Yictorine, nee Choquet), French poetess, 
b. Paris 30 Nov. 1813. She travelled to Germany and there 
married (1858) a young theologian, Paul Ackerman, who in 
preparing for the ministry lost his Christian faith, and who, 
after becoming teacher to Prince Frederick William (afterwards 
Frederick III.), died at the age of thirty-four (184G). Both 
were friends of Proudhon. ]\Iadame Ackermann's poems 
(Paris 1863-74 and 85) exhibit her as a philosophic pessimist 
and Atheist. " God is dethroned," says M. Caro of her poems 
(Revue des Deujc Maudes, 15 May, 1874). She professes hatred 
of Christianity and its interested professors. She has also 
published Thoughts of a Soli tar ij. Saintc Beuve calls her 'Hhe 
learned solitary of Nice." 

AcoHas (Pierre Antoine Rene Paul Emile), French juris- 
consult and political writer, b. La Chatre 25 June, 1826, studied 
law at Paris. For participating in the Geneva congress of the 
International Society in 1867 he was condemned to one year's 
imprisonment. In 1871 he was appointed head of the law facult}' 
by the Commune. He has published several manuals popular- 
ising the legal rights of the people, and has written on Marriage 
its Past, Present, and Future, 1880. Mrs. Besant has translated 
his monograph on The Idea of God in the Revolution, published in 
the Droits de I'Homme. 

Acontius (Jacobus — Italian, Giacomo Aconzio). Born at 
Trent early in sixteenth century. After receiving ordination 
in the Church of Rome he relinquished that faith and fled to 
Switzerland in 1557. He subsequently came to England and 
served Queen Elizabeth as a military engineer. To her he 
dedicated his Stratcgems of Satan, published at Basle 1565. 
This was one of the earliest latitudinarian works, and was 
placed upon the Index. It was also bitterly assailed by Pro- 
testant divines, both in England and on the Continent. An 
English translation appeared in 1648. Some proceedings were 
taken against Acontius before Bishop Grindall, of the result of 
which no account is given. Some passages of Milton's Areo- 


pagitica may be traced to Acontius, avIio, Cheynell informs 
us, lived till 1G23. Stephen's Dictionary of National Biography 
says he is believed to have died shortly after 1566. 

Acosta (Uriel). Born at Oporto 1597, the son of a Chris- 
tianised Jew ; he was brought up as a Christian, but on reaching 
maturity, rejected that faith. He went to Holland, where he 
published a work equally criticising Moses and Jesus. For 
this he was excommunicated by the Synagogue, fined and put 
in prison by the Amsterdam authorities, and his work sup- 
pressed. After suffering many indignities from both Jews and 
Christians, he committed suicide 1647. 

Adams (George), of Bristol, sentenced in 1842 to one month's 
imprisonment for selling the Oracle of Reason. 

Adams (Robert C), Canadian Freethought writer and lecturer. 
Author of Travih in Faith from Tradition to Reason (New York, 
1884), also Evolution, a Summary of Evidence. 

Adler (Felix) Ph. D. American Freethinker, the son of a 
Jewish rabbi, was b. in Alzey, Germany, 13 Aug. 1851. He 
graduated at Columbia College, 1870, was professor of Hebrew 
and Oriental literature at Cornell University from '74 to May 
'76, when he established in New York the Society of Ethical 
Culture, to which he discourses on Sundays. In 1877 he pub- 
lished a volume entitled Creed and Deed, in which he rejects 
supernatural religion. Dr. Adler has also contributed many 
papers to the Radical literature of America. 

^nesidemiis. A Cretan sceptical philosopher of the first 
century. He adopted the principle of Heraclitus, that all 
things were in course of change, and argued against our know- 
ledge of ultimate causes. 

Airy (Sir George Biddell). English Astronomer Royal, b. 
Alnwick 27 Jiily, 1801. Educated at Cambridge, where he 
became senior wrangler 1823. During a long life Professor Airy 
did much to advance astronomical science. His Notes on the 
Earlier Hebrew Scriptures 1876, proves him to have been a 
thorough-going Freethinker. 

Aitkenhead (Thomas), an Edinburgh student aged eighteen, 
who was indicted for blasphemy, by order of the Privy 
Council, for having called the Old Testament " Ezra's Fables," 


and having maintained that God and nature were the same. 
He was found guilty 21 Dec, 1696, and hanged for blasphemy, 
8 Jan. 1697. 

Aitzema (Lieuwe van), a nobleman of Friesland, b. at 
Dorcknm 19 Nov. 1600, author of a suppressed History of the 
Netherlands, between 1621-68. Is classed by Reimmann as an 
Atheist. Died at the Hague 23 Feb. 1669. 

Akbar (Jalal-ed-din Muhammad), the greatest of the em- 
perors of Hindostan, b. 15 Oct. 1542, was famous for his wide 
administration and improvement of the empire. Akbar 
showed toleration alike to Christians, Muhammadans, and to 
all forms of the Hindu faith. He had the Christian gospels 
and several Brahmanical treatises translated into Persian. 
The result of his many conferences on religion between learned 
men of all sects, are collected in the Dabistan. Akbar was 
brought up as a Muhammadan, but became a Theist, acknow- 
ledging one God, but rejecting all other dogmas. Died Sept. 

Alberger (John). American author of Monks, Popes, and 
tJieir Political Intrigues (Baltimore, 1871) and Antiquity of Chris, 
ti'initij (New York, 1874). 

Albini (Giuseppe). Italian physiologist, b. Milan. In 
1845 he studied medicine in Paris. He has written on em- 
bryology and many other physiological subjects. 

Alchindus. Yakub ibn Is'hak ibn Subbah (Abu Yusuf) 
called Al Kincli, Arab physician and philosopher, the great 
grandson of one of the companions of Muhammad, the 
prophet, flourished from 814 to about 840. He was a rationalist 
in religion, and for his scientific studies he was set down as a 

Alciati (Giovanni Paolo). A Milanese of noble family. 
At first a Eomanist, he resigned that faith for Calvinism, but 
gradually advanced to Anti-trinitarianism, whicli he defends in 
two letters to Gregorio Pauli, dated Austerlitz 1564 and 1565 
Beza says that Alciati deserted the Christian faith and became 
a Muhammadan, but Bayle takes pains to disprove this. Died 
at Dant'zic about 1570. 

Aleardi (Gaetano). Italian poet, known as Aleardo Aleardi, 


b. Verona, 4 Nov. 1812. He was engaged in a life-long 
struggle against the Austrian dominion, and his patriotic poems 
were much admired. In 1859 he was elected dei)ut3^ to Parlia- 
ment for Brescia. Died Verona, 16 July, 1878. 

Alem"bert (Jean le Rond d'), mathematician and philo- 
sopher, b. at Paris 16 Nov. 1717. He was an illegitimate son of 
Canon Destouches and Mme. Tencin, and received his Christian 
name from a church near which he was exposed as a foundling. 
He afterwards resided for forty years with' his nurse, nor would 
ho leave her for the most tempting offers. In 1741, he was 
admitted a member of the Academy of Sciences. In 1749, he 
obtained the prize medal from the Academy of Berlin, for a 
discourse on the theory of winds. In 1749, he solved the problem 
of the procession of the equinoxes and explained the mutation 
of the earth's axis. He next engaged with Diderot, with whose 
opinions he was in complete accord, in compiling the famous 
Encyclopedie, for which he wrote the preliminary discourse. In 
addition to this great work he published many historical* 
philosophical and scientific essays, and largely corresponded 
with Voltaire. His work on the Destruction of the Jesuits is 
a caustic and far-reaching production. In a letter to Frederick 
the Great, he says : " As for the existence of a supreme intelli- 
gence, I think that those who deny it advance more than they 
can prove, and scepticism is the only reasonable course." He 
goes on to say, however, that experience invincibly proves the 
materiality of the " soul." Died 29 Oct. 1783. In 1799 two 
volumes of his posthumous essays were printed in Paris. 
His works prove d'Alerabert to have been of broad spirit and 
of most extensive knowledge. 

Alfieri (Vittorio), Count. Famous Italian poet and dramatist^ 
b. Asti, Piedmont, 17 Jan. 1749, of a noble family. His tra- 
gedies are justly celebrated, and in his Essay on Tyranny he 
shows himself as favorable to religious as to political liberty. 
Written in his youth, this work was revised at a more advanced 
age, the author remarking that if he had no longer the courage, 
or rather the fire, necessary to compose it, he nevertheless 
retained intelligence, independence and judgment enough to 
approve it, and to let it stand as the last of his literary pro- 
ductions. His attack is chiefly directed against Catholicism, 
but he does not spare Christianitv. " Born among a people," 


he says, " slavish, ignorant, and already entirely subjugated by 
priests, the Christian religion knows only how to enjoin the 
blindest obedience, and is unacquainted even with the name of 
liberty." Alfieri's tragedy of Sard has been prohibited on the 
English stage. Died Florence, 8 Oct. 1803. 

Alfonso X., surnamed the Wise, King of Castillo and of 
Leon ; b. in 1223, crowned 1252. A patron of science and lover 
of astronomy. He compiled a complete digest of Eoman, feudal 
and canon law, and had drawn up the astronomical tables called 
Alfonsine Tables. By his liberality and example he gave a great 
impulse to Spanish literature. For his intercourse with Jews and 
Arabians, his independence towards the Pope and his free dis- 
posal of the clerical revenues, he has been stigmatised as an 
Atheist. To him is attributed the well-known remark that had he 
been present at the creation of the world he would have proposed 
some improvents. Father Lenfant adds the pious lie that " The 
king had scarcely pronounced this blasphemy when a thunder- 
bolt fell and reduced his wife and two children to ashes." 
Alfonso X. died 4 April, 1284. 

Algarotti (Francesco), Count. Italian writer and art critic, 
b. at Venice, 11 Dec, 1712. A visit to England led him 
to write Newtonkummfor the Ladles. He afterwards visited Berlin 
and became the friend both of Voltaire and of Frederick the 
Great, who appointed him his Chamberlain. Died with philo- 
sophical composure at Pisa, 3 May, 1764. 

Alger (William Rounseville), b. at Freetown, Massachu- 
setts, 30 Dec. 1822, educated at Harvard, became a Unitarian 
preacher of the advanced type. His Critical History of the Doc- 
trine of a Future Life, with a complete bibliography of the 
subject by Ezra Abbot, is a standard work, written from the 
Universalist point of view. 

Allen (Charles Grant Blairfindie), naturalist and author, 
b. in Kingston, Canada, 24 Feb. 1848. He studied at Merton 
College, Oxford, and graduated with honors 1871. In 1873 
appointed Professor of Logic in Queen's College, Spanish town, 
Jamaica ; from 1874 to '77 he Avas its principal. Since then he 
has resided in England, and become known by his popular 
expositions of Darwinism. His published works include 
Physiological .Esthetics (1877), The Evolutionist at Large (1881), 


Nature Studies (1883), Charles Dancin (1885), and several novels. 
Grant Allen has also edited the miscellaneous works of Buckle, 
and has written on Force and Energy (1888). 

Allen (Ethan) Col., American soldier, b. at Lichfield, 
Connecticut, 10 Jan. 1737. One of the most active of the revo- 
lutionary heroes, he raised a company of volunteers known as 
the " Green Mountain Boys," and took by surprise the British 
fortress of Ticonderoga, capturing 100 guns, 10 May, 1775. He 
was declared an outlaw and £100 offered for his arrest by Gov. 
Tryon of New York. Afterwards he was taken prisoner and 
sent to England. At first treated with cruelty, he was even- 
tually exchanged for another officer, 6 May, 1778. He was a 
member of the state legislature, and succeeded in obtaining the 
recognition of Vermont as an independent state. He published 
in 1784 Reason the only Oracle of Man, the first publication in 
the United States openly directed against the Christian religion. 
It has been frequently reprinted and is still popular in America. 
Died Burlington, Vermont, 13 Feb. 1789. A statue is erected 
to him at Montpelier, Vermont. 

AUsop (Thomas). "The favorite disciple of Coleridge," 
b. 10 April, 1794, near Wirksworth, Derbyshire, he lived till 
1880. A friend of Robert Owen and the Chartists. He was 
implicated in the attempt of Orsini against Napoleon III. In 
his Letters, Conversations and Recollections of Samuel Taylor 
Coleridge, he has imported many of his Freethought views. 

Aim (Richard von der). See Ghillany (F. W.) 

Alpharabius (Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tarkhan) 
(Abu Nasr), called Al Farahi, Turkish philosopher, termed by 
Ibn Khallikan the greatest philosopher the Moslems ever had, 
travelled to Bagdad, mastered the works of Aristotle, and 
became master of Avicenna. Al Farabi is said to have taught 
the eternity of the world and to have denied the permanent 
individuality of the soul. His principal work is a sort of ency- 
clopedia. Renan says he expressly rejected all supernatural 
revelation. Died at Damascus Dec. 950, aged upwards of eighty. 

Amaury or Amalric de Chartres, a heretic of the thir- 
teenth century, was a native of Bene, near Chartres, and 
lived at Paris, where he gave lessons in logic. In a work 
bearing the title of Physion, condemned by a bull of Pope 


Innocent III. (1204), lie is said to have taught a kind of Pan- 
theism, and that the reign of the Father and Son must give 
place to that of the Holy Spirit. Ten of his disciples were 
burnt at Paris 20 Dec. 1210, and the bones of Amaury were 
exhumed and placed in the flames. 

Amberley (John Russell) Viscount, eldest son of Earl 
Russell, b. 1843. Educated at Harrow, Edinburgh and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where ill-health prevented him reading 
for honors. He entered Parliament in 1866 as Radical member 
for Nottingham. Lord Amberley contributed thoughtful articles 
to the Noi'th British, the Fortiiiglithj and Theological Reviews, and 
will be remembered by his bold Analysis of Religious Belief (187 G) , 
in which he examines, compares and criticises the various faiths 
of the world. Lord Amberley left his son to be brought up by 
Mr. Spalding, a self-taught man of great ability and force of 
character; but the will was set aside, on appeal to the Court of 
Chancery, in consideration of Mr. Spalding's heretical views. 
Died 8 Jan. 1876. 

Amman (Hans Jacob), German surgeon and traveller, b 
Lake Zurich 1586. In 1612 he went to Constantinople, Pales- 
tine and Egypt, and afterwards published a curious book called 
Voyage in the Promised Land. Died at Zurich, 1658. 

Ammianus (Marcellinus). Roman soldier-historian of the 
fourth century, b. at Antioch. He wrote the Romaii history 
from the reign of Nerva to the death of Valens in thirty-one 
books, of which the first thirteen are lost. His history is 
esteemed impartial and trustworthy. He served under Julian, 
and compares the rancor of the Christians of the period to that 
of wild beasts. Gibbon calls him " an accurate and faithful 
guide." Died about 395 a.d. 

Ammonius, surnamed Saccas or the Porter, from his having 
been obliged in the early part of his life to adopt that calling, 
was born of Christian parents in Alexandria during the second 
century. He, however, turned Pagan and opened a school of 
philosophy. Among his pupils were Origen, Longinus and 
Plotinus. He undoubtedly originated the Neo-Platonic move- 
ment, which formed the most serious opposition to Christianity 
in its early career. Ammonius died a.d. 243 , aged over eighty 


Anaxagoras, a Greek philosopher of the Ionic school, 
b. about 499 B.C., lived at Athens and enjoyed the friendship of 
Pericles. In 450 B.C. he was accused of Atheism for maintain- 
ing the eternity of matter and was banished to Lampsacus, 
where he died in 428 B.C. It is related that, being asked how 
he desired to be honored after death, he replied, " Only let the 
day of my death be observed as a holiday by the boys iu the 
schools." He taught that generation and destruction are only 
the union and separation of elements which can neither be 
created nor annihilated. 

Andre-Nuytz (Louis), author of Positwism for All, an ele- 
mentary exposition of ^Positive philosophy, to which Littre 
wrote a jjreface, 1868. 

Andrews (Stephen Pearl). American Sociologist, b. Temple- 
ton, Mass., 22 March, 1812. He was an ardent Abolitionist, an 
eloquent speaker, and the inventor of a universal language 
called Alwato. His principle work is entitled The Basic Outline 
of Universolofjy (N. Y., 1872). He also wrote The Church and 
Religion of the Future (1886). He was a prominent member 
and vice-president of the Liberal Club of New York, a con- 
tributor to the London limes, the New York Truihseclcer, and 
many other journals. Died at New York, 21 May, 1886. 

Andrieux (Louis). French deputy, b. Trevoux 20 July, 
1840. Was called to the bar at Lyons, where he became famous 
for his political pleading. He took part in the Freethought Con- 
gress at Naples in 1869, and in June of the following year he was 
imprisoned for three months for his attack on the Empire. On 
the establishment of the Republic he was nominated procureur 
at Lyons. He was on the municipal council of that city, which 
he has also represented in the Chamber of Deputies. In 1879 
he became Prefect of Police at Paris, but retired in 1881 and 
was elected deputy hy his constituents at Lyons. He has 
written Souvenirs of a Prefect of Police (1885). 

Angelucci (Teodoro). Italian poet and philosopher, b. 
near Tolentino 1549. He advocated Aristotle against F. Patrizi, 
and was banished from Rome. One of the first emancipators 
of modern thought in Italy, he also made an excellent transla- 
tion of the ^neid of Virgil. Died Montagnana, 1600. 

AngiuUi (Andrea). Italian Positivist, b. Castellana 12 Feb. 


1837, author of a work on philosophy and Positive research, 
Naples 1868. He became professor of Anthropology at Naples 
in 1876, and edits a philosophical review published in that 
city since 1881. 

Annet (Peter). One of the most forcible writers among 
the English Deists, b. at Liverpool in 1693. He was at one 
time a schoolmaster and invented a system of shorthand. 
Priestley learnt it at school and corresponded with Annet. In 
1739 he published a pamphlet on Freetliinking the Great Duty of 
Religion, by P. A., minister of religion. This was followed by 
the Conception of Jesus as the Foundation of the Christian Religion^ 
in which he boldly attacks the doctrine of the Incarnation as 
" a legend of the Romanists," and The Resurrection of Jesus Con- 
sidered (1744) in answer to Bishop Sherlock's Trial of the 
Witnesses. This controversy was continued in The Resurrection 
Reconsidered ?a\^ The Resurrection Defenders Stript of all Defence' 
In An Examination of the History and Character of St. Paul he 
attacks the sincerity of the apostle to the Gentiles and even 
questions the authenticity of his epistles. In Supernaturals Ex- 
amined (1747) he argues that all miracles are incredible. In 
1761 he issued nine numbers of the Free Inquirer, in which he 
attacked the authenticity and credibility of the Pentateuch. 
For this he was brought before the King's Bench and sentenced 
to suffer one month's imprisonment in Newgate, to stand twice 
in the pillory, once at Charing Cross and once at the Exchange. 
with a label " For Blasphemy," then to have a year's hard labor 
in Bridewell and to find sureties for good behavior during the 
rest of his life. It is related that a woman seeing Annet in the 
pillory said, " Gracious ! pilloried for blasphemy. Why, don't 
we blaspheme every day !" After his release Annet set up a 
school at Lambeth. Being asked his views on a future life h& 
replied by this apologue : " One of my friends in Italy, seeing 
the sign of an inn, asked if that was the Angel." " No," was- 
the reply, " do you not see it is the sign of a dragon." " Ah," 
said my friend, " as I have never seen either angel or dragon,, 
how can I tell whether it is one or the other? " Died 18 Jan. 
1769. The History of the Man after God's Own Heart (1761) 
ascribed to Annet, was more probably written by Archibald 
Campbell. The View of the Life of King David (1765) by W. 
Skilton, Horologist, is also falsely attributed to Annet. 
17 B 


Anthero de Quental, Portuguese writer, b. San Miguel 
1843. Educated for the law at the University of Ooimbra, 
he has published both jDoetry and prose, showing him to be 
a student of Hartmann, Proudhon and Kenan, and one of the 
most advanced minds in Portugal. 

Anthony (Susan Brownell). American reformer, b. of a 
Quaker family at South Adams, Massachusetts, 15 Feb. 1820. 
She became a teacher, a temperance reformer, an opponent of 
slavery, and an ardent advocate of women's rights. Of the last 
movement she became secretary. In conjunction with Mrs. E. 
C. Stanton and Parker Pillsbury she conducted The Revolutionist 
founded in New York in 1868, and with Mrs. Stanton and 
Matilda Joslyn Gage she has edited the History of Woman's 
Suffrage, 1881. Miss Anthony is a declared Agnostic. 

Antoine (Nicolas). Martyr. Denied the Messiahship and 
divinity of Jesus, and w^as strangled and burnt at Geneva, 20 
April, 1632. 

Antonelle (Pierre Antoine) Marquis d\ French political 
economist, b. Aries 1747. He embraced the revolution with 
ardor, and his article in the Journal des Hommes Librcs occasioned 
his arrest with Baboeuf. He was, however, acquitted. Died 
at Aries, 26 Nov. 1817. 

Antoninus (Marcus Aurelius). See Aurelius. 

Apelt (Ernst Friedrich), German philosopher, b. Reichenau 
3 March, 1812. He criticised the philosophy of religion from 
the standpoint of reason, and w^rote many works on meta- 
physics. Died near Gorlitz, 27 Oct. 1859. 

Aquila, a Jew of Pontus, who became a proselj^te to Chris- 
tianity, but afterwards left that religion. He published a 
Greek version of the Hebrew scriptures to show that the pro- 
phecies did not apply to Jesus (a.d. 128). The work is lost. He 
has been identified by E. Deutsch Avith the author of the 
Targum of Onkelos. 

Arago (Dominique Francois Jean), French academician 
politician, physicist and astronomer, b. Estagel, 26 Feb. 1786. 
He was elected to the French Academy of Sciences at the age 
of twent3^-three. He made several optical and electro-magnetic 
discoveries, and advocated the undulatory theorj^ of light. He 
was an ardent Republican and Freethinker, and took part in 


the provisional Government of 1848. He opposed the election 
of Louis Napoleon, and refused to take the oath of alleg-iance 
after the coup cTetat of December, 1851. Died 2 Oct. 1853. 
Humboldt calls him a " zealous defender of the interests of 

Ardigo (Roberto), Italian philosopher, b. at Casteldidone 
(Cremona) 28 Jan. 1828, was intended for the Church, but took 
to philosophy. In 1869 he published a discourse on Peitro 
Pomponazzi, followed next year by Psychology as a Positive 
Science. Signor Ardigo has also written on the formation of the 
solar system and on the historical formation of the ideas of 
God and the soul. An edition of his philosophical works was 
commenced at Mantua in 1882. Ardigo is one of the leaders 
of the Italian Positivists. His Positioist Morals appeared in 
Padua 1885. 

Argens (Jean Baptiste de Boyer) Marquis d\ French 
writer, b. at Aix, in Provence, 24 June 1704. He adopted a 
military life and served with distinction. On the accession of 
Frederick the Great he invited d'Argens to his court at Berlin, 
and made him one of his chamberlains. Here he resided 
twenty-live years and then returned to Aix, where he resided 
till his death 11 June, 1771. His works were published in 1768 
in twenty-four volumes. Among them are Lettres Juives, Lettres 
CMnoises and Lettres Cabalistiques, which were joined to La Philo- 
sophie da hon sens. He also translated Julian's discourse against 
Christianity and Ocellus Lucanus on the Eternity of the World, 
Argens took Bayle as his model, but he was inferior to that 

Argental (Charles Augustin de Ferriol) Count d\ French 
diplomat, b. Paris 20 Dec. 1700, was a nephew of Mme. 
de Tencin, the mother of D'Alembert. He is known for his 
long and enthusiastic friendship for Voltaire. He was said to 
be the author of Menioires da Comte de Comminge and Anecdotes 
de la cour d'Edouard. Died 5 Jan. 1788. 

Aristophanes, great Athenian comic poet, contemporary 
with Socrates, Plato, and Euripides, b. about 444 B.C. Little is 
known of his life. He wrote fifty-four plays, of which only 
eleven remain, and was crowned in a public assembly for his 
attacks on the oligarchs. With the utmost boldness he satirised 


not only the the political and social evils of the age, but also 
the philosophers, the gods, and the theology of the period. 
Plato is said to have died with Aristophanes' works under his 
pillow. Died about 380 B.C. 

Aristotle, the most illustrious of ancient philosophers, 
was born at Stagyra, in Thrace, 384 B.C. He was employed by 
Philip of Macedon to instruct his son Alexander. His inculca- 
tion of ethics as apart from all theology, justifies his place in 
this list. After the death of Alexander, he was accused of 
impiety and withdrew to Chalcis, where he died B.C. 322. 
Grote says : " In the published writings of Aristotle the 
accusers found various heretical doctrines suitable for sustain- 
ing their indictment ; as, for example, the declaration that 
praj^er and sacrifices to the gods were of no avail." His 
influence was predominant upon philosophy for nearly two 
thousand years. Dante speaks of him as " the master of those 
that know." 

Arnold of Brescia, a pupil of Abelard. He preached 
against the papal authority and the temporal power, and the 
vices of the clergy. He was condemned for heresy by a 
Lateran Council in 1139, and retired from Italy. He after- 
wards returned to Rome and renewed his exertions against 
sacerdotal oppression, and was eventually seized and burnt at 
Rome in 1155. Baronius calls him "the j^atriarch of political 

Arnold (Matthew), LL.D. poet and critic, son of Dr. Arnold 
of Rugby, b. at Laleham 24 Dec. 1822. Educated at Winchester, 
Rugby, and Oxford, where he won the Newdigate prize. In 
1848 he published the Strayed Reveller, and other Poems, signed A. 
In 1851 he married and became an inspector of schools. In 
1853 appeared Empedocles on Etna, a poem in which, under the 
guise of ancient teaching he gives much secular philosophy. 
In 1857 he was elected Professor of Poetry at Oxford. In 1871 
he published an essay entitled ISt. Paul and Protestantism ; in 
1873 Literature and Dogma, which, from its rejection of super- 
naturalism, occasioned much stir and was followed by God and 
the Bible. In 1877 Mr. Arnold published Last Essays on Church 
and State. Mr. Arnold has a lucid style and is abreast of the 
thought of his age, but he curiously unites rejection of superr- 


naturalism, including a personal God, with a fond regard for 
the Church of England. He may be said in his own words to 
wander " between two worlds, one dead, the other powerless to 
be born." Died 15 April, 1888. 

Arnould (Arthur), French writer, b. Dieuze 7 April, 1833. 
As journalist he wrote on VOpinion Nationale, the Rappel, Re/orme 
and other papers. In 1864 he published a work on Beranger, 
and in '69 a History of the Inquisition. In Jan. 1870 he founded 
La Marseillaise with H. Rochefort, and afterwards the Journal du 
Peuple with Jules Valles. He was elected to the National 
Assembly and was member of the Commune, of which he has 
written a history in three volumes. He has also written many 
novels and dramas. 

Arnould (Victor), Belgian Freethinker, b. Maestricht, 7 
Nov. 1838, advocate at the Court of Appeal, Brussels. Author 
of a History of the Church 1874, and a little work on the Philo^ 
sophy of Liberalism 1877. 

ArOTiet (Frangois Marie). See Voltaire. 

Arpe (Peter Friedrich). Philosopher, b. Kiel, Holstein, 
10 May, 1682. Wrote an apology for Vanini dated Cosmopolis 
(i.e., Rotterdam, 1712). A reply to La Monnoye's treatise on the 
book De Iribus Impostoribus is attributed to him. Died, Ham 
burgh, 4 Nov. 1740. 

Arthur (John) is inserted in Mare'chal's Dictionnaire des 
Athees as a mechanic from near Birmingham, who took a prize 
at Paris and republished the Livocation to Nature in the last pages 
of the System of Nature. Julian Hibbert inserted his name in 
his Chronological Tables of Anti-Superstitionists, with the date 
of death 1792. 

Asseliue (Louis). French writer, b. at V^ersailles in 1829, 
became an advocate in 1851. In 1866 he established La Libre 
Perisee, a weekly journal of scientific materialism, and when that 
was suppressed La Pensee Nouvelle. He was one of the founders 
of the Encyclopedie GeneraU. He wrote Diderot and the Nineteenth 
Century, and contributed to many journals. After the revolu- 
tion of 4 Sept. 1870 he was elected mayor of the fourteenth 
arrondissement of Paris, and was afterwards one of the Muni- 
cipal Council of that city. Died 6 April, 1878. 


Assezat (Jules). French writer, b. at Paris 21 Jan. 1832 
was a son of a compositor on the Journal des Dehats, on which 
Jules obtained a position and worked his way to the editorial 
chair. He was secretary of the Paris Society of Anthropology, 
contributed to La Pensee Nouvelle, edited the Man Machine of 
Lamettrie, and edited the complete works of Diderot in twenty 
volumes. Died 24 June, 1876. 

Assollant (Jean, Baptiste Alfred). French novelist, b. 20 
March, 1827. Larousse says he has all the scepticism of 

Ast (G-eorg Anton Friedrich). German Platonist, b. G-otha 
29 Dec. 1778. Was professor of classical literature at Lands- 
hut and Munich. Wrote Elements of Pliilosopliy , 1809, etc. Died 
Munich 31 Dec. 1841. 

Atkinson XHenry George). Philosophic writer, b. in 1818. 
Was educated at the Charterhouse, gave attention to mesmerism, 
and Avrote in the Zoist. In 1851 he issued Letters on the Laws of 
Man's Nature and Development, in conjunction with Harriet 
Martineau, to whom he served as philosoiDhic guide. This work 
occasioned a considerable outcry. Mr. Atkinson was a frequent 
contributor to the National Reformer and other Secular journals. 
He died 28 Dec 1884, at Boulogne, where he had resided since 

Aubert de Verse (Noel). A French advocate of the 
seventeenth century, who wrote a history of the Papacy (1685) 
and was accused of blasphemy. 

Audebert (Louise). French authoress of the Romance 
of a Freethinker and of an able Reply of a Mother to the Bishop 
of Orleeins, 1868. 

Audififerent (Georges). Positivist and executor to Augusts 
Comte, was born at Saint Pierre (Martinque) in 1823, settled 
at Marseilles, and is the author of several medical and scien- 
tific works. 

Aurelins (Marcus Antoninus). Roman Emperor and Stoic 
philosopher, b. at Rome 26 April, 121. Was carefully 
educated, and lived a laborious, abstemious life. On the death 
of his uncle Antoninus Pius, 161, the Senate obliged him to 
take the government, but he associated with himself L. Verus. 


On the death of Yerus in 169 Antoninus possessed sole authority, 
which he exercised with wise discretion and great glory. Much 
of his time was employed in defending the northern frontiers 
of the empire against Teutonic barbarians. He had no high 
opinion of Christians, speaking of their obstinacy, and it is 
pretended many were put to death in the reign of one of the 
best emperors that ever ruled. If so we may be assured it was 
for their crimes. Ecclesiastical historians have invented 
another pious miracle in a victory gained through the prayers 
of the Christians. Antoninus held that duty was indispensable 
even were there no gods. His Meditation, written in the midst 
of a most active life, breathe a lofty morality, and are a standing 
refutation of the V\qw that pure ethics depend upon Christian 
belief. Died 17 March, 180. 

Austin (Charles), lawyer and disciple of Bentham, b. 
Suffolk 1799. At Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1824 
and M.A. in 1827, he won, much to the amazement of his 
friends, who knew his heterodox opinions, the Hulsean prize 
for an essay on Christian evidences. For this he was sorry 
afterwards, and told Lord Stanley of Alderley " I could have 
written a much better essay on the other side." He afterwards 
wrote on the other side in the Westminster Review. Successful 
as a lawyer, he retired in ill-health. J. S. Mill writes highly 
of his influence. The Hon. L. A. Tollemache gives a full 
account of his heretical opinions. He says " He inclined to 
Darwinism, because as he said, it is so antecedently probable ; 
but, long before this theory broke the back of final causes, he 
himself had given them up." Died 21 Dec. 1874. 

Austin (John), jurist, brother of above, was born 3 March, 
1790. A friend of James Mill, Grote and Bentham, whose 
opinions he shared, he is chiefly known b}^ his profound works 
on jurisprudence. Died 17 Dec. 1859. 

Avempace, i.e., Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Bajjat (Abu 
Bekr), called Ibn alSaigh (the son of the goldsmith), Arabian 
philosopher and poet, b. at Saragossa, practised medicine at 
Seville 1118, which he quitted about 1120, and became vizier 
at the court of Fez, where he died about 1138. An admirer of 
Aristotle, he was one of the teachers of Averroes. Al-Fath 
Ibn Khakan represents him as an infidel and Atheist, and says : 


" Faith disappeared from liis heart and left not a trace behind ; 
his tongue forgot the Merciful, neither did [the holy] name 
cross his lips." He is said to have suffered imprisonment for 
his heterodoxy. 

Avenel (Georges), French writer, b. at Chaumont 31 Dec. 
1828. One of the promoters of the Encydopt'die Generale. His 
vindication of Cloots (1865) is a solid work of erudition. 
He became editor of la Repuhliqiie FrauQcdse and edited the 
edition of Voltaire published by Le Siecle (1867-70). Died at 
Bougival, near Paris, 1 July, 1876, and was, by his express 
wish, buried without religious ceremony. 

Averroes (Muhammad Ibn- Ahmad Ibn Eushd), Ahii al Walid, 
Arabian philosopher, b. at Cordova in 1126, and died at 
Morocco 10 Dec. 1198. He translated and commented upon the 
works of Aristotle, and resolutely placed the claims of science 
above those of theology. He was prosecuted for his heretical 
opinions by the Muhammadan doctors, was spat upon by all 
who entered the mosque at the hour of pra^^er, and afterwards 
banished. His philosophical opinions, which incline towards 
materialism and pantheism, had the honor of being condemned 
by the University of Paris in 1210. They were opposed by St. 
Thomas Aquinas, and when profoundly influencing Europe at the 
Rennaisance through the Paduan school were again condemned 
by Pope Leo X. in 1513. 

Avicenna (Husain Ibn Abdallah, called Ihn Sina), Arabian 
physician and philosopher, b. Aug. 980 in the district of 
Bokhara. From his early youth he was a wonderful student, 
and at his death 15 June, 1037, he left behind him above a 
hundred treatises. He was the sovereign authority in medical 
science until the da3''s of Harvey. His philosophy was pan- 
theistic in tone, with an attempt at compromise with theology 

Aymon (Jean), French writer, b. Dauphine 1661. Brought 
up in the Church, he abjured Catholicism at Geneva, and 
married at the Hague. He published Metamorphoses of the Romish 
Religion, and is said to have put forM^ard a version of the 
Esprit de Spinoza under the famous title Treatise of Three 
Impostors. Died about 1734. 

Bagehot (Walter), economist and journalist, b. of Uni- 
tarian parents, Langport, Somersetshire, 3 Feb. 1826; he died 


at fhe same place 24 March, 1877. He was educated at London 
University, of which he became a fellow. For the last seven- 
teen years of his life he edited the Economist newspaper. His 
best-known works are The English Constitution^ Lombard Street 
and Literary Studies. In Physics and Politics (1872), a series of 
essays on the Evolution of Society, he applies Darwinism to 
politics. Bagehot was a bold, clear, and very original thinker, 
whorejected historic Christianity. 

Baggesen (Jens Immamiel), Danish poet, b. Kosor, Zealand, 
15 Feb. 1764. In 1789 he visited Germany, France, and 
Switzerland; at Berne he married the grand-daughter of 
Haller. He wrote popular poems both in Danish and German, 
among others Adam and Eve, a humorous mock epic (1826). He 
was an admirer of Voltaire. Died Hamburg, 3 Oct. 1826. 

Bahnsen (Julius Friedrich August^, pessimist, b. Tondern, 
Schleswig-Holstein, 30 Mar. 1830. Studied philosophy at Keil, 
1847. He fought against the Danes in '49, and afterwards 
studied at Tiibingen. Bahnsen is an independent follower of 
Schopenhauer and Hartmann, joining monism to the idealism 
of Hegel. He has written several works, among which we 
mention 7he Philosophy of History, Berlin, 1872, and The Con- 
tradiction between the Knov^ledge and the Nature of the World 
(2 vols), Berlin 1880-82. 

Bahrdt (Karl Friedrich), German deist, b. in Saxony, 25 Aug. 
1741. Educated for the Church, in 1766 he was made professor 
of biblical philology. He was condemned for heresy, and 
wandered from place to place. He published a kind of 
expurgated Bible, called New Revelations of God : A System of 
Moral Religion fur Doubters and Thinkers, Berlin, 1787, and a 
Catechism of Natural Religion, Halle, 1790. Died near Halle, 
23 April, 1792. 

Bailey (James Napier), Socialist, edited the Model Republic, 
1843, the Tvrch, and the Monthly Messenger. He published 
Gehenna : its Monarch and Inhabitants ; Sophistry Unmasked, and 
several other tracts in the "Social Reformer's Cabinet 
Library," and some interesting Essays on Miscellaneous Subjects, 
at Leeds, 1842. 

Bailey (SamuelJ, philosophical writer, of Sheffield, b. in 1791. 
His essay on the formation and Publication of Opinions ap- 


peared in 1821. He vigorously contends that man is not 
responsible for his opinions because they are independent of 
his will, and that opinions should not be the subject of 
punishment. Another anonymous Freethought work was 
Letters from an Egyptian Kaffir on a VisU to England in Search 
of Religion. This Avas at first issued privately 1839, but after- 
wards printed as a Beasoner tract. He also wrote 'Ihe Pursuit 
<f Truth, 1829, and a Theory of Reasoning^ 1851. He was 
acquainted with both James and John Stuart Mill, and shared 
in most of the views of the philosophical Eadicals of the 
period. Died 18 Jan. 1870, leaving £90,000 to his native 

Bailey (William '&.), editor of the Liberal, published in Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, was an Atheist up till the day of death, 
March, 18S6. In a slave-holding State, he was the earnest 
advocate of abolition. 

BaiUie (GeorgeJ, of Garnet Hill, Glasgow. Had been a 
sheriff in one of the Scotch counties. He was a liberal sub- 
scriber to the Glasgow Eclectic Institute. In 1854 he offered 
a prize for the best essay on Christianity and Infidelity, which 
was gained by Miss Sara Hennell. In 1857 another prize was 
restricted to the question whether Jesus prophesied the com- 
ing of the end of the world in the life-time of his followers. 
It was gained by Mr. E. P. Meredith, and is incorporated in 
his Prophet of Nazareth. In 1863 Mr. Baillie divested himself 
of his fortune ("£18,000^ which was to be applied to the 
erection and endowment of an institution to aid the culture of 
the operative classes b}" means of free libraries and un- 
sectarian schools, retaining only the interest for himself as 
curator. He only survived a few 3^ears. 

Bainiere (Gustave-Germer), French scientific publisher, b. 
at Paris 26 Dec. 1837. Studied medicine, but devoted himself 
to bringing out scientific publications such as the Library of 
Contemporary Philosophy, and the International Scientific Series. 
He was elected 29 Nov. 1874 as Republican and anti-clerical 
member of the Municipal Council of Paris. 

Bain (Alexander^ LLD. Scotch philosopher, b. at Aberdeen 
in 1818. He began life as a weaver but studied at Marischal 
College 1836-40, and graduated M.A. in 1840. He then began to 


contribute to the Westminster 7iey/e?t', and became acquainted with 
John Stuart Mill, whose Logic he discussed in manuscript. In 
1855 he published The Senses and The Intellect, and in 1859 The 
Emotions and the Will, constituting together a systematic exposi- 
tion of the human mind. From 1860 to 1880 he occupied the 
Chair of Logic in the University of Aberdeen, his accession 
being most obnoxious to the orthodox, and provoking disorder 
among the students. In 1869 he received the degree of LLD. 
In additon to numerous educational works Dr. Bain published 
a Compendium of Mental and Mored Science (1868), Mind and 
/jo% (1875), and Education as a Science ("1879), for the Inter- 
national Scientific Series. In 1882 he published James Mill, a 
Biography, and John Stuart Mill : a Criticism, ivith Personal Recol- 
lections. In 1881 he was elected Lord Eector of the University 
of Aberdeen, and this honor was renewed in 1884, in which 
year he published Practical Essays. 

Bainham (James), martyr. He married the widow of Simon 
Fish, author of the Supply cac ion of Beggars, an attack upon the 
clergy of the period. In 1531 he was accused of heresy, having 
among other things denied transubstantiation, the confessional, 
and " the power of the keys." It was asserted that he had said 
that he would as lief pray to his wife as to " our lady," and 
that Christ was but a man. This he denied, but admitted 
holding the salvation of unbelievers. He was burnt 30 April, 
1532. " 

Baissac (Jules), French litterateur, b. Vans, 1827, author of 
several studies in philology and mythology. In 1878 he pub- 
lished Lcs Origines de la Religion in three volumes, which have 
the honor of being put upon the Roman Index. This was 
followed by VAge de Dieu, a study of cosmical periods and the 
feast of Easter. In 1882 he began to publish Histoire de la 
Diablerie Chretienne, the first part of which is devoted to the 
person and " personnel " of the devil. 

Bakunin (Mikhail Aleksandrovich), Eussian Nihilist, b. 
Torshok (Tver) 1814, of an ancient aristocratic family. He was 
educated at St. Petersburg, and entered as an ensign in the artil- 
lery. Here he became embued with revolutionary ideas. He 
went to Berlin in 1841, studied the Hegelian philosophj-, and 
published some philosophical writings under the name of Jules 
Elisard. In '43 he visited Paris and became a disciple of 


Proudhon. In '48 lie was expelled from France at the demand 
of Russia, whose government set the price of 10,000 silver roubles 
on his head, went to Dresden and became a member of the insur- 
rectionary government. He was arrested and condemned to 
death. May '50, but his sentence was commuted to imprison- 
ment for life. He escaped into Austria, was again captured 
and sentenced to death, but was handed over to Russia and 
deported to Siberia. After several years' penal servitude he 
escaped, travelled over a thousand miles under extreme hard- 
ship, reached the sea and sailed to Japan. Thence he sailed to 
California, thence to New York and London, where with Herzen 
he published the KoloJcol. He took part in the establishment 
of the International Society, but being at issue with Karl Marx 
abandoned that body in 1873. He died at Berne 1 July 1876, 
leaving behind a work on God and the State, both being vigor- 
ously attacked. Laveleye writes of him as " the apostle of 
universal destruction." 

Ball (William Piatt), b. at Birmingham 28 Nov. 1844. Edu- 
cated at Birkbeck School, London. Became schoolmaster but 
retired rather than teach religious doctrines. Matriculated at 
London University 1866. Taught pyrotechny in the Sultan's 
service 1870-71. Received the order of the Medjidieh after 
narrow escape from death by the bursting of a mortar. Upon 
his return published Poems from Turkey (1872). Mr. Ball has 
contributed to the National Reformer since 1878 and since 1884 
has been on the staff of the Freethinker. He has published 
pamphlets on Religion in Schools, the Ten Commandments and 
Mrs Besanfs Socialism, and has compiled with Mr. Foote the 
Bille Handbook. Mr. Ball is a close thinker and a firm supporter 
of Evolutional Malthusianism, which he has ably defended in 
the pages of Progress. He has of late been engaged upon 
the question : Are the Effects of Use and Disuse Inherited ? 

Ballance (John), New Zealand statesman, b. Glenary, Antrim 
Ireland, March 1839. Going out to New Zealand he became a 
journalist and started the Wanganui Herald. He entered Par- 
liament in 1875 and became Colonial Treasurer in '78. With 
Sir Robert Stout he has been a great support to the Freethought 
cause in New Zealand. 

Baltzer (Wilhelm Eduard). German rationalist, b. 24 Oct. 



1814, at Hohenleine in Saxony. He was educated as a Pro- 
testant minister, but resigned and founded at Nordhausen in 
1847 a free community. He took part in the Parliament of 
Frankfort in '48 ; has translated the life of Apollonius of Tyana, 
and is the author of a history of religion and numerous other 
works. Died 24 June, 1887. 

Bancel (Frangois Desire). French politician, b. Le Mastre, 
2 Feb. 1822. Became an advocate. In 1849, he was elected to 
the Legislative Assembly. After the coup d'etat he retired to 
Brussels, where he became Professor at the University. In 
1869 he was elected deputy at Paris in opposition to M. Ollivier. 
He translated the work on Rationalism by Ausonio Franchi, and 
wrote on Mysteries, 1871, besides many political works. Died 
23 June, 1871. 

Barbier (Edmond). French translator of the works of 
Darwin, Lubbock, and Tylor. Died 1883. 

Barbier d'Aucour (Jean). French critic and academician, 
b. Langres, 1642. Most of his writings are directed against the 
Jesuits. Died Paris, 13 Sept. 1694. 

Barlow (George). Poet, b. in London, 19 June, 1847. In 
his volumes. Under the Dawn and Poems, Heal and Ideal, he gives 
utterance to many Freethought sentiments. 

Barlow (Joel). American statesman, writer and poet, 
b. Eeading, Connecticut, 24 March, 1754. Served as a volunteer 
in the revolutionary war, became a chaplain, but resigned that 
profession, taking to literature. In England, in 1791, he 
published Advice to the Privileged Orders. In France he trans- 
lated Volney's Ptuins of Empires, and contributed to the 
political literature of the Revolution. Paine entrusted him 
with the MS. of the first part of the Age of Reason. His chief 
work is entitled the Columhiad, 1808. He was sent as minister 
to France, 1811, and being involved in the misfortunes following 
the retreat from Moscow, died near Cracow, Poland, 24 Dec. 

Barni (Jules Remain). French philosophic writer, b. Lille, 
1 June, 1818. He became secretary to Victor Cousin, and 
translated the works of Kant into French. He contributed to 
La Liberie de Penser (1847-51) and to VAvenir (1855). During 
the Empire he lived in Switzerland and published Martyrs de 


la Libre Pensee (1862), La Monde dans la Democrat ie (1864), 
and a work on the French Moralists of the Eighteenth Century 
(1873). He was elected to the National Assembly, 1872, and to the 
Chamber of Deputies, 1876. Died at Mers, 4 July, 1878. A 
statue is erected to him at Amiens. 

Barnout (Hippolyte). French architect and writer, b. Paris 
1816, published a Rational Calendar 1859 and 1860. In May 
1870 he established a journal entitled L'Athee, the Atheist, 
which the clerical journals declared drew God's vengeance upon 
France. He is also author of a work on aerial navigation. 

Barot (Francois Odysse). French writer, b. at Mirabeau 
1830. He has been a journalist on several Radical papers, was 
secretary to Gustave Flourens, and has written on the Birth of 
Jesus (1864) and Contemporary Literature in England (1874). 

Barrett (Thomas Squire). Born 9 Sept. 1842, of Quaker 
parents, both grandfathers being ministers of that body ; 
educated at Queenwood College, obtained diploma of Associate 
in Arts from Oxford with honors in National Science and 
Mathematics, contributed to i\\Q National Reformer hetween 1865 
and 1870, published an acute examination of Gillespie's argu- 
ment, a priori, for the existence of God (1869), which in 1871 
reached a second edition. He also wrote A Neio View of Causa- 
tion (1871), and an Introduction to Logic and Metyphysics (1877). 
Mr. Barrett has been lion. sec. of the London Dialectical 
Society, and edited a short-lived publication. The Present Day, 

Barrier (F. M.). French Fourierist, b. Saint Etienne 1815, 
became professor of medicine at L3^ons, wrote A SketcJc of the 
Analogy of Man and Humanity (Lyons 1846), and Principles of 
Sociology (Paris 1867), and an abridgment of this entitled 
Catechism of IJberal and Rational Socialism. Died Montfort- 
L'Amaury 1870. 

" Barrillot (Francois). French author, b. of poor parents at 
Lyons in 1818. An orphan at seven years of age, he learnt to 
read from shop signs, and became a printer and journalist. Many 
of his songs and satires acquired popularity. He has also wrote 
a letter to Pope Pius IX. on the (Ecumenical Council (1871), 
signed Jean Populus, and a philosophical work entitled Love i^ 
God. Died at Paris, 11 Dec. 1874. 


Barthez (Paul Joseph), French physician, h. Montpelier 11 
Dec. 1731. A friend of D'Alembert, he became associate 
editor of the Journal des Savants and Encyclopedie Mcthodique. 
He was made consulting physician to the king and a councillor 
of State. Shown by the Archbishop of Sens a number of works 
relating to the rites of his see he said, " These are the cere- 
monies of Sens, but can you show me the sense [Sens] of 
ceremonies." His principal work is New Elements of the Science of 
Man. Died 15 Oct. 1806. 

Basedow (Johann Bernhard), German Rationalist and educa- 
tional reformer, b. at Hamburg 11 Sept. 1723. He studied 
theology at Leipsic, became professor at the Academy of Sora, 
in Denmark, 1753-1761, and at Altona, 1761-1768. While here 
he published Pliilalethea, the Grounds of Religion, and other 
heterodox works, which excited so much prejudice that he was 
in danger of being stoned. He devoted much attention to 
improving methods of teaching. Died at Magdeburg 25 July, 

BaskerviUe (John), famous printer, b. Sion Hill, Wolverley, 
Worcestershire, 28 Jan. 1706. Lived at Birmingham. He was 
at first a stone-mason, then made money as an artistic japanner, 
and devoted it to perfecting the art of type-founding and 
printing. As a printer-publisher he produced at his own risk 
beautiful editions of Milton, Addison, Shaftesbury, Oongreve, 
Virgil, Horace, Lucretius, Terence, etc. He was made, printer 
to Cambridge University 1758. Wilkes once visited him and 
was "shocked at his infidelity" (!) He died 8 Jan. 1775, and 
was buried in a tomb in his own garden. He had designed a 
monumental urn with this inscription : " Stranger, beneath this 
cone in unconsecrated ground a friend to the liberties of man- 
kind directed his body to be inurned. May the example con- 
tribute to emancipate thy mind from the idle fears of super- 
stition and the wicked arts of priesthood." His will expresses 
the utmost contempt for Christianity. His type was appro- 
priately purchased to produce a complete edition of Voltaire. 

Bassus (Aufidas). An Epicurean philosopher and friend of 
Seneca in the time of Nero. Seneca praises his patience and 
courage in the presence of death. 

Bate (Frederick), Socialist, author of The Student 1812 a 
drama in which the author's sceptical views are put forward. 


Mr. Bate was one of the founders of the social experiment at 
New Harmony, now Qneenswood College, Hants, and engraved 
a view representing the Owenite scheme of community. 

Baudelaire (Charles Pierre), French poet, b. Paris, 9 April 
1821, the son of a distinguished friend of Cabanis and Condor- 
cet. He first became famous by the publication of Fleurs da 
Mai, 1857, in which appeared Les Litanies de Satan. The work 
was prosecuted and suppressed. Baudelaire translated some- 
of the writings of E. A. Poe, a poet whom he resembled much 
in life and character. The divine beauty of his face has been 
celebrated by the French poet, Theodore de Banville, and his 
genius in some magnificent stanzas by the English poet,. 
Algernon Swinburne. Died Paris 31 Aug. 1867. 

Baudon (P. L.), French author of a work on the Christian 
Superstition, published at Brussels in 1862 and dedicated to 
Bishop Dupanloup under the pseudonym of " Aristide." 

Bauer (Bruno), one of the boldest biblical critics of Ger- 
many, b. Eisenberg, 6 Sept. 1809. Educated at the University 
of Berlin, in 1834 he received a professorship of theology. He 
first attained celebrity by a review of the Life uf Jesus by 
Strauss (1835). This was followed by his Journal of Specula- 
tive Theology and Critical Exposition of the Religion of the Old 
Testament. He then proceeded to a Review of the Gospel History, 
upon the publication of which (1840) he was deprived of his^ 
professorship at Bonn. To this followed Christianity Unveiled 
(1843), which was destroyed at Zurich before its publication. 
This work continued his opposition to religion, which was- 
carried still further in ironical style in his Proclamation of the 
Day of Judgement concerning Ilcgel the Atheist. Bauer's heresy 
deepened with age, and in his Revieio oj the Gospels and History 
of their Oi'igin {I8b0), to which Apostolical History is a supple- 
ment, he attacked the historical truth of the New Testament 
narratives. In his Rtvieiv of the Epistles attributed to St. Paul 
(1852) he tries to show that the first four epistles, which had 
hardly ever before been questioned, were not written by Paul, 
but are the production of the second century. In his Christ., 
and the Cxsais he shows the influence of Seneca and Greco- 
Eoman thought upon early Christianity. He died near Berlin,. 
13 April, 1882. 


Bauer (Edgar), b. Charlottenburg, 7 Oct. 1820, brother of the 
preceding, collaborated in some of his works. His brochure 
entitled Bruno Bauer and his Opponents (1842) was seized by the 
police. For his next publication, The Strife of Criticism with 
Church and State (1843), he was imprisoned for four years. 
He has also written on English freedom, Capital, etc. 

Baume-Desdossat (Jacques Frangois, de la),b. 1705, a Canon 
of Avignon who wrote La Christiade (1753), a satire on the 
gospels, in which Jesus is tempted by Mary Magdalene. 
It was suppressed by the French Parliament and the author 
fined. He died 30 April, 1756. 

Baur (Ferdinand Christian von), distinguished theological 
critic, b. 21 June, 1792, near Stuttgart. His father was a clergy- 
man. He was educated at Tiibingen, where in 1826 he became 
professor of Church history. Baur is the author of numerous 
works on dogmatic and historic theology, in which he subverts 
all the fundamental positions of Christianity. He was an 
Hegelian Pantheist. Among his more important works are 
Christianity and the Church in the First Three Centuries and Paul : 
His Life and Works. These are translated into English. He 
acknowledges only four of the epistles of Paul and the Revela- ' 
tion as genuine products of the apostolic age, and shows how 
very far from simplicity were the times and doctrines of pri- 
mitive Christianity. After a life of great literary activity he 
died at Tiibingen, 2 Dec. 1860. 

Bayle (Pierre), learned French writer, b. 18 Nov. 1647, at 
Carlat, France, where his father was a Protestant minister. He 
was converted to Eomanism while studying at the Jesuit 
College, Toulouse, 1669. His Romanism only lasted seventeen 
months. He abjured, and fled to Switzerland, becoming a 
sceptic, as is evident from Thoughts on the Cornet^ in which he 
compares the supposed mischiefs of Atheism with those of 
fanaticism, and from many articles in his famous Dictionnairc 
Critique, a work still of value for its curious learning and shrewd 
observation. In his journal Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettrc-^ he 
advocates religious toleration on the ground of the difficulty of 
distinguishing truth from error. His criticism of Maimbourg's 
History of Calvinism was ordered to be burnt by the hangman. 
Jurieu persecuted him, and he was ordered to be more careful 
in preparing the second edition of his dictionary. He died 
33 c 


at Rotterdam, 28 Dec. 1706. Bayle has been called the father 
of free discussion in modern times. 

Bayrhoffer (Karl Theodor), German philosopher, b. Marburg, 
14 Oct., 1812, wrote The Idea and Histonj of Philosophy (1838), 
took part in the revolution of '48, emigrated to America, and 
wrote many polemical works. Died near Monroe, Wisconsin, 
3 Feb. 1888. 

Beauchamp (Philip). See Bentham and G-rote. 

Beausobre (Louis de), b. at Berlin, 22 Aug. 1730, was 
adopted by Frederick the Great out of esteem for his father, 
Isaac Beausobre, the author of the History of Manicheanism. 
He was educated first at Frankfort-on-Oder, then at Paris. He 
wrote on the scepticism of the wise (Pyrrhonisme du Sage, 
Berlin, 1754), a work condemned to be burnt by the Par- 
liament of Paris. He also wrote anonymously The Dreams 
of Epicurus, and an essay on Happiness (Berlin, 1758), re- 
printed with the Social S/jsteni of Holbach in 1795. Died 
at Berlin, 3 Dec. 1783. 

Bebel (Ferdinand August), German Socialist, b. Cologne* 
22 Feb. 1810. Brought up as a turner in Leipsic. Since '63 > 
he became distinguished as an exponent of social democracy, 
and was elected to the German Reichstag in '71. In the 
following year he was condemned (6 March) to two j'-ears' 
imprisonment for high treason. He was re-elected in '74. 
His principal work is Woman in the Past, Present and Future 
which is translated by H. B. A. Walther, 1885. He has also 
written on the Mohammedan Culture Period (I88i:) and on Chris- 
tianity and Socialism. 

Beccaria (Bonesana Oesare), an Italian marquis and writer, 
b. at Milan, 15 March, 1738. A friend of Voltaire, who praised 
his treatise on Crimes and Punishments (1769), a work which 
did much to improve the criminal codes of Europe. Died 
Milan, 28 Nov. 1794. 

Beesly (Edward Spencer), Positivist, b. Feckenham, Wor- 
cestershire, 1831. Educated at Wadham College, Oxford, where 
he took B.A. in 1854, and M.A. in '57. Appointed Professor of 
History, University College, London, in 1860. He is one of the 
translators of Comte's Sy>itcm of Positive Polity, and has published 
several pamphlets on political and social questions. 


Beethoven (Ludwig van), one of tlie greatest of musical 
composers, b. Bonn 16 Dec. 1770. His genius early displayed 
itself, and at the age of five he was set to study the works of 
Handel and Bach. His many compositions are the glory of 
music. They include an opera " Fidelio," two masses, oratorios, 
symphonies, concertos, overtures and sonatas, and are cha- 
racterised by penetrating power, rich imagination, intense 
passion, and tenderness. AVhen about the age of forty he 
became totally deaf, but continued to compose till his death at 
Vienna, 26 March, 1827. He regarded Goethe with much the 
same esteem as Wagner showed for Schopenhauer, but he 
disliked his courtliness. His Republican sentiments are well 
known, and Sir George Macfarren, in his life in the Imperial 
Dictionary of Universal Biograplui^ speaks of him as a "Free- 
thinker,' and says the remarkable mass in 0. " might scarcely 
have proceeded from an entirely orthodox thinker." Sir 
George Grove, in his Dictionary of Music and Musicians, says : 
" Formal religion he apparently had none," and " the Bible does 
not appear to have been one of his favorite books." At the 
end of his arrangement of " Fidelio " Moscheles had written, 
" Fine. With God's help." To this Beethoven added, " man , 
help thyself." 

Bekker (Balthasar), Dutch Rationalist, b. Metslav/ier (Fries- 
land) 20 March, 1634. He studied at Gronigen, became a 
doctor of divinity, and lived at Francker, but was accused of 
Socinianism, and had to fly to Amsterdam, where he raised 
another storm by his World Beivilched (1691), a work in which 
witchcraft and the power of demons are denied. His book, 
wdiich contains much curious information, raised a host of 
adversaries, and he was deposed from his place in the Church. 
It appeared in English in 1695. Died, Amsterdam, 11 June, 1698. 
Bekker was remarkably ugly, and he is said to have " looked 
like the devil, though he did not believe in him." 

Belinsky (Vissarion Grigorevich), Russian critic, b. Pensa 
1811, educated at Pensa and Moscow, adopted the Pantheistic 
philosophy of Hegel and Schelling. Died St. Petersburg, 
28 Maj, 1848. His works were issued in 12 volumes, 1857-61. 

Bell (Thomas Evans), Major in Madras Army, which he 
entered in 1842. He was employed in the suppression of 


Thiigee. He wrote the Task of Jo-Day, 1852, and assisted tlie 
Reasomr, both with pen and purse, writing over the signature 
*' Undecimus." He contemplated selling his commission to 
devote himself to Frcethought propaganda, but by the advice 
of his friends was deterred. He returned to India at the 
Mutiny. In January, 1861, he became Deputy-Commissioner 
of Police at Madras. He retired in July, 1865, and has written 
many works on Indian affairs. Died 12 Sept. 1887. 

Bell (William S.), b. in Alleghany city, Pennsylvania, 10 Feb. 
1832. Brought up as a Methodist minister, was denounced for 
mixing politics with religion, and for his anti-slavery views. 
In 1873 he preached in the Universalist Church of New 
Bedford, but in Dec. '74, renounced Christianity and has since 
been a Freethought lecturer. He has published a little book 
on the French Eevolution, and some pamphlets. 

Bender (Wilhelm), German Eationalist, professor of theology 
at Bonn, b. 15 Jan. 1845, who created a sensation at the Luther 
centenary, 1883, by declaring that thcAvork of the Reformation 
was incompleted and must be carried on by the Rationalists. 

Bennett (De Robigne Mortimer), founder and editor of the 
New York Trutlmektr, b. of poor parents, Springfield (X.Y.), 23 
Dec. 1818. At the age of fifteen he joined the Shaker Society 
in New Lebanon. Here he stayed thirteen years and then 
married. Having lost faith in the Shaker creed, he went to 
Louisville, Kentucky, where he started a drug store. The 
perusal of Paine, Volney, and similar works made him a Free- 
thinker. In 1873, his letters to a local journal in answer to 
some ministers having been refused, he resolved to start a paper 
of his own. The result was the Truth^eektr, which in January, 
1876 became a Aveekly, and has since become one of the princi- 
pal Freethought organs in America. In 1879 he was sentenced 
to thirteen months' imprisonment for sending through the post 
a pamphlet by Ezra H. Heywood on the marriage question. A 
tract, entitled An Open Letter to Jrsns Christ, was read in court 
to bias the jury. A petition bearing 200,000 names was pre- 
sented to President Hayes asking his release, but was not 
acceeded to. Upon his release his admirers sent him for a 
voyage round the world. He wrote A Trntlucckers Voyage 
Round the World, Letters from Albany Penitentiary, Answers to 


Christian Qaesliom and Arguments, two lar^e voliimss on T-he 
Gods, another on the WorbVs Sages, Infideh and Thinkers, and 
published his discussions with Humphrey, Mair, and Teed, and 
numerous tracts. He died 6 Dec. 1882. 

Bentham (Jeremy), writer on ethics, jurisprudence, and 
political economy, b. 15 Feb. 1748. A grand uncle named 
Woodward was the publisher of Tindal's Christiinitg as Old as 
the Creation. Was e'lucated at Westminster and Oxford, where 
he graduated M.A. 1767. Bentham is justly regarded as the father 
of the school of philosophical Radicalism. In philosophy he is the 
great teacher of Utilitarianism ; as a jurist he did much to dis- 
close the defects of and improve our system of law. Macaulay 
says he "found jurisprudence a gibberish and left it a science.'* 
His most pronounced Freethought work was that written in 
conjunction with Grote, published as An Analysis of the Influence 
of Natural Edigion, by Philip Bsauchamp, 1822. Among his 
numerous other works we can only mention Deontology, or the 
Science of Mortality, an exposition of utilitarianism ; Church of 
Englandii^m and its Catechism Examined; Not Paul, hut Jesus, 
published under the pseudonym of Gramaliel Smith. Died 
6 June, 1832, leaving his body for the purposes of science. 

Beran^er (Jean Pierre de), celebrated French lyrical poet, 
b, Paris, 19 Aug. 1780. His satire on the Bourbons twice 
ensured for him imprisonment. He was elected to the Consti- 
tuant Assembly 1848. Beranger has been compared not 
inaptly to Burns. All his songs breathe the spirit of liberty, 
and several have been characterised as impious. He died 
16 July, 1857. 

Bergel (Joseph), Jewish Rationalist, author of Heaven and 
Its Wonders, Leipsic, 1881, and Mythology of the Ancient Hebrews, 

Berger (Moriz), author of a work on Miter ialiim in Conflict 
with Stiiritualism and Idealism, Trieste, 1883. 

Bergerao de (Savinien Cyrano). See Cyrano. 

Bergk ( Johann Adam), German philosopher, b. Hainechen, 
Zeitz, 27 June, 1769; became a private teacher at Leipsic 
and wrote many works, both under his own name and psuedo- 
nyms. He published the Art of Thinking, Leipsic, 1802, con- 
ducted the Asiatic Magazine, 1806, and wrote under the name of 


Frey the Trup. Religion, " recommended to rationalists and 
destined for tlis Radical cure of supernaturalists, mystics, etc." 
Died Leipsic, 27 Oct. 1834. 

Bergk (Theodor), German humanist, son of the above* 
1). Leipsic, 22 May, 1812, author of a good History of Greek 
Literature J 1872. 

Berigardus (Claudius), or Beauregard (Claude Guillermet)) 
French physician and philosopher, b. at Moulins about 1591. 
He became a professor at Pisa from 1628 till 1640, and then 
went to Padua. His Circulus Pisnniis, published in 1643, was 
considered an Atheistic work. In the form of a dialogue he 
exhibits the various hypotheses of the formation of the world 
The work was forbidden and is very rare. His book entitled 
Dubitutiones in Dialogum Gcdilsei, also brought on him a charge 
of scepticism. Died in 1664. 

Berkenhout (Dr. John), physician and miscellaneous writer, 
b. 1731, the son of a Dutch merchant who settled at Leeds. In 
early life he had been a captain both in the Prussian and 
English service, and in 1765 took his M.D. degree at Leyden. 
He published many books on medical science, a synopsis of the 
natural history of Great Britain and Ireland, and several 
humorous pieces, anonyraousl3\ His principal work is entitled 
Biofjraphia Lilerciria, a biographical histor}'- of English litera- 
ture, 1777. Throughout the work he loses no opportunity of 
displaying his hostility to the theologians, and is loud in his 
praises of Voltaire. Died 3 April, 1791. 

Berlioz (Louis Hector). The most original of French musical 
composers, b. Isere, 11 Dec. 1803. He obtained fame by liis 
dramatic sj^mphony of Romeo and Jidiet (1839), and was made 
chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Among his works is one 
on the Infancy of Christ. In his Memoirs he relates how he 
scandalised Mendelssohn " by laughing at the Bible." Died 
Paris, 9 March, 1869. 

Barnard (Claude), French physiologist, b". Saint Julien 12 
July, 1813. Went to Paris 1832, studied medicine, became 
member of the Institute and professor at the Museum of Natural 
History, wrote La Science Experimentale, and other works on 
physiology. Died 10 Feb. 1878, and was buried at the expense 
of the Republic. Paul Bert calls him the introducer of deter- 
minism in the domain of physiology. 


Bernier (Abbe). See Holbach. 

Bernier (Frangois), French physician and traveller, b. Angers 
about 1625. He was a pupil of Gassendi, whose works he 
abridged, and he defended Descartes against the theologians. 
He is known as le joU pMlosoj^he. In 1654 he went to Syria 
and Egypt, and from thence to India, where he became phy- 
sician to Aurungzebe. On his return he published an account 
of his travels and of the Empire of the Great Mogul, and died 
at Paris 22 Sept. 1688. 

Bernstein (Aaron), a rationalist, b. of Jewish parents Dantzic 
1812. His first work was a translation of the Song of Songs, 
published under the pseudonym of A. Rebenstein (1834). He 
devoted himself to natural science and published works on 
The Rotation of Plavets, Hvmholdt and the Spirit of the Time, Qtc. 
His essay on The Origin of the Legends of Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jocod was translated by a German lady and published by 
Thomas Scott of Ramsgate (1872). Died Berlin, 12 Feb. 1884. 

Beiqnin (Louis de), French martyr, b. in Artois, 1489* 
Erasmus, his friend, says his great crime was openly professing 
hatred of the monks. In 1523 his works were ordered 
to be burnt, and he was commanded to abjure his heresies. 
Sentence of perpetual banishment was pronounced on him on 
April 16, 1529. He immediately appealed to the Parliament. 
His appeal was heard and rejected on the morning of the 17th. 
The Parliartieut reformed the judgment and condemned him to 
be burnt alive, and the sentence was carried out on the same 
afternoon at the Place de la Greve. He died with great con- 
stancy and resolution. 

Bert (Paul), French scientist and statesman, b. at Auxerre, 
17 Oct. 1833. In Paris he studied both law and medicine, and 
after being Professor in the Faculty of Science at Bordeaux, he 
in 1869 obtained the chair of physiology in the Faculty of 
Science at Paris, and distinguished himself by his scientific 
experiments. In '70 he offered his services to the Government 
of National Defence, and in '72 was elected to the National 
Assembly, where he signalised himself by his Radical opinions. 
Gambetta recognised his worth and made him Minister of 
Public Instruction, in which capacity he organised French 
education on a Secular basis. His First Year oj Scientific 


Instruction is almost universally used in the Frencli primary 
schools. It has been translated into English by Josephine Clayton 
(Madame Paul Bert). His strong anti-clerical views induced 
much opposition. He published several scientific and educa- 
tional works and attacked The Morality of the Jesuits^ '80. In '86 
he was appointed French Resident Minister at Tonquin, where 
he died 11 Nov. '86. His body was brought over to France 
and given a State funeral, a pension being also accorded to his 

Bertani (A.gostino), Italian patriot, b. 19 Oct. 1812, became a 
physician at Genoa, took part with Garibaldi and Mazzini, 
organising the ambulance services. A declared Freethinker, 
he was elected deputy to the Italian Parliament. Died Rome 
30 April, '86. 

Berti (Antonio), Italian physician, b. Venice 20 June, 1816- 
Author of many scientific works, member of the Yenice 
Municipal Council and of the Italian Senate. Died Venice 24 
March, 1879. 

Bertillon (Louis Adolphej, French Anthropologist and 
physician, b. Paris 1 April, 1821. His principal work is a 
statistical study of , the French population, Paris '74. He edits 
in conjunction with A. Hovelacque and others, the Dictionary of 
the Anthropological Sciences ('83 etc.) His sons, Jacques (b. '51) 
and Alphonse (b, '53), prosecute similar studies. 

Bertrand de Saint-Germain (Guillaume Scipion), French 
physician, b. Puy-en Velay 25 Oct. 1810. Became M.D. 1840, 
wrote on The Original Diversity of Human Races (1847), and a 
materialistic work on Manifestation of Life and Intelligence 
through Organimtion, 1848. Has also written on Descartes as a 
Physiologist^ 1869. 

Berwick (George J.) M.D., appointed surgeon to the East 
India Company in 1828, retired in '52. Author of AwasJMnd, 
or a Voice from the Ganges ; being a solution of the true source 
of Christianity. By an Indian Officer ; London, 1861. Also of 
a work on The Forces of the Universe, '70. Died about 1872. 

Besant (Annie) nee Wood. B. London, 1 Oct. 1847. Edu- 
cated in Evangelicalism by Miss Marryat, sister of novelist, 
but turned to the High Church by reading Pusey and others. 
In " Holy Week " of 1866 she resolved to write the story of the 


week from the gospel. Their contradictions startled her but 
she regarded her doubts as sin. In Dec. '67 she married the 
Rev. F. Besant,and read and wrote extensively. The torment a 
child underwent in whooping-cough caused doubts as to the 
goodness of God. A study of Greg's Creed of Christendom and 
Arnold's Literature and Dogma increased her scepticism. She 
became acquain+ed with the Rev. 0. Voysey and Thomas Scott,. 
for whom she wrote an Essay on the Deiti/ of Jesus of Nazareth, 
" by the wife of a beneficed clergyman." This led to her husband 
insisting on her taking communion or leaving. She chose the 
latter course, taking by agreement her daughter with her. 
Thrown on her own resources, she wrote further tracts for Mr* 
Scott, reprinted in My Path to Atheism ('77). Joined the National 
Secular Society, and in '74 wrote in the National Reformer over 
the signature of "Ajax." Next year she took to the platform and 
being naturally eloquent soon won her way to the front rank 
as a Freethought lecturess, and became joint editor of the 
National Reformer. Some lectures on the French Revolution 
were republished in book form. In April, '77, she was arrested 
with Mr. Bradlaugh for publishing the Fruits of Philosophy, 
After a brilliant defence, the jury exonerated the defendants 
from any corrupt motives, and although they were sentenced 
the indictment was quashed in Feb. '78, and the case was not 
renewed. In May, '78, a petition in Chancery was presented to 
deprive Mrs. Besant of her child on the ground of her Atheistic 
and Mai thusian views. Sir G. Jessell granted the petition. In 
'80 Mrs. Besant matriculated at the London University and 
took 1st B.Sc. with honors in '82. She has debated much and 
issued many pamphlets to be found in Iheological Essays and 
Debates. She wrote the second part of the Freethinkers' Text 
Book dealing with Christian evidence ; has written on the Sins 
of the Church, 1886, and the Evolution of Society. She has trans- 
lated Jules Soury's Religion of Israel, and Jcsns of the Gospels; 
Dr. L. Biichner on the Influence of Heredity and Mind in Animals, 
and from the fifteenth edition of Force and Matter. ^ From '83 
to '88 she edited Our Corner, and since '85 has given much 
time to Socialist propaganda, and has written many Socialist 
pamphlets. In Dec. '88, Mrs. Besant was elected a member 
of the London School Board. 

Beverland (Hadrianus), Dutch classical scholar and nephew 


of iKaac Vossiiis, b. Middlebiirg 1654. He took the degree of 
doctor of law and became an advocate, but devoted himself^ to 
literature. He was at the university of Oxford in 1672. His 
treatise on Original Sin, Peccatum Originale (Eleutheropoli, 
1678), in which he contends that the sin of Adam and Eve was 
sexual inclination, caused a great outcry. It was burnt, Bever- 
land was imjDrisoned and his name struck from the rolls of 
Leyden University. He wrote some other curious works and 
died about 1712. 

Bevington (Louisa S.), afterwards GtUGGENBERGEii ; English 
poetess and authoress of Key Notcs^lSI^ ; Poems, Lyrics and 
Sonnets, '82 ; wrote " Modern Atheism and Mr. Mallock " in the 
Nineteenth Century (Oct. and Dec. '79), and on " The Moral 
Demerits of Orthodox}^ " in Progress, Sept. '84. 

Beyle (Marie Henri), French man of letters, famous under 
the name of de Stendhal, b. Grenoble, 23 Jan. 1783. Painter, 
soldier, merchant and consul, he travelled largely, a wandering 
life being congenial to his broad and sceptical spirit. His 
book, De V Amour is his most notable work. He Avas an original 
and gifted critic and romancer. Balzac esteemed him highly. 
He died at Paris, 23 March, 1842. Prosper Merimee has pub- 
lished his correspondence. One of his sayings was " Ce qui 
excuse Dieu, c'est qu'il n'existe pas " — God's excuse is that he 
•does not exist. 

Bianchi (Angelo), known as Bianchi-Giovini (Aurelio) 
Italian man of letters, b. of poor parents at Como, 25 Nov. 1799 
He conducted several papers in various parts of Piedmont and 
Switzerland. His Life of Father Paoli Sarpi, 1836, was put on 
the Index, and thenceforward he was in constant strife with 
the Roman Church. For his attacks on the clergy in H Repub- 
lieano, at Lugano, he was proscribed, and had to seek refuge 
at Zurich, 1839. He went thence to Milan and there wrote a 
History of the Hehreivs, a monograph on Pope Joan, and an account 
of the Revolution. His principal works are the History of the 
Pf>/)e.s until the great schism of the West (Turin, 1850-64) and 
a Criticism of the Gospel.^, 1853, which has gone through several 
editions. Died 16 May, 1862. 

Biandrata or Blaxduata (Giorgio), Italian anti-trinitarian 
reformer, b. Saluzzo about 1515. Graduated in arts and 


medicine at Montpellier, 1533. He was thrown into the prison 
of j:he Inquisition at Pavia, but contrived to escape to Geneva, 
where he become obnoxious to Calvin. He left Geneva in 1558 
and went to Poland where he became a leader of the Socinian 
l^arty. He was assassinated 1591. 

Bichat (Marie Francois Xavier), a famous French anatomist 
and physiologist, b Thoirette (Jura),, 11 Nov. 1771. His work 
on the Physiology of Life and Death was translated into English. 
He died a martyr to his zeal for science, 22 July, 1802. 

Biddle or Bidle (John), called the father of English 
Unitarianism, b. Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, 14 Jan. 
1615. He took his M.A. degree at Oxford, 1641, and became 
master of the Gloucester Grammar School, but lost the situation 
for denying the Trinity. He was also imprisoned there for 
so me time, and afterwards cited at Westminster. He appealed to 
the public in defence, and his pamphlet was ordered to be burnt 
by the hangman, 6 Sept. 1647. He was detained in prison till 
1652, after which he published several pamphlets, and was 
again imprisoned in 1654. In Oct. 1655, Cromwell banished 
him to the Scilly Isles, making him an allowance. He returned 
to London 1658, but after the publication of the Acts of Uni- 
formity was again seized, and died in prison 22 Sept. 1662. 

Bierce (M. H.) see Grile (Dod). 

Billaud-Varenne (Jean Nicolas), French conventionalist 
b. La Rochelle, 23 April, 1756. About 1785 became advocate 
to Parliament ; denounced the government and clergy 1789. 
Proposed abolition of the monarchy 1 July, 1791, and wrote 
Elements of Republicanism, 1793. Withdrew from Robespierre 
after the feast of the Supreme Being, saying " Thou beginnest 
to sicken me with thy Supreme Being." Was txiled 1 April, 
1795, and died at St. Domingo, 3 June, 1819. 

Bion, of Borysthenes, near the mouth of the Dneiper. A 
Scythian philosopher who flourished about 250 B.C. He was 
sold as a slave to a rhetorician, who afterwards gave him free- 
dom and ma'^e him his heir. Upon this he went to Athens and 
applied himself to the study of philosophy. He had several 
teachers, but attached himself to Theodorus the Atheist. He 
w-as famous for his knowledge of music, poetry, and philosophy. 
Some shrewd sayings of his are preserved, as that " only the 


votive tablets of the preserved are seen in the temples, not 
those of the drowned " and "it is useless to tear our hair when 
in grief since sorrow is not cured by baldness." 

Birch (William John), English Freethinker, b. London 4 
Jan. 1811. Educated at Baliol College, Oxford, graduated M.A. 
at New Inn Hall. Author of An Inquiry into the Philosophy an d 
Religion of Shakespeare , \S^S ; An Inquiry into the Philosophy and 
Religion of the Bible, 1856 ; this work was translated into Dutch 
by " Rudolf Charles ;" Paul an Idea, not a Fact ; and the Real and 
Ideal. In the stormy time of '42 Mr. Birch did much to sup- 
port the prosecuted publications. He brought out the Library 
of Reason and supported The Reasoner and Investigator with both 
pen and purse. Mr. Birch has resided much in Italy and 
proved himself a friend to Italian unity and Freedom. He is 
a member of the Italian Asiatic Societ3^ Mr. Birch has been a 
contributor to Notes and Queries and other journals, and has " 
devoted much attention to the early days of Christianity^ 
having many manuscripts upon the subject. 

Bithell (Richard), Agnostic, b. Lewes, Sussex, 22 March 
1821, of pious parents. Became teacher of mathematics and 
chemistry. Is Ph.D. of Gottingen and B.Sc. of London 
University. In '65 he entered the service of the Rothschilds. 
Has written Greed of a Modern Agaostic, 1883; and Agnostic 
Problems, 1887. 

Bjornson (Bjornstjerne), Norwegian writer, b. Quickne 
8 Dec. 1832. His father was a Lutheran clergyman. Has 
done much to create a national literature for Norway. For 
his freethinking opinions he was obliged to leave his countiy 
and reside in Paris. Many of his tales have been translated 
into English. In 1882 Bjornson published at Christiania, with 
a short introduction, a resume of C. B. Waite's History of the 
Christian Religion, under the title of Whence come the Miracles of 
the New Testament ? This was the first attack upon dogma tic 
Christianity published in Norway, and created much discussion. 
The following year he published a translation of Colonel 
Ingersoll's article in the North American Review upon the 
" Christian Religion," with a long preface, in which he attacks 
the State Church and Monarchy. The translation was entitled 
Think for Yourself The first edition rapidly sold out and a 


second one appeared. He has since, both in speech and writing, 
repeatedly avowed his Freethought, and has had several con- 
troversies with the clergy. 

BlagOSVyetlov (Grigorevich E.), Russian author, b. in the 
Caucasus, 1826. Has written on Shelley, Buckle, and Mill, 
whose Subjection of Women he translated into Russian. He edited 
a magazine Djelo (Cause). Died about 1885. 

Blanqui (Louis Auguste), French politician, b. near Nice, 7 
Feb. 1805, a younger brother of Jerome Adolphe Blanqui, the 
economist. Becoming a Communist, his life was spent in con- 
spiracy and imprisonment under successive governments. In '39 
he was condemned to death, but his sentence commuted to im- 
prisonment for life, and was subject to brutal treatment till the 
revolution of '48 set him at liberty. He was soon again im- 
prisoned. In '65 he wrote some remarkable articles on 
Monotheism in Le Candide. After the revolution of 4 Sept. '70, 
Blanqui demanded the suppression of worship. He was again 
imprisoned, but was liberated and elected member of the 
Commune, and arrested by Thiers. In his last imprisonment he 
wrote a curious book. Eternity and the Stars, in which he argues 
from the eternity and infinity of matter. Died Paris, 31 Dec. 1880. 
Blanqui took as his motto " Ni Dieu ni maitre " — Neither God 
nor master. 

Blasche (Bernhard Heinrich), German Pantheist, b. Jena 
9 April, 1776. His father was a professor of theology and 
IDhilosophy. He wrote Kriti/c dcs Modernen G sister glauhens 
(Criticism of Modern Ghost Belief), Philosophische Unsterhlich- 
iceitsl lire (Teaching of Philosophical Immortality), and other 
works. Died near Gotha 26 Nov. 1832. 

Blignieres (Celestin de), French Positivist, of the Polytechnic 
school. Has written a popular exposition of Positive philosophy 
and religion, Paris 1857 ; The Positive Doctrine, 1867 ; Studies of 
Positive Morality, 1868 ; and other works. 

Blind (Karl), German Republican, b. Mannheim, 4 Sept. 1826. 
Studied at Heidelberg and Bonn. In 1848 he became a revolu- 
tionary leader among the students and populace, was wounded 
at Frankfort, and proscribed. In Sept. '48 he led the second re- 
publican revolution in the Black Forest. He Avas made prisoner : 
and sentenced to eight year's imprisonment. In the spring of 


'49 he was liberated by the people breaking open his prison. 
Being- sent on a mission to Louis Napoleon, then president of 
the French Eepublic at Paris, he was arrested and banished 
from France. He went to Brussels, but since '52 has lived in 
in England, where he has written largely on politics, history,, 
and mythology. His daughter Mathilde, b. at Mannheim » 
opened her literary career by publishing a volume of poems in 
1867 under the name of Claude LaJce. She has since translated 
Straus's Old Faith and the New, and written the volumes on 
George Eliot and Madame Roland in the Eminent Women series. 

Blount (Charles), English Deist of noble family, b. at Hollo- 
way 27 April, 1654. His father. Sir Henry Blount, probably 
shared in his opinions, and helped him in his arti-religious 
work, Anima Mundi, 1678. This work Bishop Compton desired 
to see suppressed. In 1680 he published Great is Diana ofth^. 
Ephesians, or the Origin of Idolatry, and the two first books of 
Apollonius Tyanius, with notes, in which he attacks priestcraft 
and superstition. This work was condemned and suppressed. 
Blount also published The Oracles of Reason, a number of Free- 
thought Essays. By his Vindication of Learning and Liberty of 
the Press, and still more by his hoax on Bohun entitled William 
and Mary Conquerors, he was largely instrumental in doing 
away with the censorship of the press. He shot himself, it is 
said, because he could not marry his deceased wife's sister 
(August, 1693). His miscellaneous works were printed in one 
volume, 1695. 

Blumenfeld (J. C), wrote The New Ecce Homo or the Self 
Redemption of Man, 1839. He is also credited with the author- 
ship of The Existence of Christ Disproved in a series of Letters 
by "A Grerman Jew," London, 1841. 

Boerne (Ludwig), German man of letters and politician, b. 
Frankfort 22 May, 1786. In 1818 he gave up the Jewish reli- 
gion, in which be had been bred, nominally for Protestantism,, 
but really he had, like his friend Heine, become a Freethinker. 
He wrote many works in favor of political libert}^ and trans- 
lated Lammenais' Paroles d\in Croyant. Died 12 Feb. 1837. 

Bodin (Jean), French political writer, b. Angers 1530. He 
studied at Toulouse and is said to have been a monk but turned 
to the laAV, and became secretary to the Due d'Alengon. His- 


book De la Republique is higlily praised by Hallain, and is said 
to have contained the g:erm of Montesquieu' s " Spirit of the 
Laws." He wrote a work on demonomaina,in which he seems 
to have believed, but in his Colloquium Heptaplomcron coloquies 
of seven persons : a Catholic, a Lutheran, a Calvinist, a Pagan,, 
a- Muhammadan, a Jew, and a Deist, which he left in manu- 
script, he put some severe attacks on Christianity. Died of the 
plague at Laon in 1596. 

Boggis (JohnJ is mentioned by Edwards in his Gangrena,. 
1645, as an Atheist and disbeliever in the Bible. 

Boichot (Jean Baptiste), b. Villier sur Su^ze 20 Aug. 1820,. 
entered the arm}^ In '49 he was chosen representative of the 
people. After the coup d'etat he came to Englan'^, returned to 
France in '54, was arrested and imprisoned at Belle Isle. Since 
then he has lived at Brussels, where he has written several 
works and is one of the council of International Freethinkers. 

Boindin (Nicolas) French litterateur, wit, playwright and 
academician, b. Paris 29 May, 1676. He publicly professed 
Atheism, and resorted with other Freethinkers to the famous cafe 
Procope. There, in order to speak freel}^, they called the soul 
Margot, religion Javotte, liberty Jeanneton, and God M. de 
I'Etre. One day a spy asked Boindin, " Who is this M. de 
I'Etre with whom you seem so displeased ? " " Monsieur," 
replied Boindin, "he is a police spy." Died 30 Nov. 1751. 
His corpse was refused " Christian burial." 

Boissiere (Jean Baptiste Prudence), French writer, b. Valo- 
gnes Dec. 1806, was for a time teacher in England. He com- 
piled an analogical dictionary of the French language. Under 
the name of Sierebois he has published the Autopsy of the Soul 
and a work on the foundations of morality, which he traces to 
interest. He has also written a book entitled The Mechanism of 
Thought, '84. 

Boissonade (J. A.), author of The Bible Unveiled, Paris, 1871. 

Boito (Arrigo), Italian poet and musician, b. at Padua, whose 
opera " Mefistofele," has created considerable sensation by its 

Bolingbroke (Henry Saint John) Lord, English statesman 
and philosopher, b. at Battersea, 1 Oct. 1672. His political life 


was a stormy one. He was the friend of Swift and of Pope, who 
in his Essay on Mem avowedly puts forward the views of Saint 
John. He died at Battersea 12 Dec. 1751, leaving by will his 
MSS. to David Mallet, who in 1754 published his works, which 
included £^ssa^s Written to A. Pope, Esq , on Religion and Philosophy , 
in which he attacks Christianity with both wit and eloquence. 
Bolingbroke was a Deist, believing in God but scornfully 
rejecting revelation. He much influenced Yoltaire, who 
regarded him with esteem. 

Bonavino (Francesco Oristoforo) see Franchi (Ausonio). 

Boni (Filippo de), Italian man of letters, b. Feltre, 1820. 
Editor of a standard Biography of Artists^ published at Venice, 
1S40. He also wrote on the Roman Church and Italy and on 
Reason and Dogma, Siena, '66, and contributed to Stefanoni's 
Libcro Pensiero. De Boni was elected deputy to the Italian 
Parliament. He has written on " Italian Unbelief in the Middle 
Ao-es " in the Annuario Fdosojico del Libera Pensiero, '68. 

Boniface VIII., Pope (Benedetto Gaetano), elected head of 
Ohristendom, 21 Dec. I2 3i. During his quarrel with Philip the 
Fair of France charges were sworn on oath against Pope Boni- 
face that he neither believed in the Trinity nor in the life to 
come, that he said the Virgin Mary " was no more a virgin 
than my mother"; that he did not observe the fasts of the 
Church, and that he spoke of the cardinals, monks, and friars 
as hypocrites. It was in evidence that the Pope had said "God 
may do the worst with me that he pleases in the future life; I 
believe as every educated man does, the vulgar believe other- 
wise. We have to speak as they do, but we must believe and 
think with the few." Died 11 Oct. 1303. 

Bormycastle (John), mithematician, b. Whitchurch, Bucks, 
about 1750. He wrote several works on elementary mathe- 
matics and became Professor of mathematics at the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich, where he died 15 May, 1821. He 
was a friend of Fuseli, and private information assures me he 
was a Freethinker. 

Boom.3 (Marinus Adriaansz), Dutch Spinozist, a shoemaker 
b}' trade, who wrote early in the eigthteenth century, and on 
1 Jan. 171 4, was banished. 


Bonnot de Condillac (Etienne) see CoNDiLLAc. 

Bonstetten (Karl Victor von), Swiss Deist, b. Berne, 3 Sept- 
1745. Acquainted with Voltaire and Rousseau he went to 
Leyden and England to finish his education. Among his works 
are Researches on the Nature and Laivs of the Imagination ^ 1807 ; and 

tudiesouMan, 1821. Died Geneva, 3 Feb. 1832. 

Borde (Frederic), editor of La Philosophie de VAvenir, Paris, 
1875, etc. Born La Rochelle 1841. Has written on Liberty of 
Instruction, etc. 

Born (Ignaz von) baron, b. Carlsruhe, 26 Dec. 1742. Bred by 
the Jesuits, he became an ardent scientist and a favorite of the 
Empress Marie Theresa, under whose patronage he published 
works on Mineralogy. He was active as a Freemason, and 
Illuminati, and published with the name Joannes PhysiophiluK 
a stinging illustrated satire entitled Monchalogia, or the natural 
history of monks. 

Bosc (Louis Augustin Guillaume), French naturalist, b. Paris, 
29 Jan. 1759; was tutor and friend to Madame Roland whose 
Memoirs he published. He wrote many works on natural 
history. Died 10 July, 1828. 

Boucher (E. Martin), French writer, b. Beaulieu, 1809 ; con- 
iributed to the Rationalist of Geneva, where he died 1882. 
Author of a work on Revelation and Rationalism, entitled 
Search for the Truth, AYignon, 1884. 

Bougainville (Louis Antoine de) Count, the first French 
voyager who made the tour around the world ; b. Paris, 11 Nov. 
1729. Died 31 Aug. 1811. He wrote an interesting account of 
his travels. 

Bouillier (Prancisque), French philosopher, b. Lyons 12 July 
1813, has written several works on psychology, and contributed 
to la Libertt de Pemer. His principal work is a History of 
the Cartesian Philosophy." He is a member of the Institute 
and writes in the leading reviews. 

Bonis (Casimir), French journalist, b. Toulon 1848, edited 
La Libre Pensee and wrote a satire on the Jesuits entitled 
Calottes et Soutanes, 1870. Sent to New Caledonia for his parti- 
cipation in the Commune, he has since his return published a 
volume of political verses entitled Ajn-es le Naufrage, After the 
Shipwreck, 1880. 
49 D 


Boulainvilliers (Henri de), Oomte de St. Saire, French his- 
torian and philosopher, b. 11 Oct. 1658. His principal historical 
work is an account of the ancient French Parliaments. He also 
wrote a defence of Spinozism under pretence of a refutation of 
Spinoza, an analysis of Spinoza's Tractus Theologico-Politicus, 
printed at the end of Djuhts upon Religion, Londres, 1767. A 
Lifeof Mtili2inmid, the first European work doing justice to 
Islam, and a History of the Arabs also proceeded from his pen, 
and he is one of those to whom is attributed the treatise with the 
title of the Ihree Impostors, 1755. Died 23 Jan. 1722. 

BDulanjer (N'icolas-Antains), French Daist, b. 11 Nov. 
1722. Died 16 Sept. 1759. He was for some time in the army 
as engineer, and afterwards became surveyor of public works. 
After his death his works were published by D'Holbach who 
rewrote them. His principal works are Antiquity Unveiled and 
Researches! on the Origin of Oriental Despotism. Christimity Un- 
veiled, attributed to him and said by Voltaire to have been by 
Damilavile, was probably written by D'Holbach, perhaps with 
some assistance from Naigeon. It was burnt by order of the 
French Parliament 18 Aug. 1770. A Critical Examination of the 
Life and Works of St. Paul, attributed to Boulanger, was really 
made up by d'Holbach from the work of Annet. Boulanger 
wrote dissertations on Elisha, Enoch and St. Peter, and some 
articles for the Encyclopedie. 

Bourdet (Dr.) Eugene, French Positivist, b. Paris, 1818. 
Author of several works on medicine and Pos'tivist philosophy 
and education. 
Boureau-Deslands (A. F.) See Deslandes. 
Bourget (Paul), French litterateur, b. at Amiens in 1852. 
Has made himself famous by his novels, essays on contem- 
temporary psychology, studies of M. Renan, etc. He belongs 
to the Naturalist School, but his methods are less crude than 
those of some of his colleagues. His insight is most subtle, 
and his style is exquisite. 

BouttevUle (Marc Lucien), French writer, professor at the 
Lycee Bonaparte; has made translations from Lessing and 
published an able work on the Morality of the Church and 
Natural Morality, 1866, for which the clergy turned him out of 
a professorship he held at Sainte-Barbe. 


Bovio (Giovanni), Professor of Political Economy in the 
University of Naples and deputy to the Italian parliament ; is 
an ardent Freethinker. Both in his writings and in parlia- 
ment Prof. Bovio opposes the power of the Vatican and the 
reconciliation between Church and State. He has constantly 
advocated liberty of conscience and has promoted the institu- 
tion of a Dante chair in the University of Rome. He has 
written a work on The History of Law, a copy of which he 
presented to the International Congress of Freethinkers, 1887. 

Bowring (Sir John, K.B., LL D.), politician, linguist and 
writer, b. Exeter, 17 Oct., 1792. In early life a pupil of Dr. 
Lant Carpenter and later a disciple of Jeremy Bentham, whose 
principles he maintained in the Westminster Review, of which he 
Avas editor, 1825. Arrested in France in 1822, after a fortnight's 
imprisonment he was released without trial. He published 
Bentham's Deontology (1834), and nine years after edited a com- 
plete collection of the works of Bentham. Returned to Parlia- 
ment in '35, and afterwards was employed in important 
government missions. In '55 he visited Siara, and two years 
later published an account of The Kingdom and People of Siam. 
He translated Goethe, Schiller, Heine, and the poems of many 
countries ; was an active member of the British Association 
and of the Social Science Association, and did much to pro- 
mote rational views on the Sunday question. Died 23 Nov. 

Boyle (Humphrey), one of the men who left Leeds for the 
purpose of serving in R. Carlile's shop when the right of free 
publication was attacked in 1821. Boyle gave no name, and 
was indicted and tried as " a man with name unknown " for 
publishing a blasphemous and seditious libel. In his defence 
he ably asserted his right to hold and publish his opinions. He 
read portions of the Bible in court to prove he was justified in 
calling it obscene. Upon being sentenced, 27 May, 1822, to 
eighteen months' imprisonment and to find sureties for fire 
years, he remarked " I have a mind, my lord, that can bear such 
a sentence with fortitude." 

Bradlaugh (Charles). Born East London, 26 Sept. 1833. 
Educated in Bethnal Green and Hackney. He was turned from 
his Sunday-school teachership and from his first situation 


tln-ougli the influence of the Rev. J. G. Packer, and found refuge 
with the widow of R. Carlile. In Dec. 1850 he entered the 
Dragoon Guards and proceeded to Dublin. Here he met James 
Thomson, the poet, and contracted a friendship which lasted for 
many years. He got his discharge, and in '53 returned to London 
and became a solicitor's clerk. He began to write and lecture 
under the nom de guerre of " Iconoclast," edited the Investigator, 
'59 ; and had numerous debates with ministers and others. In 
1860 he began editing the Nntimial Reformer, which in '68-9 he 
successfully defended against a prosecution of the Attorney 
General, who wished securities against blasphemy. In '68 he 
began his efforts to enter Parliament, and in 1880 was returned 
for Northampton. After a long struggle with the House, which 
would not admit the Atheist, he at length took his seat in 1885. 
He was four times re-elected, and the litigation into which he 
was plunged will become as historic as that of John Wilkes. 
Prosecuted in '76 for publishing The Fruits of Philosophy, he 
succeeded in quashing the indictment. Mr. Bradlaugh has 
had numerous debates, several of which are published. He 
has also written many pamphlets, of which we mention 
New Lives of Abraham, David, and other saints. Who was 
Jesus Christ? What did Jesus Teach/ Has Man a Soul, Is 
there a God? etc. His Plea for Atheism reached its 20th 
thousand in 1880. Mr. Bradlaugh has also published When 
were our Gospels Written, 1867? Heresy, its Utility and Morality, 
1870; The Inspiration of the Bible, 1873; The Freethinker s 
Text Book, part i., dealing with natural religion, 1876; The 
Laws Relating to Bla^jthcmy and Herc^-y, 1878; Supernatural 
and Rational Morality, 1886. In 1857 Mr. Bradlaugh commenced 
a commentary on the Bible, entitled The Bible, What is it? In 
1865 this appeared in enlarged form, dealing onl}^ with the 
Pentateuch. In 1882 he published Genesis, Its Authorship and 
Authenticity. In Parliament Mr. Bradlaugh has become a con- 
spicuous figure, and has introduced many important measures. 
In 1888 he succeeded in passing an Oaths Bill, making affirma- 
tions permissible instead of oaths. His elder daughter, Alice, 
b. 30 April, 1856, has written on Mind Considered as a Bodily 
Function, 1884. Died 2 Dec. 1888. His second daughter, 
Hypatia Bradlaugh Bonner, b. 31 March, 1858, has written 
" Princess Vera " and other stories, " Chemistry of Home," etc. 


Braekstad (Hans Lien), b. Throndhjcm, Xfu-way, 7 Sept. 1845. 
Has made English translations from Bjornson, Asbjonisen. 
Andersen, etc., and has contributed to Harper s Mcif/azine and 
other periodical literature. 

Brandes (Georg Morris CohenJ, Danish writer, by birth a 
Jew, b. Copenhagen, 4 Feb. 1842. In 1869 he translated J. S. 
Mills' Subjection of Women, and in the following year took a 
doctor's degree for a philosophical treatise. His chief work is 
entitled the Main Current of Literature in the Nineteenth Century^ 
His brother. Dr. Edvard Brandes, was elected to the Danish Par- 
liament in 1881, despite his declaration that he did not believe 
either in the God of the Christians or of the Jews. 

Bray (Charles), philosophic writer, b. Coventry, 31 Jan. 1811> 
He was brought up as an Evangelical, but found his way to 
Freethought. Early in life he took an active part in promoting 
unsectarian education. His first work (1835) was on The 
Education of the Body. This was followed by The Education of 
the Feelings, of which there were several editions. In 1836 he 
married Miss Hennell, sister of C. C. Hennell, and took the 
Sy.ytem of Nature and Volney's Ruins of Empires " to enliven the 
honeymoon." Among his friends was Mary Ann Evans 
(" George Eliot "), who accompanied Mr. and Mrs. Bray to 
Italy. His Avorks on The Philosophy of Necessity (1841) and Cerehrol 
Psychology (1875) give the key to all his thought. He wrote a 
number of Thomas Scott's series of tracts : Illusion and Delusion^ 
Ihe Reign of Law in Mind as in Matter, Toleration with remarks on 
Professor Tyndall's "Address," and a little hook, Christianity 
in the Light of our Present Knowledge and Moral Sense (1876). He 
also wrote A Manual ofAnth ropology and similar works. In a post- 
script to his last volume, Phases of Opinion and Experience During 
a Long Life, dated 18 Sept. 1884, he stated that he has no hope, 
or expectation or belief even in the possibility of continued 
individuality after death, and that as his opinions have done 
to live by " they will do to die by." He died 5 Oct. 1884. 

Bresson (Leopold), French Positivist, b. Lamarche, 1817. 
Educated at the Polytechnic School, which he left in 1840 and 
served on public works. For seventeen years was director 
of an Austrian Railway Company. Wrote Idees Modernes^ 


Bridges (John Henry), M.D. English Positivist, b. 1833, 
graduated B.A. at Oxford 1855, and B.M. 1859; has written on 
Relifjion and Progress, contributed to the Fortnightly Review, and 
translated Comte's General View of Positivism (1865) and System 
of Positive Polity (1873). 

Bril (Jakob), Dutch mystical Pantheist, b. Leyden, 21 Jan. 
1639. died 1700. His works were published at Amsterdam, 

Brissot (Jean Pierre) de Warville, active French revolu- 
tionist, b. Chartres, 14 Jan. 1754. He was bred to the law, but 
took to literature. He wrote for the Courier de VEurope, a 
revolutionary paper suppressed for its boldness, published a 
treatise on Truth, and edited a Philosophical Law Library, 
1782 — 85. He wrote against the legal authority of Eome, and 
is credited with Philosophical Letters upon St. Paul and the Chris- 
tian Religion, Neufchatel, 1783. In 1784 he was imprisoned in 
the Bastille for his writings. To avoid a second imprisonment 
he went to England and America, returning to France at the 
ortbreak of the Eevolution. He wrote many political works^ 
became member of the Legislative Assembly, formed the 
Girondist party, protested against the execution of Louis XVL, 
and upon the triumph of the Mountain was executed with 
twenty-one of his colleagues, 31 Oct., 1793. Brissot was a 
voluminous writer, honest, unselfish, and an earnest lover of 
freedom in ever}^ form. 

B ristol (Augusta), nee Cooper, American educator, b. Croy- 
don, New Haven, 17 April, 1835. In 1850 became teacher and 
gained repute by her Poems. In Sept. 1880, she represented 
American Freethinkers at the International Conference at 
Brussels. She has written on Science and it.s Relations to Human 
Character and other works. 

Broca (Pierre Paul), French anthropologist, b. 28 June, 
1824. A hard-working scientist, he paid special attention to 
craniology. In 1875 he founded the School of Anthropology 
and had among his pupils Gratiolet, Topinard, Hovelacque 
and Dr. Carter Blake, who translated his treatise on Hyhridity. 
He established The Review of Anthropology , published numerous 
scientific works and was made a member of the Legion of 


onor. In philosophy he inclined to Positivism. Died Paris, 
9 July, 1880. 

Brooksbank (William), b. Nottingham 6 Dec. 1801. In 1824 
he wrote in Carlile's Lion, and has since contributed to the 
Reasoncr, the Pathfinder, and the National Reformer. He was an 
intimate friend of James Watson. He wrote A Sketch of the 
Religions of the Earth, Revelation Tested dy Astronomij, Geography, 
Geology, etc., 1856, and some other pamphlets. Mr. Brooksbank 
is still living in honored age at Nottingham. 

Brothier (Leon), author of a Popular History of Philosophy, 
1861, and other works in the Bihliotheqite Utile. He contributed 
to the Rationalist of Geneva. 

Broussais (Francois Joseph Victor), French physician and 
philosopher, b. Saint Malo, 17 Dec. 1772. Educated at Dinan, 
in 1792 he served as volunteer in the army of the Eepublic. 
He studied medicine at St. Malo and Brest, and became a naval 
surgeon. A disciple of Bichat, he did much to reform medical 
science by his Examination of Received Medical Doctrines and 
to find a basis for mental and moral science in physiology by 
his many scientific works. Despite his bold opinions, he was 
made Commander of the Legion of Honor. He died poor 
at St. Malo 17 Nov. 1838, leaving behind a profession of 
faith, in which he declares his disbelief in a creator and his 
being " without hope or fear of another life." 

Brown (George William), Dr., of Rockford, Illinois, b. in 
Essex Co., N.Y., Oct. 1820, of Baptist parents. At 17 years 
of age he was expelled the church for repudiating the dogma 
of an endless hell. Dr. Brown edited the Herald of I<reedom, 
Kansas. In 1856 his office was destroyed by a pro-slavery 
mob, his type thrown into the river, and himself and others 
arrested but was released without trial. Dr. Brown has con- 
tributed largely to the Ironclad Age and other American Free- 
thought papers, and is bringing out a work on the Origin of 

Brown (Titus L.), Dr., b. 16 Oct. 1823, at Hillside (N.Y.). 

Studied at the Medical College of New York and graduated at 

the Homoeopathic College, Philadelphia. He settled at Bing- 

ham*on where he had a large practice. He contributed to the 



Boston Investigator and in 1877 was elected President of the 
Freethinkers Association. Died 17 Aug. 1887. 

Browne (Sir Thomas), physician and writer, b. London, 19 
Oct. 1605. He studied medicine and travelled on the Continent, 
taking his doctor's degree at Leyden fl633). He finally settled at 
Norwich, where he had a good practice. His treatise Religio 
Medici, famous for its fine style and curious mixture of faith 
and scepticism, was surreptitiously published in 1642. It ran 
through several editions and was placed on the Eoman Index. 
His Pseudodoxia Epidemica ; Enquiries into Vulgar and Common 
Errors, appeared in 1646. While disputing many popular 
superstitions he showed he partook of others This curious 
work was followed by Hudriotaphia, or Urn-Biiri<d, in which he 
treats of cremation among the ancients. To this was added 
The Garden of Cyrus. He died 19 Oct. 1682. 

Bruno (Giordano), Freethought martyr, b. at Nola, near 
Naples, about 1548. He was christened Filippo which he 
changed to Filoteo, taking the name of G-iordano when he 
entered the Dominican order. Religious doubts and bold 
strictures on the monks obliged him to quit Italy, probably in 
1580. He went to Geneva but soon found it no safe abiding 
place, and quitted it for Paris, where he taught, but refused to 
attend mass. In 1583 he visited England, living with the 
French ambassador Castelnau. Having formed a friendship 
with Sir Philip Sidney, he dedicated to him his Sitaccio della 
Bestia Iriomfantc, a satire on all mythologies. In 1585 he took 
part in a logical tournament, sustaining the Copernican theory 
against the doctors of Oxford. The following year he returned 
to Paris, where he again attacked the Aristotelians. He then 
travelled to various cities in Germany, everywhere preaching 
the broadest heresy. He published several Pantheistic, scien- 
tific and philosophical works. He was however induced to 
return to Italy, and arrested as an heresiarch and apostate at 
Venice, Sept. 1592. After being confined for seven years by 
the Inquisitors, he was tried, and burnt at Rome 17 Feb. 1600, 
At his last moments a crucifix was offered him, which he nobly 
rejected. Bruno was vastly befoi-e his age in his conception of 
the universe and his rejection of tlieological dogmas. A statue 
of this heroic apostle of liberty and light, executed by one of 
the first sculptors of Italy, is to be erected on the spot where 


he perished, the Municipal Council of Eome having granted 
the site in face of the bitterest opposition of the Catholic party. 
The list of subscribers to this memorial comprises the prin- 
cipal advanced thinkers in Europe and America. 

Brzesky (OasimirLiszynsky Podsedek). See Liszinski. 

Bucali or BusALi (Leonardo), a Calabrian abbot of Spanish 
descent, who became a follower of Servetus in the sixteenth 
century, and had to seek among the Turks the safety denied 
him in Christendom. He died at Damascus. 

Buclianan (George), Scotch historian and scholar, b.Killearn,. 
Feb. 1506. Evincing an early love of study, he was sent to 
Paris at the age of fourteen. He returned to Scotland and 
became distinguished for his learning. James V. appointed 
him tutor to his natural son. He composed his Franciscamis et 
Fratres, a satire on the monks, which hastened the Scottish 
reformation. This exposed him to the vengeance of the clergy» 
Not content with calling him Atheist, Archbishop Beaton had 
him arrested and confined in St. Andrew's Castle, from whence 
he escaped and fled to England. Here he found, as he said, 
Henry VIII. burning men of opposite opinions at the same 
stake for religion. He returned to Paris, but was again sub- 
jected to the persecution of Beaton, the Scottish Ambassador. 
On the death of a patron at Bordeaux, in 1548, he was seized 
by the Inquisition and immured for a year and a half in a 
monastery, where he translated the Psalms into Latin. He 
eventually returned to Scotland, where he espoused the party 
of Moray. After a most active life, he died 28 Sept. 1582, 
leaving a History of Scotland, besides numerous poems, satires^ 
and political writings, the most important of which is a work 
of republican tendency, De Jure Regni, the Rights of Kings. 

Buchanan (Robert), Socialist, b. Ayr, 1813. He was suc- 
cessively a schoolmaste r, a Socialist missionary and a journalist. 
He settled in Manchester, where he published works on the 
Religion of the Past and Present, 1839; the Origin and Nature of 
Ghosts, 1840. An Exposure of Joseph Barker, and a Concise 
History of Modern P-iestcraft also bear the latter date. At this 
time the Socialists were prosecuted for lecturing on Sunday, 
and Buchanan was fined for refusing to take the oath of supre- 
macy, etc. After the decline of Owenism, he wrote for the 


Northern Star^ and edited the Glasgow Sentinel. He died at the 
liome of his son, the poet, at Bexhill, Sussex, 4 March, 1866. 

Buchanan (Joseph Rhodes), American physician, b. Frank- 
fort, Kentucky, 11 Dec. 1814. He graduated M.D. at Louisville 
University, 1842, and has been the teacher of physiology at 
several colleges. From 1849-56 he published Buchanan's Journal 
of Man , and has written several works on Anthropology. 

Buchner (Ludwig). See Buechner. 

Buckle (Henry Thomas), philosophical historian, b. Lee, 
Kent, 24 Nov. 1821. In consequence of his delicate health he 
was educated at home. His mother was a strict Calvinist, his 
father a strong Tory, but a visit to the Continent made him a 
Freethinker and Radical. He ever afterwards held travelling 
to be the best education. It was his ambition to write a History 
of Civilisation in England, but so vast was his design that his 
three notable volumes with that title form only part of the 
ntroduction. The first appeared in 1858, and created a great 
sensation by its boldness. In the following year he champioiied 
the cause of Pooley, who was condemned for blasphemy, and 
dared the prosecution of infidels of standing. In 1861 he 
visited the East, in the hope of improving his health, but died 
at Damascus, 29 May, 1862. Much of the material collected for 
his History has been published in his Miscellaneous and Posthu- 
moiis Works, edited by Helen Taylor, 1872. An abridged edition, 
edited by Grant Allen, appeared in 1886. 

Buechner (Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig), German 
materialist, b. Darmstadt, 29 March, 1824. Studied medicine 
in Geissen. Strassburg and Vienna. In '55 he startled the 
world with his bold work on Force and Matter, which has gone 
through numerous editions and been translated into nearly all 
the European languages. This work lost him the place of 
professor which he held at Tiibingen, and he has since prac- 
tised in his native town. Biichner has developed his ideas in 
many other works such as Nature and Spirit (1857). Physiologi- 
cal Sketches, '61 ; Nature and Science, '62 ; Conferences on Dar- 
winism, '69; Man in the Past, Present and Future, '69 ; Matirialtsm 
its History and Influence on Society, '73 ; The Idea of God, '74 ; 
Mind in Animals, '80 ; and Liijht and Life, '82. He also con- 
tributes to the Frei'Ienker, the Dageraad, and other journals. 


Buflfon (Georges Louis Leclerc), Count dc, Frencli naturalist, 
b. Montford, Burgundy, 7 Sept. 1707. An incessant worker. 
His Natural History in 36 volumes bears witness to the fertility 
of his mind and his capacity for making science attractive. 
Buff on lived much in seclusion, ard attached himself to no 
sect or religion. Some of his sentences were attacked by the 
Sorbonne. Herault de Sechelles says that Buff on said : " I have 
named the Creator, but it is only necessary to take out the 
word and substitute the power of nature." Died at Paris 
16 April, 1788. 

Buitendijk or Buytendyck (Grosuinus van), Dutch Spinozist, 
who wrote an Apology at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century and was banished 1716. 

Bufalini (Maurizio), Italian doctor, b. Cesena 2 June, 1787. 
In 1813 he pubtished an essay on i\\Q Doctrijie of Lifeiw opposi- 
tion to vitalism, and henceforward his life was a conflict with 
the upholders of that doctrine. He v/as accused of materialism, 
but became a professor at Florence and a member of the Italian 
Senate in 1860. Died at Florence 31 March, 1875. 

Burdach (Karl Friedrich), German physiologist, b. Leipsic 
12 June, 1776. He occupied a chair at the University of 
Breslau. His works on physiology and anthropology did much 
to popularise those sciences, and the former is placed on the 
Index Librorum Prohihitorum for its materialistic tendency. He 
died at Konigsberg, 16 July, 1847. 

Burdon (William), M.A,, writer, b. Newcastle, 11 Sept. 1764 
Oraduated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1788. He was 
intended for a clergyman, but want of faith made him decline 
that profession. His principal work is entitled Materials for 
Thinking. Colton largely availed himself of this work in his 
Lmcon. It went through five editions in his lifetime, and por- 
tions were reprinted in the Library of Reason. He also addressed 
Three Letters to the Bishqj of Llandaff, wrote a Life and Character 
of Bonaparte^ translated an account of the Eevolution in Spain, 
■edited the Memoirs of Count Boruwlaski, and wrote some 
objections to the annual subscription to the Sons of the Clergy. 
Died in London, 30 May, 1818. 

Burigny (Jean Levesque de), French writer, b. Rheims, 
1692. He became a member of the French Academy, wrote a 


treatise on the Authority of the Pope, a History of Pagan 
Philosophy and other works, and is credited with the Critical 
Examination of the Apologists of the Christian Religion^ published 
under the name of Freret by Naigeon, 1766. Levesque de 
Burigny wrote a letter in answer to Bergier's Proop of Chris- 
tianity, which is published in Naigeon's Recucil Philosophique. 
Died at Paris, 8 Oct. 1785. 

Burmeister (Hermann), German naturalist, b. Stralsund, 15 
Jan. 1807. In 1827 he became a doctor at Halle. In '48 he was 
elected to the National Assembly. In 1850 he went to Brazil. 
His principal work is The History of Creation^ 1843. 

Burmeister or Baurmeister (Johann Peter Theodor) a 
German Eationalist and colleague of Eonge. Born at Flens- 
burg, 1805. He resided in Hamburg, and wrote in the middle 
of the present century under the name of J. P. Lyser. 

Burnet (Thomas), b. about 1635 at Croft, Yorkshire, 
Through the interest of a pupil, the Duke of Ormonde, he 
obtained the mastership of the Charterhouse, 1685. In 1681 
the first part of his Telluris Theoria Sacra^ or Sacred Theory of 
the Earth, appeared in Latin, and was translated and modified 
in 1684. In 1692 Burnet published, both in English and in 
Latin, his Archceologice Philosophicce, or the Ancient Doctrine of 
the Origin of Things. He professes in this to reconcile his 
theory with Genesis, which receives a figurative interpretation ; 
and a ludicrous dialogue between Eve and the serpent gave 
great offence. In a popular ballad Burnet is represented as 

That all the books of Moses 
AVere nothing but supposes. 

He had to resign a position at court. In later life he wrote 
De Fide et Ofjiciis Christianorum (on Christian Faith and Duties),, 
in which he regards historical, religions as based on the religion 
of nature, and rejects original sin and the " magical " theory 
of sacraments ; and De Statu Mortw)rum et Resurgent iiun, on the 
State of the Dead and Eesurrected, in which he opposed the 
doctrine of eternal punishment and shadowed forth a scheme 
of Deism. These books he kept to himself to avoid a prosecu- 
tion for heresy, but had a few copies printed for private friends. 
He died in the Charterhouse 27 Sept. 1715. A tract entitled 
Heli Torments not Eternal was published in 1739. 


Burnett (James), Lord Monboddo, a learned Scotch writer 
and judge, was b. Monboddo, Oct. 1714. He adopted the law 
as his profession, became a celebrated advocate, and was made 
a judge in 1767. His work on the Origin and Progress of Langu- 
age (published anonymously 1773-92), excited much derision 
by his studying man as one of the animals and collecting facts 
about savage tribes to throw light on civilisation. He first 
maintained that the orang-outang was allied to the human 
species. He also wrote on Ancient Metaphysics. He was a keen 
debater and discussed with Hume, Adam Smith, Robertson, 
and Lord Kames. Died in Edinburgh, 26 May, 1799. 

Burnouf (Emile Louis), French writer, b. Valonges, 25 Aug. 
1821. He became professor of ancient literature to the faculty 
of Nancy. Author of many works, including a translation of 
selections from the Novum Oi-ganum of Bacon, the Bhagvat-Gita, 
an Introduction to the Vedas, a history of Greek Literature, 
Studies in Japanese, and articles in the Revue des deux Mondes. 
His heresy is pronounced in his work on the Science of Reli- 
gions, 1878, in his Contemporary Catholicism, and Life and 
Thought, 1886. 

Burnouf (Eugene), French Orientalist, cousin of the pre- 
ceding; b. Paris, 12 Aug. 1801. He opened up to the Western 
world the Pali language, and with it the treasures of Buddhism, 
whose essentially Atheistic character he maintained. To him 
also we are largely indebted for a knowledge of Zend and of 
the Avesta of the Zoroastrians. He translated numerous 
Oriental works and wrote a valuable Introduction to the History 
of Indian Buddhism. Died at Paris, 28 May, 1852. 

Burns (Robert), Scotland's greatest poet, b. near Ayr, 25 
Jan. 1759. His father was a small farmer, of enlightened 
views. The life and works of Burns are known throughout 
the world. His Freethought is evident from such produc- 
tions as the " Holy Fair," " The Kirk's Alarm," and " Holy 
"Willie's Prayer," and many passages in private letters to his 
most familiar male friends. Died at Dumfries, 21 July, 1796. 

Burr (William Henry), American author, b. 1819, Glovers- 

ville, N.Y., graduated at Union College, Schenectady, became 

a shorthand reporter to the Senate. In 1869 he retired and 

devoted himself to literary research. He is the anon3-mous 



author of Revelations of Antichrist, 2i learned book which exposes 
the obscurity of the origin of Christianity, and seeks to show that 
the historical Jesus lived almost a century before the Christian 
era. He has also written several pamphlets : Thomas Paine 
icas Junius, 1880 : Self Contradictions of the Bible ; Is the Bible a 
Lying Humbug ? A Roman Catholic Canard, etc. He has also 
frequently contributed to the Boston Investigator, the New York 
Truthseeher, and the Ironclad Age of Indianopolis. 

Burton (Sir Richard Francis), traveller, linguist, and author, 
b. Barham House, Herts, 19 March, 1821. Intended for the 
Church, he matriculated at Oxford, but in 1842 entered the 
East India Company's service, served on the staff of Sir C. 
Napier, and soon acquired reputation as an intrepid explorer. 
In '51 he returned to England and started for Mecca and 
Medina, visiting those shrines unsuspected, as a Moslem pil- 
grim. He was chief of the staff of the Osmanli cavalry in the 
Crimean war, and has made many remarkable and dangerous 
expeditions in unknown lands ; he discovered and opened the 
lake regions in Central Africa and explored the highlands of 
Brazil. He has been consul at Fernando Po, Santos, Damascus, 
and since 1872 at Trieste, and speaks over thirty languages. 
His latest Avork is a new translation of Ihe Thousand Nights and 
a Night ill 10 Yo]s. Being threatened with a prosecution, he 
intended justifying " literal naturalism " from the Bible. 
Burton's knowledge of Arabic is so perfect that when he used 
to read the tales to Arabs, they would roll on the ground in 
fits of laughter. 

Butler (Samuel), poet, b. in Strensham, Worcestershire, 
Feb. 1612. In early life he came under the influence of Selden. 
He studied painting, and is said to have painted a head of 
Cromwell from life. He became clerk to Sir Samuel Luke, one 
of Cromwell's Generals, whom he has satirised as Hudibras. 
This celebrated burlesque poem appeared in 1663 and became 
famous, but, although the king and court were charmed with 
its wit, the author was allowed to remain in poverty and 
obscurity till he died at Covent Garden, London, 25 Sept. 1680. 
Butler expressed the opinion that 

" Religion is the interest of churches 
That sell in other worlds in this to purchase." 


. Buttmann (Philipp K arl), German philologist, b. Frankfort^ 
5 Dec. 1764. Became librarian of the Eoyal Library at Berlin. 
He edited many of the Greek Classics, wrote on the Myth of 
the Deluge, 1819, and a learned work on Mythology, 1828. Died 
Berlin, 21 June, 1829. 

Buzot (Frangois Leonard Nicolas), French Girondin, dis- 
tinguished as an ardent Republican and a friend and lover of 
Madame Roland. Born at Evreux, 1 March, 1760 ; he died from 
starvation when hiding after the suppression of his part 3^ 
June, 1793. 

Byelinsky (Vissarion G.) See Belinsky. 

Byron (George Gordon Noel) Lord, b. London, 22 Jan. 1788,. 
He succeeded his grand-uncle William in 1798; was sent to. 
Harrow and Cambridge. In 1807 he published his Hours of 
Idleness, and awoke one morning to find himself famous. His 
powder was, however, first shown in his English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers, in which he satirised his critics, 1809. He then 
travelled on the Continent, the result of which was seen in his 
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage and other works. He married 2 Jan. 
1815, but a separation took place in the following year. Lord 
Byron then resided in Italy, where he made the acquaintance 
of Shelley. In 1823 he devoted his name and fortune to the 
cause of the Greek revolution, but was seized with fever and 
died at Missolonghi, 19 April, 1824. His drama of Cain: a 
Mystery, 1822, is his most serious utterance, and it shows a 
profound contempt for religious dogma. This feeling is also 
exhibited in his magnificent burlesque poem, The Vision of 
Judgment, which places him at the head of English satirists. In 
his letters to the Rev. Francis Hodgson, 1811, he distinctly 
says : " I do not believe in any revealed religion. ... I will 
have nothing to do with your immortality ; we are miserable 
enough in this life, without the absurdity of speculating upon 
another. . . . The basis of your religion is injustice ; the Son 
of God, the pure, the immaculate, the innocent, is sacrificed for 
the guilty," etc . 

Cabanis (Pierre Jean George), called by Lange " the father 

of the materialistic physiology," b. Conac, 5 June, 1757. 

Became pupil of Condillac and friend of Mirabeau, wbom he 

attended in his last illness, of which he published an account 


1791. He was also intimate with Turgot, Condorcet, Holbach, 
Diderot, and other distinguished Freethinkers, and was elected 
member of the Institute and of the Council of Five Hundred in 
the Revolution. His works are m ostly medical, the chief being 
Des Rapports du Physique et du Morale de VHomme, in which he 
contends that thoughts are a secretion of the brain. Died 
Rueil, near Paris, 5 May, 1808. 

Csesalpinus (Andreas^, Italian philosopher of the Renais- 
sance, b. Arezzo, Tuscany, 1519. He became Professor of 
Botany at Pisa, and Linneeus admits his obligations to his work, 
De Plantis, 1583. He also wrote works on metals and medicine, 
and showed acquaintance with the circulation of the blood. 
In a work entitled Demonum Investigatio, he contends that 
^'possession" by devils is amenable to medical treatment. 
His Quxstioiium Peripateticarnm, in five books, Geneva, 1588, 
was condemned as teaching a Pantheistic doctrine similar to 
that of Spinoza. Bishop Parker denounced him. Died 23 
Feb. 1603. 

Caesar (Gains JuliusJ. the "' foremost man of all this world,'» 
equally renowned as soldier, statesman, orator, and writer, b. 
12 July, 100 B.C., of noble family. His life, the particulars of 
which are well known, was an extraordinary display of ver- 
satility, energy, courage, and magnanimity. He justified the 
well-known line of Pope, " Cfesar the world's great master and 
his own." His military talents elevated him to the post of 
dictator, but this served to raise against him a band of aristo- 
cratic conspirators, by whom he was assassinated, 15 March^ 
44 B.C. His Commentaries are a model of insight and clear 
expression. Sallust relates that he questioned the existence of 
a future state in the presence of the Roman senate. Froude 
says : " His own writings contain n othing to indicate that he 
himself had any religious belief at all. He saw no evidence 
that the gods practically interfered in human affairs. . . 
He held to the facts of this life and to his own convictions • 
and as he found no reason for supposing that there was a life 
beyond the grave he did not pretend to expect it." 

Cahnac (John), bookseller, revised an edition of Palmer's 
Pri7iciples of Nature, 1819. For this he was prosecuted at the 
instance of the "Vice Society," but the matter was compromised. 
He was also prosecuted for selling the Republican, 1820. 


Calderino (Domizio), a learned writer of the Renaissance, b. 
in 1445, in the territory of Verona, and lived at Rome, where 
he was professor of literature, in 1477. He edited and com- 
mented upon many of the Latin poets. Bayle says he was 
without religion. Died in 1478, 

Calenzio (Eliseo), an Italian writer, b. in the kingdom of 
Naples about 1440. He was preceptor to Prince Frederic, the 
son of Ferdinand, the I^ingof Naples. He died in 1503, leaving- 
behind a number of satires, fables and epigrams, some of which 
are directed against the Church. 

CaU (Wathen Mark Wilks), English author, b. 7 June, 1817. 
Educated at Cambridge, entered the ministry in 1843, but 
resigned his curacy about 1856 on account of his change of 
opinions, which he recounts in his preface to Reverberations^ 
1876. Mr. Call is of the Positivist school, and has contributed 
largely to the l^ ortnigJiihj and Westminster Reviews. 

CaUet (Pierre Auguste), French politician, b. St. Etienne, 27 
Oct. 1812; became editor of the Gazette of France till 1840. In 
1848 he was nominated Republican representative. At the 
coz/jj d'tf^a? of 2 Dec. 1851, he took refuge in Belgium. He re- 
turned to France, but was imprisoned for writing against the 
Empire. In 1871, Callet was again elected representative for 
the department of the Loire. His chief Freethought work is 
UEnJer, an attack upon the Christian doctrine of hell, 1861. 

Camisani (Gregorio), Italian writer, b at Venice, 1810. A 
Professor of Languages in Milan. He has translated the Ui)as 
of Captain R. H. Dyas and other works. 

Campanella (Tommaso), Italian jDhilosopher, b. Stilo, Cala- 
bria, 5 Sept. 1568. He entered the Dominican order, but was 
too much attracted by the works of Telesio to please his 
superiors. In 1590 his Philosoijhia iSensihus Demonstratio was 
printed at Naples. Being prosecuted, he fled to Rome, and 
thence to Florence, Venice, and Padua. At Bologna some of 
his MS. fell into the hands of the Inquisition, and he was ar- 
rested. He ably defended himself and was acquitted. 
Returning to Calabria in 1599, he was arrested on charges of 
heresy and conspiracy against the Spanish Government of 
Naples, and having appealed to Rome, was sentenced to 
perpetual imprisonment in the prison of the Holy Office. He 


was put to the torture seven times, liis torments on one occa- 
sion extending over forty hours, but he refused to confess. He 
was dragged from one prison to another for twenty-seven 
year, during which he wrote some sonnets, a history of the 
Spanish monarchy, and several philosophical works. On 15 
May, 1626, he was released by the intervention of Pope Urban 
VIII. He was obliged to fly from Eome to France, where he 
met Gassendi. He also visited Descartes in Holland. Julian 
Hibbert remarked that his Atheismus Triumphatus — Atheism 
Subdued, 1631, would be better entitled Atheuinus Triiimpham 
— Atheism Triumphant — as the author puts his strongest argu- 
ments on the heterodox side. In his City of the San ^ Oampanella 
follows Plato and More in depicting an ideal republic and a 
time when a new era of earthly felicity should begin. HaUam 
says " The strength of Oampanella's genius lay in his imagina- 
tion." His " Sonnets " have been translated by J. A. Symonds. 
Died Paris, 21 May, 1639. 

Campbell (Alexander), Socialist of Glasgow, b. about the 
beginning of the century. He early became a Socialist, and 
was manager at the experiment at Orbiston under Abram 
Combe, of whom he wrote a memoir. Upon the death of Combe, 
1827, he became a Socialist missionary in England. He took 
an active part in the co-operative movement, and in the agita- 
tion for an unstamped press, for which he was tried and 
imprisoned at Edinburgh, 1833-4. About 1849 he returned to 
Glasgow and wrote on the Sentunl. In 1867 he was presented 
with a testimonial and purse of 90 sovereigns by admirers of 
his exertions in the cause of progress. Died about 1873. 

Campion (William), a shoemaker, who became one of E. 
Carlile's shopmen; tried 8 June, 1824, for selling Paine's Age 
of Reason. After a spirited defence he was found guilty and 
sentenced to three years' imprisonment. In prison he edited, 
in conjunction with J. Clarke, R. Hassell, and T. R. Perry, the 
Newgate Monthly Magazine, to which he contributed some 
thoughtful papers, from Sept. 1824, to Aug. 1826, when he was 
removed to the Compter. 

Canestrini (Giovanni"), Italian naturalist, b. Rero, 1835. He 
studied at Vienna, and in '60 was nominated Professor of 
Natural History at Geneva. Signer Canestrini contributed to 


the Annuario Filosofico del Libera Pensiero, and is known for his 
popularisation of the works of Darwin, which he has translated 
into Italian. He has written u^on the Origin of Mem, which. 
has g-one through two editions, Milan, '66-70, and on the theory 
ofBlvolution, Turin, '77. He was appointed Professor of Zoology, 
Anatomy and Comparative Physiology at Padua, where he has 
published a Memoir of Charles Darwin, '82. 

Cardano (Girolamo), better known as Jerome Cardan, 
Italian mathematician, and physician, b. Pavia, 24 Sept. 1501. 
He studied medicine, but was excluded from the Milan College 
of Physicians on account of illegitimate birth. He and his 
young wife were at one time compelled to take refuge in the 
workhouse. It is not strange that his first work was an exposure 
of the fallacies of the faculty. A fortunate cure brought him 
into notice and he journeyed to Scotland as the medical adviser 
of the Archbishop of St. Andrews, 1551. In 1563 he was 
arrested at Bologna for heresy, but was released, although de- 
prived of his professorship. He died at Rome, 20 Sept. 1576, 
having, it is said, starved himself to verify his own prediction 
of his death. Despite some superstition, Cardano did much to 
forward science, especially by his work on Algebra, and in his 
works De Siibtilitate Rerum and De Varietate Rerum, amid much 
that is fanciful, perceived the universality of natural law and 
the progressive evolution of life. Scaliger accused him of 
Atheism. Plinjer says " Cardanus deserves to be named 
along with Telesius as one of the principal founders of Natural 

Carducci (Giosue), Italian poet and Professor of Italian 
Literature at the LTniversity of Bologna, b. Pietrasantra, in the 
province of Lucca, 27 July, 1836. As early as '49 he cried, tutti i re : viva la republica — Down with all kings ! Long 
live the republic ! Sprung into fame by his Tbjnm to Satan, '69, 
by which he intended the spirit of resistance. He has written 
many poems and satires in which he exhibits himself an ardent 
Freethinker and Republican. At the end of '57 he wrote his 
famous verse " II secoletto vil die cristianeggia " — " This vile 
christianising century." In '60 he became professor of Greek 
in Bologna University, being suspended for a short while in 
'67 for an address to Mazzini. In '76 he was elected as re- 


publican deputy to the Italian Parliament for Lugo di 

Carlile (Eliza Sharpies), second wife of Eichard Oarlile, came 
from Lancashire during the imprisonment of Carlile and Taylor ^ 
1831, delivered discourses at the Eotunda, and started a journal, 
the Ms, which lasted from 11 Feb. to 15 Dec. 1832. The Isis 
was dedicated to the young women of England " uutil super- 
stition is extinct," and contained Frances Wright's discourses, 
in addition to those by Mrs. Oarlile, who survived till '61. Mr. 
Bradlaugh lodged with Mrs, Oarlile at the Warner Place Insti- 
tute, in 1849. She had three children, Hypatia, Theophila and 
Julian, of whom the second is still living. 

Carlile (Jane), first wife of R. Oarlile, who carried on his 
business during his imprisonment, was proceeded against, and 
sentenced to two years' imprisonment, 1821. She had three 
children, Richard, Alfred, and Thomas Paine Oarlile, the last of 
whom edited the Regenerator, a Ohartist paper published at 
Manchester, 1839. 

Carlile (Richard), foremost among the brave upholders of an 
English free press, b. Ashburton, Devon, 8 Dec. 1790. He was 
apprenticed to a tin-plate worker, and followed that business 
till he was twenty-six, when, having read the works of Paine, 
he began selling works like Wooler's Black Dwarf, which 
Government endeavored to suppress. Sherwin offered him the 
dangerous post of publisher of the Pi.epuUican,^\\\Q\\ he accepted. 
He then published Southey's Wat Tyler, reprinted the political 
works of Paine and the parodies for which Hone was tried, but 
which cost Carlile eighteen weeks' imprisonment. In 1818 he 
published Paine's Theological Works. The prosecution insti- 
tuted induced him to go on printing similar works, such as 
'Psiimer's Principles of Nature, Watson Refuted, Jehovah Unveiled, 
etc. By Oct. 1819, he had six indictments to answer, on two 
of which he was tried from 12 to 16 October. He read the 
whole of the Age of Reason in his defence, in order to have it in 
the rpport of the trial. He was found guilty and sentenced 
(16 Nov.) to fifteen hundred pounds fine and three years' 
imprisonment in Dorchester Gaol. During his imprisonment 
his business was kept on by a succession of shopmen. Refusing 
to find securities not to publish, he was kept in prison till 18 


Nov. 1835, when he was liberated unconditionally. During his 
imprisonment he edited the Repuhliccni, which extended to four- 
teen volumes. He also edited the Deist, the Mornlif<t, the Lion 
(four volumes), the Prompter (for No. 3 of which he again 
suffered thirty-two months' imprisonment), and the Gauntlet, 
Amongst his writings are An Address to Men of Science, The 
Gospel according to R. Caiiile, What is God? Every Woman'' s Booh 
etc. He published Doubts of Infdds, Janus on Sion, Sepher lol- 
doth Jeshu, D'Holbach's Good Seme, Volney's Ruins, and many 
other Freethought works. He died 10 Feb. 1843, bequeathing 
his body to Dr. Lawrence for scientific purpogies. 

Carlyle (Thomas), one of the most gifted and original writers 
of the century, b. 4 Dec. 1795, at Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire, 
where his father, a man of intellect and piety, held a small 
farm. Showing early ability he was intended for the Kirk, 
and educated at the University of Edinburgh. He, however, 
became a tutor, and occupied his leisure in translating from 
the German. He married Jane Welsh 17 Oct. 1826, and wrote 
in the London Magazine and Edinburgh Review many masterly 
critical articles, notably on Voltaire, Diderot, Burns, and Ger- 
man literature. In 1833-4 his Sartor Resartus appeared in 
Eraser's Magazine. In '34 he removed to London and began 
writing the French Revolution, the MS. of the first vol. of which 
he confided to Mill, with whom it was accidentally burnt. He 
re-wrote the work without complaint, and it was published in 
'37. He then delivered a course of lectures on " German 
Literature " and on " Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in 
History," in which he treats IMahorret as the prophet "we are 
freest to speak of." His Past and Present was published in 
'43. In '45 appeared Oliver CromwelVs Letters and Speeches. In 
'50 he published Latter-Dag Pamphlets, which contains his most 
distinctive political and social doctrines, and in the following 
year his Life of John Sterling, in which his heresy clearly appears. 
His largest work is his History of the Life and Times of Frederick 
the Great, in 10 vols. He was elected rector of Edinburgh 
University in '65. Died 5 Feb. 1881. Mr. Froude, in his Bio- 
graphy of Carlyle, says, " We have seen him confessing to Irving 
that he did not believe as his friend did in the Christian reli- 
gion.". ..." the special miraculous occurrences of sacred 
history were not credible to him." 


Carneades, sceptical philosopher, b. Gyrene about b.c. 213. 
He went early to Athens, and attended the lectures oi the Stoics, 
learning logic from Diogenes. In the year 155, he was chosen 
with other deputies to go to Eome to deprecate a fine which had 
been placed on the Athenians. During his stay at Eome he 
attracted great attention by his philosophical orations. Carneades 
attacked the very idea of a God at once infinite and an indi- 
vidual. He denied providence and design. Many of his 
arguments are preserved in Cicero's Academics and De Natura 
Deoruni. Carneades left no written works ; his views seem to 
have been systematised by his follower Olitomachus. He died 
B.C. 129. Carneades is described as a man of unwearied 
industry. His ethics were of elevated character. 

Carneri (Bartholomaus von), German writer, b. Trieste, 3 Nov. 
1821. Educated at Vienna. In 1870 he sat in the Austrian 
Parliament with the Liberals. Author of an able work on 
Moralitij and Darwinism, Vienna, 1871. Has also written Der 
Mensch als Selbstweck, '' Humanity as its own proper object," 
1877; Gru7idlegung der Ethik, 'Fonndation of Morals, 1881; and 
Ethical Essays on Evolution and Happiness, Stuttgart, 1886. 

Carra (Jean Louis), French man of letters and Republican, 
b. 1743 at Pont de Veyle. He travelled in Germany, Italy, 
Turkey, Russia, and Moldavia, where he became secretary to 
the hospodar. On returning to France he becarne employed in 
the King's library and wrote a History of Moldavia and ^nEssaij 
on Aericd Navigation. He warmly espoused the revolution and 
was one of the most ardent orators of the Jacobin club. In the 
National Assembly he voted for the death of Louis XVI., but 
was executed with the Girondins, 31 Oct. 1793. His Free- 
thought sentiments are evident from his Stjstem of Reason, 1773; 
his Spirit of Morality and Philosophy, 1777 ; New Principles of 
Physic, 1782-3, and other works. 

Carrel (Jean Baptiste Nicolas Armand), called by Saint 
Beuve " the Junius of the French press," b. Rouen, 8 May, 
1800. He became a soldier, but, being a Republican, fought on 
behalf of the Spanish revolution. Being taken prisoner, he 
was condemned to death, but escaped through some informality. 
He became secretary to Thierry, edited the works of P. L. 
Courier, and established the Nation in conjunction with Thiers 


and Mignet. J. S. Mill writes of liira in terms of high 
praise. The leading journalist of his time, his slashing 
articles led to several duels, and in an encounter with Emile 
de Girardin (22 July, 1836) he was fatally wounded. On his 
death-bed, says M. Littre, he said "Point de prctres, i^oint d'eglise'" 
— no priests nor church. Died 24 July, 1836. He wrote a 
History of the Counter -Revolution in En(jlmul„ with an eye to 
events in his own country. 

Carus (Julius Yiktor), German zoologist, b. Leipsic, 25 Aug. 
1825. Has been keeper of anatomical museum at Oxford, and 
has translated Darwin's works and the philosophy of G. H. 

Carus (Karl Gustav), German physiologist and Pantheist,. 
b. Leipsic, 3 Jan. 1789. He taught compatative anatomy at the 
university of that town, and published a standard introduction 
to that subject. He also wrote Psyche^ a history of the develop- 
ment of the human soul, 1846, and Nature and Idea, 1861. Died 
at Dresden, 28 July, 1869. 

Castelar y RipoU (EmilioJ, Spanish statesman, b. Cadiz,. 
8 Sept. 1832. He began as a journalist, and became known by 
his novel Ernesto, 1855. As professor of history and philo- 
sophy, he delivered lectures on " Civilisation during the first 
three centuries of Christendom." La Fornnda del Progresso- 
contains a sketch of democratic principles. On the outbreak 
of the revolution of '68 he advocated a Federal Kepublic in 
a magnificent oration. The Crown was however offered to 
Amadous of Savoy. " Glass, with care," was Castelar's verdict 
on the new dynesty, and in Feb. '73 Castelar drew up a Re- 
publican Constitution ; and for a year Avas Dictator of Spain. 
Upon his retirement to France he wrote a sketchy Hislorg of 
the Repuhlican Movement in Europe. In '76 he returned to Spain 
and took part in the Cortes, where he has continued to advocate 
Republican views. His Old Puwie and ?.'cio Italy, and Life of 
Lord Byron have been translated into English. 

CasteUi (David), Italian writer, b. Livorno, 30 Dec. 1836. 
Since 1873 he has held the chair of Hebrew in the Institute of 
Superior Studies at Florence. He has translated the book of 
Ecclesiastes with notes, and written rationalistic works on 
Ttdmudic Legends, 1869; 'ihe Messiah According to the Hebrews, 


'74; the Bible Prophets, '82; and 2 he History of the Israelites, 

Castilhon (Jean Louis), French man of letters, b. at Ton- 
louse in 1720. He wrote in numerous publications, and edited 
the Journal of Jurisprudence. His history of dogmas and 
philosophical opinions had some celebrity, and he shows him- 
self a Freethinker in his Essay on Ancient and Modern Errors 
and Superstitions, Amsterdam, 1765; his Philosophical Almanack, 
1767; and his Hi-tory of Philosophical Opinions, 1769. Died 1793. 

Cattell (Christopher Charles), writer in English Secular 
journals, author of Scorch for the First Man ; Against Christianity ; 
The licligion of this Life, etc. 

Caumont (Georges), French writer of genius, b. about 1845. 
Suffering from consumption, he wrote Judgment of a Dying 
Man upon Life, and humorous and familiar Conversations of a 
Sick Person loith the Divinity. Died at Madeira, 1875. 

Cavalcante (Guido), noble Italian poet and philosopher, 
h. Florence, 1230. A friend of Dante, and a leader of 
the Ghibbelin party. He married a daughter of Farinata delgi 
Uberti. Bayle says, " it is said his speculation has as their 
aim to prove their is no God. Dante places his father in the 
hell of Epicureans, who denied the immortality of the soul." 
Guido died in 1300. An edition of his poems was published 
in 1813. 

Cavallotti (Felice Carlo Emanuel), Italian poet and journalist, 
b. Milan, 6 Xov. 1842, celebrated for his patriotic poems; is a 
pronounced Atheist. He was elected member of the Italian 
parliament in 1873. 

Cayla (Jean Mamert), French man of letters and politician^ 
b. Vigan (Lot) 1812. Became in '37 editor of the Emancipator 
of Toulouse, a city of which he wrote the histor3\ At Paris 
he wrote to the Siecle, the PitpuUique Francai^e and other 
journals, and published European Celebrities and numerous 
anti-clerical brochures, such as The Clerical Conspiracy, '61 ; 
The Devil, his Grandeur and Decay, '64 ; Hell Demolished, '65 ; 
Suppressionof Religious Orders, '70 ; and The History of the Mass, '74. 
He died 2 May, 1877. 

Gazelles (Emile), French translator of Bentham's Dfuence of 


Natural Rdi(jio7i, Paris, 1875. Has also translated Mill's Snhjcc- 
lion of Women and his Autobiography and Essays on Religiov. 

Cecco d'Ascoli, i.e., Stabili (Francesco degli), Italian poet, 
b. Ascoli, 1257. He tanglit astrology and philosoiDhy at 
Bologna. In 1324 he was arrested by the Inquisition for 
having spoken against the faith, and was condemned to 
fine and penitence. He was again accused at Florence, and was 
publicly burnt as an heretic 16 Sept. 1327. His best known 
work is entitled Anrha, a sort of encyclopedia in rhyme. 

Cellarius (Martin), Anabaptist, who deserves mention as the 
first avowed Protestant Anti-trinitarian. He studied Oriental 
languages with Reuchlin and Melancthon, but having discussed 
with Anabaptists acknowledged himself converted, 1522, and 
afterwards gave up the deity of Christ. He was imprisoned, and 
on his release went to Switzerland, where he died 11 Oct. 1564- 

Celsus, a Pagan philosopher, who lived in the second century 
He was a friend of Lucian, who dedica+ed to him his treatise 
on the False Prophet. He wrote an attack on Christianity, 
called The 7 rue Word. The work was destroyed by the early 
Christians. The passages given by his opponent, Origen, suffice 
to show that he was a man of high attainments, well acquainted 
with the religion he attacked, and that his power of logic and 
irony was most damaging to the Christian faith. 

Cerutti (Guiseppe Antonio Gioachino), poet, converted Jesuit, 
b. Turin, 13 June, 1738. He became a Jesuit, and wrote a defence 
of the Society. He afterwards became a friend of Mirabeau 
adopted the principles of 1789, wrote in defence of the Revo- 
lution, and wrote and published a Philosophical Breviary, or 
history of Judaism, Christianity, and Deism, which he attri- 
b)uted to Frederick of Prussia. His opinions may also be 
gathered from his poem, Les Jardins de Betz, 1792. Died Paris, 
3 Feb. 1792. 

Chaho (J. Augustin), Basque man of letters, b. Tardets, 
Basses-Pyrenees) 10 Oct. 1811. His principal works are a 
Philosophy of Comparative Religion, and a Basque dictionary. At 
Bayonne he edited the Ariel. In 1852 this was suppressed and 
he was exiled. Died 23 Oct. 1858. 

Chaloner (Thomas), M.P.,Regicide,b. Steeple Claydon, Bucks, 
1595. Educated at Oxford, he became member for Richmond 


(Yorks),1645. Was a witness against Archbishop Land, and one of 
King Charles's Jndges. In 1651 he was made Councillor of State. 
Wood says he " was as far from being a Puritan as the east is 
from the west," and that he " was of the natural religion." He 
wrote a pretended True and Exact Relation of the Finding of Moses 
His lomh^ 1657, being a satire directed against the Presbyterians. 
Upon the Restoration he fled to the Low Countries, and died at 
Middelburg, Zeeland, in 1661. 

Chambers (EphraimJ, originator of the Cyclopaedia of Arts 
and Sciences, b. Kendal about 1680. The first edition of his 
work appeared in 1728, and procured him admission to the 
Royal Society. A French translation gave rise to Diderot and 
D'Alembert's Encydopedie. Chambers also edited the Literary 
Magazine, 1836, etc. His infidel opinions were well known, and 
the Cycloptedia was placed upon the Index, but he was buried in 
the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. Died 15 May, 1740. 

Chamfort (Sebastien Roch Nicolas), French man of letters^ 
b. in Auvergne, near Clermont, 1741. He knew no parent but 
his mother, a peasant girl, to supply whose wants he often 
denied himself necessaries. At Paris he gained a prize from 
the Academy for his eulogy on Moliere. About 1776 he pub- 
lished a Dramatic Dictionary and wrote several plays. In 1781 
he obtained a seat in the Academy, being patronised by Mme. 
Helvetius. He became a friend of Mirabeau, who called him 
une ttte electriqm. In 1790 he commenced a work called Picture^ 
of the Revolution. In the following year he became secretary of 
the Jacobin Club and National Librarian. Arrested by Robes- 
pierre, he desperately, but vainly, endeavored to commit 
suicide. He died 13 April, 1794, leaving behind numerous 
works and a collection of Maxims, Thoughts, Characters, and 
Anecdotes, which show profound genius and knowledge of 
human nature. 

Chapman (John), M.R.C.S., b. 1839. Has written largely in 
the Westminster Review, of which he is proprietor. 

Chappsllsmith (Margaret), nee Reynolds, b. Aldgate, 
22 Feb. 1806. Early in life she read the writings of Cobbett. 
In '36 she began writing political articles .in the Dispatch, and 
afterwards became a Socialist and Freethought lecturess. She 
married John Chappellsmith in '39, and in '42 she began 


biiisiiess as a bookseller. In '37 she expressed a pre- 
ference for the development theory before that of creation. 
In '50 they emigrated to the United States, where Mrs. Ohap- 
pellsmith contributed many articles to the Boston Investigator. 

Charles (Rudolf). See Giessenburg. 

Charma (Antoine), French philosopher, b. 15 Jan. 1801. In 
'30 he Avas nominated to the Chair of Philosophy at Caen. He 
was denounced for his impiety by the Count de Montalembert 
in the Chamber of peers, and an endeavor was made to unseat 
him. He wrote many philosophical works, and an account of 
Didron's Histoire de Dieu. Died 5 Aug. 1869. 

Charron (Pierre), French priest and sceptic, b. Paris, 1513. 
He was an intimate friend of Montaigne. His principal work 
is a Treatise on Wisdom, 1601, which was censured as irreligious 
by the Jesuits. Franck says " the scepticism of Charron in- 
clines visibly to ' sensualisme ' and even to materialism." Died 
Paris, 16 Nov. 1603. 

Chassebceuf de Volney (Constantin Frangois). See Volney. 

Chastelet du or Chatelet Lomont (Gabrielle Emilie le 
ToNNELiER DE Breteuil), Marquisc, French savante^h. Paris, 
17 Dec 1706. She was learned in mathematics and other sciences, 
and in Latin, English and Italian. In 1 740 she published a work on 
physical philosophy entitled Institutions de Phyyiqve. She after- 
wards made a good French translation of Newton's Principia. 
She lived some years with Voltaire at Cirey between 1735 and 
1747, and addressed to him Doubts on Revealed Religions, pub- 
lished in 1792. She also wrote a Treatise on Hajjpiness, which 
was praised by Condorcet. 

Chastellux (Francois Jean de), Marquis. A soldier, traveller 
and writer, b. Paris 1734. Wrote On Public Hojjpiness (2 vols., 
Amst. 1776), a work Voltaire esteemed highly. He contributed 
to the Encyclopedic ; one article on " Happiness," being sup- 
pressed by the censor because it did not mention God. Died 
Paris, 28 Oct. 1788. 

Chatterton (Thomas), the marvellous boy poet, b. Bristol, 
20 Nov, 1752. His poems, which he pretended were written 
by one Thomas Rowley in the fourteenth century and dis- 


covered by him in an old chest in Hed cliff e Church, attracted 
much attention. In 1769 he visited London in hopes of rising 
by his talents, but after a bitter experience of writing for the 
magazines, destroyed himself in a fit of despair 25 Aug. 1770. 
Several of his poems betray deistic opinions. 

Chaucer (Geoffrey), the morning star of English poetry 
and first English Humanist, b. London about 1340. In 1357 he 
was attached to the household of Lionel, third son of 
Edward III. He accompanied the expedition to France 1359 — 
60, was captured by the French, and ransomed by the king. 
He was patronised by John of Gaunt, and some foreign missions 
were entrusted to him, one of them' being to Italy, where he 
met Petrarch. All his writings show the influence of the 
Eenaissance, and in his Canterbury Pilgrims he boldly attacks 
the vices of the ecclesiastics. Died 25 Oct. 1400, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Chaumette (Pierre Gaspard), afterwards Anaxagoras, French 
revolutionary, b. Nevers, 24 May, 1763. The son of a shoe- 
maker, he was in turn cabin boy, steersman, and attorney's 
clerk. In early youth he received lessons in botany from 
Eousseau. He embraced the revolution with ardor, was the 
first to assume the tri-color cockade, became popular orator at 
the club of the Cordeliers, and was associated with Proudhomme 
in the journal Les Revolutions de Paris. Nominated member of 
the Commune 10 Aug. 1792, he took the name of Anaxagoras to 
show his little regard for his baptismal saints. He was elected 
Procureur Syndic, in which capacity he displayed great 
activity. He abolished the rod in schools, suppressed lotteries, 
instituted workshops for fallen women, established the first 
lying-in-hospital, had books sent to the hospitals, separated 
the insane from the sick, founded the Conservatory of Music, 
opened the public libraries every day (under the ancien regime 
they were only open two hours per week), replaced books of 
superstition by works of morality and reason, put a gradu- 
ated tax on the rich to provide for the burial of the poor, and 
was the principal mover in the feasts of Eeason and closing of 
the churches. He was accused by Eobespierre of conspiring 
with Cloots " to efface all idea of the Deity," and was guillo- 
tined 13 April, 1794. 


Chaussard (Pierre Jean Baptiste), French man of letters, 
b. Paris, 8 Oct. 1766. At the Revolution he took the name of 
Publicola, and published patriotic odes. Esprit de Miraheaii, and 
other works. He was preacher to the Theophilanthropists, 
and became professor of Itelles lettres at Orleans. Died 9 Jan. 

Chemin-Dupontes (Jean Baptiste), b. 1761. One of the 
founders of French Theophilanthropy ; published manj^ 
writings, the best known of which is entitled What is Theo- 
2^hilanthropy ? 

Chenier (Marie Andre de), French poet, b. Constantinople, 
29 Oct. 1762. His mother, a Greek, inspired him with a love 
for ancient Greek literature. Sent to college at Paris, he soon 
manifested his genius by writing eclogues and elegies of 
antique simplicity and sensibility. In 1787 he came to Eng- 
land as Secretary of Legation. He took part in the legal 
defence of Louis XVI., eulogised Charlotte Corday, and gave 
further offence by some letters in the Journal de Paris. He 
was committed to prison, and here met his ideal in the Com- 
tesse de Coigny. Confined in the same prison, to her he 
addressed the touching verses. The Young Captive (La jeune 
Captive). He was executed 25 July, 1794, leaving behind, 
among other poems, an imitation of Lucretius, entitled Hermes. 
which warrants the affirmation of de Chenedolle, that "Andre 
Chenier etaitathee avec delices." 

Chenier (Marie Joseph de), French poet and miscellaneous 
writer, brother of the preceding, b. Constantinople, 28 Aug- 
1764. He served two years in the army, and then applied 
himself to literature. His first successful drama, "Charles IX.," 
was produced in 1789, and was followed by others. He wrote 
many patriotic songs, and was made member of the Conven- 
tion. He was a Voltairean, and in his Nouveaux Saints (1801) 
satirised those who returned to the old faith. He wrote many 
poems and an account of French literature. Died Paris, 
10 Jan. 1811. 

Chernuishevsky on Tchernycheiosky (Nikolai Gerasi- 
movich), Russian Nihilist, b. Saratof, 1829. Educated at the 
University of St. Petersburg, translated Mill's Political Economy, 
and wrote on Superstition and the Principles of Logic, '59. His 


bold romance, What is to he Done? was published '63. In the 
following year he was sentenced to the Siberian mines, where, 
after heartrending cruelties, he has become insane. 
Chesneau Du Marsais (Cesar). See Dumarsais. 

Chevalier (Joseph Philippe), French chemist, b. Saint Pol 
21 March, 1806, is the author of an able book on " The Soul 
from the standpoint of Eeason and Science," Paris, '61. He 
died at Amiens in 1865. 

CMes y Gomez (Ramon), Spanish Free thinker, b. Medina de 
Pomar, Burgos, 13 Oct. 1845. His father, a distinguished 
Republican, educated him without religion. In '65 Chies went 
to Madrid, and followed a course of law and philosophy at the 
University, and soon after wrote for a Madrid paper La 
Discusion. He took an active part in the Revolution of '65, and 
at the proclamation of the Republic, '73, became civil governor 
of Valencia. In '81 he founded a ne wspaper El Voto Nacional, 
and since '83 has edited Las Domini cales del Lihre Pensamiento, 
which he also founded. Ramon Chies is one of the foremost 
Freethought champions in Spain and lectures as well as writes. 

Child (Lydia Maria) nee Francis, American authoress, b. 
Medford, Mass., 11 Feb. 1802. She early commenced writing, 
publishing Hobomok, a Tale of Early Times, in '21. From '25 
she kept a private school in Wate rtown until '28, when she 
married David Lee Child, a Boston lawyer. She, with him, 
edited the Anti-Slavery Standard, '41, etc., and by her numerous 
writings did much to form the opinion which ultimately pre- 
vailed. She was, however, long subjected to public odium, her 
heterodoxy being well known. Her principal work is The 
Progress of Religious Ideas, 3 vols. ; '55. Died Wayland, Mass., 
20 Oct. 1880. She was highly eulogised by Wendell Phillips. 

Chilton (William), of Bristol, was born in 1815. In earl/ 
life he was a bricklayer, but in '41 he was concerned with 
Charles Southwell in starting the Oracle of Reason, which he 
set up in type, and of which he became one of the editors. He 
contributed some thoughtful articles on the Theory of Develojj- 
ment to the Library of Reason, and wrote in the Movement 
and the Reasoner. Died at Bristol, 28 May, 1855. 

Chubb (Thomas), English Deist, b. East Harnham, near 


Salisbury, 29 Sept. 1679, was one of the first to show Rationalism 
among the common people. Beginning by contending for the 
Supremacy of the Father, he gradually relinquished supernatural 
religion, and considered that Jesus Christ was of the religion 
of Thomas Chubb. Died 8 Feb. 1747, leaving behind two vols, 
which he calls A Farewell to his Readers, from which it appears 
that he rejected both revelation and special providence. 

Church (Henry Tyrell), lecturer and writer, edited Tallis's 
Shakespeare, wrote Woman and her Failings, 1858, and contributed 
to the Inctstigator when edited by Mr. Bradlaugh. Died 19 
July, 1859. 

Clapiers (Luc de). See Vauvenargues. 

Claretie (Jules Armand Arsene), French writer, b. Limoges, 
3 Dec. 1840. A prolific writer, of whose works we only cite 
Free Speech, '68 ; his biographies of contemporary celebrities ; 
and his work Camille DesmouUns, '75. 

Clarke (John), brought up in the Methodist connection, 
changed his opinion by studying the Bible, and became one of 
Carlile's shopmen. He was tried 10 June, 1824, for selling a 
blasphemous libel in number 17, vol. ix., of Ihe Republican, and 
after a spirited defence, in which he read many of the worst 
passages in the Bible, was sentenced to three years' imprison- 
ment, and to find securities for good behavior during life. He 
wrote while in prison, ^1 Critical Review of the Life, Character, 
and Miracles of Jesus, a work showing with some bitterness 
much bold criticism and Biblical knowledge. It first appeared 
in the Newgate Magazine and was afterwards published in book 
form, 1825 and '39. 

Clarke (Marcus), Australian writer, b. Kensington, 1847. 
Went to Victoria, '63 ; joined the staff of Melbourne Argus. In 
'76 was made assistant librarian of the Public Library. He has 
compiled a history of Australia, and written The Peripatetic 
Philosopher (a series of clever sketches), His Natural Life 
(a powerful novel), and some poems. An able Freethought 
paper, "Civilisation without Delusion," in the Victoria 
Preview, Nov. '79, was replied to by Bishop Moorhouse. The 
reply, with Clarke's answer, which was suppressed, was 
published in '80. Died 18S4. 


Claude-Constant, author of a Freethinkers' Catechism 
published at Paris in 1875. 

Clavel (Adolphe), French Positivist and physician, b 
Grenoble, 1815. He has written on the Principles of 1789, on 
those of the nineteenth century, on Positive Morality, and some 
educational works. 

Clavel (F. T. B.), French author of a Picturesque History of 
Freemasonry, and also a Picturesque History of Religions, 1844, in 
w-hich Christianity takes a subordinate place. 

Clayton (Robert), successively Bishop of Killala, Cork, and 
Clogher, b. Dublin, 1695. By his benevolence attracted the 
friendship of Samuel Clarke, and adopted Arianism, which he 
maintained in several publications. In 1756 he proposed, in 
the Irish House of Lords, the omission of the Nicene and Atha- 
nasian Creeds from the Liturgy, and stated that he then felt 
more relieved in his mind than for twenty years before. A 
legal prosecution was instituted, but he died, it is said, from 
nei-vous agitation (26 Feb. 1758) before the matter was decided. 

Cleave (John), bookseller, and one of the pioneers of a cheap 
political press. Started the London Satirist, and Cleaves Penvy 
Gazette of Variety, Oct. 14, 1837, to Jan. 20, '44. He published 
many Chartist and Socialistic works, and an abridgment of 
Howitt's History of Priestcraft. In May, '40, he was sentenced 
to four months' imprisonment for selling Haslam's Letters to the 

Clemenceau (Georges Benjamin Eugene), French politician, 
b. MouUeron-en-Pareds, 28 Sept. 1841. Educated at Nantes 
and Paris, he took his doctor's degree in '65. His activity as 
Republican ensured him a taste of gaol. He visited the 
United States and acted as correspondent on the Temps, 
He returned at the time of the war and was elected deputy to 
the Assembly. In Jan. 1880 he founded La Justice, having as 
collaborateurs M. C. Pelletan, Prof. Acollas and Dr. C. Letour- 
neau. As one of the chiefs of the Radical party he was largely 
instrumental in getting M. Carnot elected President. 

Clemetshaw (C), French writer, using the name cilwa. 
B. 14 Sept. 1864 of English parents ; has contributed to many 
journals, was delegate to the International Congress, London, 
of '87, and is editor of Le Danton, 


Clemens (Samuel Langliorne), American humorist, better 
known as " Mark Twain," b. Florida, Missouri, 30 Nov. 1835. 
In '55 he served as Mississippi pilot, and takes his pen name 
from the phrase used in sounding. In Innocents Abroad^ or the 
New Pilgrim's Progress^ '69, by which he made his name, there 
is much jesting with " sacred " subjects. Mr. Clemens is an 

Clifford (Martin), English Rationalist. Was Master of the 
Charterhouse, 1671, and published anonymously a treatise of 
Human Reason, London, '74, which was reprinted in the 
following year with the author's name. A short while after its 
publication Laney, Bishop of Ely, was dining in Charterhouse 
and remarked, not knowing the author, '* 'twas no matter if all 
the copies were burnt and the author with them, because it 
made every man's private fancy judge of religion." Clifford 
died 10 Dec. 1677. In the NouveUe Biographie Generale Clifford 
is amusingly described as an " English theologian of the order 
des Chartreux," who, it is added, was "prior of his order." 

Clifford (William Kingdon), mathematician, philosopher, 
and moralist, of rare originality and boldness, b. Exeter 4 May, 
1845. At the age of fifteen he was sent to King's College, 
London, where he showed an early genius for mathematics, 
publishing the Analogues of Pascal's Theorem at the age of 
eighteen. Entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in '63. In '67 
he was second wrangler. Elected fellow of his college, he 
remained at Cambridge till 1870, when he accompanied the 
eclipse expedition to the Medeterranean. The next year he 
was appointed Professor of mathematics at London University, 
a post he held till his death. He was chosen F.R.S. '74. 
Married Miss Lucy Lane in April, '75. In the following year 
symptoms of consumption appeared, and he visited Algeria 
and Spain. He resumed work, but in '79 took a voyage to 
Madeira, where he died 3 March. Not long before his death 
appeared the first volume of his great mathematical work. 
Elements of Dynamic. Since his death have been published 
Ihe Common Sense of the Exact Sciences, and Lectures and Essays, in 
two volumes, edited by Leslie Stephen and Mr. F. Pollock. 
These volumes include his most striking Freethought lectures 
and contributions to the Fortnightly and other reviews. He 
81 F 


intended to form them into a volume on The Creed of Science. 
Clifford was an outspoken Atheist, and he wrote of Christianity 
as a religion which Avrecked one civilisation and very nearly 
wrecked another. 

Cloots or Clootz (Johann Baptist, afterwards Anacharsis) 
Baron du Val de Grace, Prussian enthusiast, b. near Cleves, 
24 June, 1755, was a nephew of Cornelius de Pauw. In 1780 
qe published the The Certainty of the Proofs of Mohammedanism, 
under the pseudonym of Ali-gier-ber, an anagram of Bergier, 
whose Certainty of the Proofs of Christianity he parodies. He 
travelled widely, but became a resident of Paris and a warm 
partisan of the Revolution, to which he devoted his large 
fortune. He wrote a reply to Burke, and continually wrote 
and spoke in favor of a Universal Republic. On 19 June, 
1790, he, at the head of men of all countries, asked a place 
at the feast of Federation, and henceforward was styled 
^' orator of the' human race." He was, with Paine, Priestley, 
Washington and Klopstock, made a French citizen, and in 1792 
was elected to the Convention by two departments. He debap- 
tised himself, taking the name Anacharsis, was a prime mover 
in the Anti-Catholic party, and induced Bishop Gobel to resign. 
He declared there was no other God but Nature. Incurring 
the enmity of Robespierre, he and Paine were arrested as 
foreigners. After two and a half months' imprisonment at 
St. Lazare, he was brought to the scaffold with the Hebertistes, 
24 March, 1794. He died calml}^, uttering materialist senti- 
ments to the last. 

Clough (Arthur Hugh), poet, b. Liverpool, 1 Jan. 1819. He 
was educated at Rugby, under Dr. Arnold, and at Oxford, 
where he showed himself of the Broad School. Leslie Stephen 
says, " He never became bitter against the Church of his child- 
hood, but he came to regard its dogmas as imperfect and 
untenable." In '48 he visited Paris, and the same year 
produced his Bothie of Toper-na-Fuosich : a Long- Vacation 
Pastoral. Between '49 and '52 he was professor of English 
literature in London University. In '52 he visited the United 
States, where he gained the friendship of Emerson and 
Longfellow, and revised the Dryden translation of Plutarch's 
Lives. Died at Florence, 13 Nov. 1861. His Remains are published 
in two volumes, and include an essay on Religious Tradition and 


some notable poems. He is the Thyrsis of Matthew Arnold's 
exquisite Monody. 

Cnuzius (Matthias). See Knutzen. 

Coke (Henry), author of Creeds of the Day, or collated opinions 
of reputable thinkers, in 2 vols, London, 1883. 

Cole (Peter), a tanner of Ipswich, was burnt for blasphemy 
in the castle ditch, Norwich, 1587. A Dr. Beamond preached 
to him before the mayor, sheriffs, and aldermen, " but he would 
not recant." See Hamont. 

Colenso (John William), b. 24 Jan. 1814. Was educated at 
t. John's, Cambridge, and became a master at Harrow. After 
acquiring fame by his valuable Treatise on Algebra, '49, he 
became first Bishop of Natal, '54. Besides other works, he 
published The Pentateuch and Book of Joshua Critically Examined, 
1862-79, which made a great stir, and was condemned by both 
Houses of Convocation and its author declared deposed. The 
Privy Council, March '65, declared this deposition " null and 
void in law." Colenso pleaded the cause of the natives at the 
time of the Zulu War. He died 20 June, 1883. 

CoHns (Jean Guillaume Cesar Alexandre Hippolyte) Baron 
de, Belgian Socialist and founder of " Collectivism," b. 
Brussels, 24 Dec. 1783. Author of nineteen volumes on Social 
Science. He denied alike Monotheism and Pantheism, but 
taught the natural immortality of the soul. Died at Paris, 12 
Nov. 1859. A number of disciples propagate his opinions in 
the Philosophie de VAvenir. 

CoHins (Anthony), English Deist, b. Heston, Middlesex, 21 
June, 1676. He studied at Cambridge and afterwards at the 
Temple, and became Justice of the Peace and Treasurer of the 
County of Essex. He was an intimate friend of Locke, who 
highly esteemed him and made him his executor. He wrote 
^-n Essay on Reason, 1707 ; Priestcraft inPerJection, 1710; a Vindi- 
cation of the Divine Attributes, and a Discourse on Freethinking, 17 IS. 
This last occasioned a great outcry, as it argued that all belief 
must be based on free inquiry, and that the use of reason would 
involve the abandonment of supernatural revelation. In 1719 
he published An Inquiry Concerning Human Liberty, a brief, pithy 
defence of necessitarianism, and in 1729 A Discourse on Liberty 


and Necessity . In 1724 appeared his Discourse on the Grounds and 
Reasons of the Christian Religion, and this was followed by The 
Scheme of Literal Prophecy Considered, 1726. He was a skilful 
disputant, and wrote with great ability. He is also credited 
with A Discourse Concerning Ridicule and Irony in Writing. Died 
at London, 13 Dec. 1729. Collins, says Mr. Leslie Stephen, 
" appears to have been an amiable and upright man, and to 
have made all readers welcome to the use of a free library." 
Professor Fraser calls him " a remarkable man," praises his 
" love of truth and moral courage," and allows that in answer- 
ing Dr. Samuel Clarke on the question of liberty and necessity 
he " states the arguments against human freedom with a logical 
force unsurpassed by any necessitarian." A similar testimony 
to Collins as a thinker and dialectician is borne by Professor 

Colman (Lucy N.), American reformer, b. 26 July, 1817, has 
spent most of her life advocating the abolition of slavery, 
women's rights, and Freethought. She has lectured widely, 
written Reminisences in the Life of a Reformer of Fifty Years, 
and contributed to the Truthseeker and Boston Investigator. 

Colotes, of Lampsacus, a hearer and disciple of Epicurus, 
with whom he was a favorite. He wrote a work in favor of 
his master's teachings. He held it was unworthy of a philo- 
sopher to use fables. 

Combe (Abram), one of a noted Scotch family of seventeen, 
b. Edinburgh, 15 Jan. 1785. He traded as a tanner, but, becoming 
acquainted with Eobert Owen, founded a community at Orbiston 
upon the principle of Owen's New Lanark, devoting nearly the 
whole of his large fortune to the scheme. But his health gave 
way and he died 11 Aug. 1827. He wrote Metaphysical Sketches 
of the Old andNev^ Systems and other works advocating Ovvenism. 

Combe (Andrew), physician, brother of the above, b. Edin- 
burgh, 27 Oct. 1797; studied there and in Paris; aided his 
brother George in founding the Phrenological Society ; wrote 
popular works on the Principles of Physiology and the Manage- 
ment of Infancy. Died near Edinburgh, 9 Aug. 1847. 

Combe (George), phrenologist and educationalist, b. Edin- 
burgh, 21 Oct. 1788. He was educated for the law. Became ac- 
quainted with Spurzheim, and published Essays on Phrenology, 


1819, and founded the Phrenological Journal. In '28 he published 
the Constitution of Man,, which excited great controversy 
especially for removing the chimeras of special providence 
and efficacy of prayer. In '33 he married a daughter of Mrs. 
Siddons. He visited the United States and lectured on Moral 
Philosophy and Secular Education. His last work was Tb^ 
Relations between Science and Religion, '57, in which he continued 
to uphold Secular Theism. He also published many lectures 
and essays. Among his friends were Miss Evans (George 
Eliot), who spent a fortnight with him in '52. He did more 
than any man of his time, save Robert Owen, for the cause of 
Secular education. Died at Moor Park, Surrey, 14 Aug. 1858. 

ComT)es (Paul), French writer, b. Paris, 13 June, 1856. Has 
written on Darwinism, '83, and other works popularising science. 

Commazzi (Gian-Battista), Count author of PoUtica e rtligione 
trovaie insieme nella persona cli Giesu Cristo, Nicopoli [Vienna] 
4 vols., 1706-7, in which he makes Jesus to be a political 
impostor. It was rigorously confiscated at Rome and Vienna. 

Comparetti (Domenico), Italian philologist, b. Rome in 1835. 
Signor Comparetti is Professor at the Institute of Superior 
Studies, Rome, and has written many works on the classic 
writers, in which he evinces his Pagan partialities. 

Comte (Isidore Auguste Marie Francois Xavier), French 
philosopher, mathematician and reformer, b. at Montpelier, 
12 Jan. 1798. Educated at Paris in the Polytechnic School, 
where he distinguished himself by his mathematical talent. 
In 1817 he made the acquaintance of St. Simon, agreeing with 
him as to the necessity of a Social renovation based upon a 
mental revolution. On the death of St. Simon ('25) Comte 
devoted himself to the elaboration of an original system of 
scientific thought, which, in the opinion of some able judges, 
entitles him to be called the Bacon of the nineteenth century. 
Mill speaks of him as the superior of Descartes and Leibniz. 
In '25 he married, but the union proved unhappy. In the 
following year he lectured, but broke down under an attack of 
brain fever, which occasioned his detention in an asylum. He 
speedily recovered, and in '28 resumed his lectures, which 
were attended by men like Humboldt, Ducrotay, Broussais, 
Carnot, etc. In '30 he put forward the first volumes of his 


Course of Positive Philosophy, which in '42 was completed by the 
publication of the sixth volume. A condensed English version 
of this work was made by Harriet Martineau, '53. In '45 
Comte formed a passionate Platonic attachement to Mme. 
Clotilde de Vaux, who died in the following year, having pro- 
foundely influenced Comte's life. In consequence of his 
opinions, he lost his professorship, and was supported by his 
disciples — Mill, Molesworth and Grote, in England, assisting. 
Among other works, Comte published A General View of 
Positivism, '48, translated by Dr. Bridges, '65 ; A System of 
Positive Polity, '51, translated by Drs. Bridges, Beesley, F. 
Harrison, etc., '75-79 ; and A Positive Catechism, '54, translated 
by Dr. Congreve, '58. He also wrote on Positive Logic, which 
he intended to follow with Positive Morality and Positive 
Industrialism. Comte was a profound and suggestive thinker. 
He resolutely sets aside all theology and metaphysics, co- 
ordinates the sciences and substitutes the service of man for 
the worship of God. Mr. J. Cotter Morison says " He belonged 
to that small class of rare minds, whose eriors are often more 
valuable and stimulating than other men's truths." He died 
of cancer in the stomach at Paris, 5 Sept. 1857. 

Condillac (Etienne Boxnot de), French philosopher, b. 
Grenoble, about 1715. His life was very retired, but his 
works show much acuteness. They are in 23 vols., the princi- 
pal being A Treatise on the Sensations, 1764 ; A Treatise on 
Animals, and An Essay on the Origin of Human Knoicledge. In 
the first-named he shows that all mental life is gradually built 
up out of simple sensations. Died 3 Aug. 1780. 

Condorcet (Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, Marquis 
de), French philosopher and politician, b. RIbemont, Picardy, 
17 Sept. 1743. Dedicated to the Virgin by a pious mother, he 
was kept in girl's clothes until the age of 11. Sent to a Jesuit's 
school, he soon gave up religion. At sixteen he maintained 
a mathematical thesis in the presence of Alembert. In the 
next year he dedicated to Turgor a Profession of Faith. After 
some mathematical works, he was made member of the Aca- 
demy, of whicli he was appointed perpetual secretary, 1773. 
In 1776 he published his atheistic Ltlters of a Theologian. He 
also wrote biographies of Turgot and Voltaire, and in favor of 


American independence and against negro slavery. In 1791 
lie represented Paris in the National Assembl}^, of which he 
became Secretary. It was on his motion that, in the following 
year, all orders of nobility were abolished. Voting against the 
death of the king and siding with the Gironde drew on him the 
vengeance of the extreme party. He took shelter with Madame 
Vernet, but fearing to bring into trouble her and his wife, at 
whose instigation he wrote his fine Sketch of the Progress of the 
Human Mind while in hiding, he left, but, being arrested, died 
of exhaustion or by poison self-administered, at Bourg la Reine, 
27 March, 1794. 

Condorcet (Sophie de Grouchy Oaritat, Marquise de), wife 
of above, and sister of General Grouchy and of Mme. Oabanis^ 
b. 1765. She married Condorcet 1786, and was considered one 
of the most beautiful women of her time. She shared her 
husband's sentiments and opinions and, while he was pro- 
scribed, supported herself by portrait painting. She was 
arrested, and only came out of prison after the fall of Robes- 
pierre. She translated Adam Smith's Theory of the Moral Sen- 
timents, which she accompanied with eight letters on Sympathy, 
addressed to Cabanis. She died 8 Sept. 1822. Her only 
daughter married Gen. Arthur O'Connor. 

Confucius (Kung Kew) or Kung-foo-tsze, the philosopher 
Kung, a Chinese sage, b. in the State of Loo, now part of 
Shantung, about B.C. 551. He was distinguished by filial piety 
.and learning. In his nineteenth year he married, and three 
years after began as a teacher, rejecting none who came to him. 
He travelled through many states. When past middle age he 
was appointed chief minister of Loo, but finding the Duke 
desired the renown of his name without adopting his counsel, 
he retired, and devoted his old age to editing the sacred classics 
of China. He died about B.C. 478. His teaching, chiefly found 
in the Lun-Yii, or Confucian Analects, was of a practical moral 
character, and did not include any religious dogmas. 

Congreve (Richard), English Positivist, born in 1819. 
Educated at Rugby under T. Arnold, and Oxford 1840, M.A. 
1843; was fellow of Wadham College 1844-54. In '55 he 
published his edition of Arhtoile Politics. He became a follower 
of Comte and influenced many to embrace Positivism. Trans- 


lated Comte's Catechism of Positive Philosophy, 1858, and has 
written many brochures. Dr. Congreve is considered the head 
of the strict or English Coratists, and has long conducted a 
small " Church of Humanity." 

Connor (Bernard), a physician, b. Co. Kerry, of Catholic 
family, 1666. He travelled widely, and was made court physi- 
cian to John Sobieski, King of Poland. He wrote a work 
entitled Evangelium Medici (1697), in' which he attempts to 
account for the Christian miracles on natural principles. For 
this he was accused of Atheism. He died in London 27 Oct. 

Constant de Rebecque (Henri Benjamin), Swiss writer, b. 
Lausanne, 25 Oct. 1767, and educated at Oxford, Erlangen 
and Edinburgh. In 1795 he entered Paris as a proteije of 
Mme. de Stael, and in 1799 became a member of the Tribunal. 
He opposed Buonaparte and wrote on Roman Polytheism and an 
important work on RcUyion Considered in its Source, its Forms and 
its Developments {G vols.; 1824-32). Died 8 Dec. 1830. Con- 
stant professed Protestantism, but was at heart a sceptic, and 
has been called a second Voltaire. A son was executor to 
Auguste Comte. 

Conta (Basil), Eoumanian philosopher, b. Neamtza 27 Nov. 
1845. Studied in Italy and Belgium, and became professor in 
the University of Jassy, Moldavia. In '77 he published a 
Brussels, in French, a theory of fatalism, which created some 
etir by its boldness of thought. 

Conway (Moncure Daniel), author, b. in Fredericksburg, 
Stafford co. Virginia, 17 March, 1832. He entered the Metho- 
dist ministry '50, but changing his convictions through the 
influence of Emerson and Hicksite Quakers, entered the 
divinity school at Cambridge, where he graduated in '54 and 
became pastor of a Unitarian church until dismissed for his 
anti-slavery discourses. In '57 he preached in Cincinatti and 
there published The Natural History of the Devil, and other 
pamphlets. In '63 Mr. Conway came to England and was 
minister of South Place from the close of '63 until his return 
to the States in '84. Mr. Conway is a frequent contributor 
to the press. He has also published The Earthward Pilgrimage, 
1870, a theory reversing Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress; collected 


a Sacred Anthology from the various sacred books of the world 
1873. which he used in his pulpit; has written on Human 
Sacrijiccs, 1876, and Idols and Ideals, 1877. His principal work 
is Demonolocjy and Devil Lore, 1878, containing much information 
on mythology. He also issued his sermons under the title of 
Lessons for the Bay, two vols., 1883, and has published a mono- 
graph on the Wandering Jew, a biography of Emerson, and is at 
present engaged on a life of Thomas Paine. 

Cook (Kenningale Robert), LL.D., b. in Lancashire 26 Sept. 
1845, son of the vicar of Stallbridge. When a boy he used to 
puzzle his mother by such questions as, " If God was omnipo- 
tent could he make what had happened not have happened." 
He was intended for the Church, but declined to subscribe the 
articles. Graduated at Dublin in '66, and took LL.D. in '75. In 
'77 he became editor of the Dublin University Magazine, in 
which appeared some studies of the lineage of Christian doc- 
trine and traditions afterwards published under the title of 
Ihe Fathers of Jesus. Dr. Cook wrote several volumes of choice 
;poems. Died July, 1886. 

Cooper (Anthony Ashley), see Shaftesbury. 

Cooper (Henry), barrister, b. Norwich about 1784. He was 
a schoolfellow of Wm. Taylor of Norwich. He served as mid- 
shipman at the battle of the Nile, but disliking the service 
became a barrister, and acquired some fame by his- spirited 
defence of Mary Ann Carlile, 21 July, 1821, for which the re- 
port of the trial was dedicated to him by R. Carlile. He was 
a friend of Lord Erskine, whose biography he commenced. 
Died 19 Sept. 1824. 

Cooper (John Gilbert), poet, b. Thurgaton Priory, Notts, 
1723. Educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, 
■Cambridge. An enthusiastic disciple of Lord Shaftesbury. 
Under the name of " Philaretes " he contributed to Dodsley's 
Museum. In 1749 he published a Life of Socrates, for which 
he was coarsely attacked by Warburton. He wrote some poems 
under the signature of Aristippus. Died Mayfair, London, 
14 April, 1769. 

Cooper (Peter), a benevolent manufacturer, b. N. York, 
12 Feb. 1791. He devoted over half a million dollars to the 


Cooper Institute, for the secular instruction and elevation of 
the working classes. Died 4 April, 1883. 

Cooper (Robert), Secularist writer and lecturer, b. 29 Dec. 
1819, at Barton-on-Irwell, near Manchester. He had the ad- 
vantage of being brought up in a Freethought family. At 
fourteen he became teacher in the Co-operative Schools, Salford,. 
lectured at fifteen, and by seventeen became an acknowledged 
advocate of Owenism, holding a public discussion with the 
Rev. J. Bromley. Some of his lectures were published — one 
on Onjinal Sin sold twelve thousand copies — when he was 
scarcely eighteen. The Holy Scriptares Analysed (1832) was 
denounced by the Bishop of Exeter in the House of Lords. 
Cooper was dismissed from a situation he had held ten years, 
and in 1841 became a Socialist missionary in the North of Eng- 
land and Scotland. At Edinburgh (1845) he wrote Free Agency 
and Orthodoxy, and compiled the Infidel's Text Book. About '50 
he came to London, lecturing with success at John Street Insti- 
tution. In '54 he started the London Investigator, which he 
edited for three years. In it appears his lectures on " Science 
V. Theology," " Admissions of Distinguished Men," etc. Fail- 
ing health obliged him to retire leaving the Investigator to 
" Anthony Collins " (W. H. Johnson), and afterwards to "Icono- 
clast " (0. Bradlaugh). At his last lecture he fainted on th& 
platform. In 1858 he remodelled his Infidel Text-Book into a 
work on The Bible and Its Evidences. He devoted himself to 
political reform until his death, 3 May, 1868. 

Cooper (Thomas), M.D., LL.D., natural philosopher, politician^ 
jurist and author, b. London, 22 Oct. 1759. Educated at 
Oxford, he afterwards studied law and medicine; was admitted 
to the bar and lived at Manchester, where he wrote a number 
of tracts on " Materialism," " Whether Deity be a Free Agent," 
etc., 1789. Deputed with James Watt, the inventor, by the 
Constitutional clubs to congratulate the Democrats of France 
(April, 1792), he was attacked by Burke and replied in a vigor- 
ous pamphlet. In '94 he published Inf>rmation Concerning 
America, and in the next year followed his friend Priestl}^ to 
Philadelphia, established himself as a lawyer and was made 
judge. He also conducted the Emporium of Arts and Sciences in. 
that citv. He was Professor of Medicine at Carlisle College 


'12, and afterwards held the chairs both of Chemistry and 
Political Economy in South Carolina College, of which he 
became President, 1820-34. This position he was forced to 
resign on account of his religious views. He translated from 
Justinian and Broussais, and digested the Statutes of South 
Carolina. In philosophy a Materialist, in religion a Freethinker, 
in politics a Democrat, he urged his views in many pamphlets 
One on The Right of Free Discussion, and a little book on Geology 
and the Pentateuch, in reply to Prof. Silliman, were republished 
in London by James Watson. Died at Columbia, 11 May, 1840.* 

Coornhert (Dirk Volkertszoon), Dutch humanist, poet and 
writer, b. Amsterdam, 1522. He travelled in his youth through 
Spain and Portugal. He set up as an engraver at Haarlem, and 
became thereafter notary and secretary of the city of Haarlem. 
He had a profound horror of intolerance, and defended liberty 
against Beza and Calvin. The clergy vituperated him as a 
Judas and as instigated by Satan, etc. Bayle, who writes of 
him as Theodore Koornhert, says he communed neither with 
Protestants nor Catholics. The magistrates of Delft drove him 
out of their city. He translated Cicero's Dc Officiis, and other 
works. Died at Gouda, 20 Oct. 1590. 

Cordonnier de Saint Hyacinthe. See Sainf-Hyacinthe 
(Themiseuil de). 

Corvin-Wiersbitski (Otto Julius Bernhard von), Prussian 
Pole of noble family, who traced their descent from the Roman 
Coiwinii, b. Gumbinnen, 12 Oct. 1812. He served in the 
Prussian army, where he met his friend Friedrich von Sallet ; 
retired into the Landwehr 1835, went to Leipsic and entered 
upon a literary career, wrote the History of the Dutch Revolu- 
tion, 1841 ; the History of Christian Fanaticism, 1845, which was 
suppressed in Austria. He took part with the democrats in 
'48; was condemned to be shot 15 Sept. '49, but the sentence 
was commuted ; spent six years' solitary confinement in prison ; 
came to London, became correspondent to the Times; went 
through American Civil War, and afterwards Franco-Prussian 

* So varied -was the activity of T. Cooper clnring his long- life that his works 
in the British Museum were catalogued as by six different persons of the 
same name. I pointed this out, and the six single gentlemen will be rolled 
into one. 



War, as a special correspondent. He has written a History of 
tlie New Time, 1848-71. Died since 1886. 

Cotta (Bernhard), German geologist, b. Little Zillbach, 
Thuringia, 24 Oct. 1808. He studied at the Academy of Mining, 
in Freiberg, where he was appointed professor in '42. His 
first production. The Dejidroliths , '32, proved him a diligent 
investigator. It w^as followed by many geological treatises. 
Cotta did much to support the nebular hypothesis and the law 
of natural development without miraculous agency. He 
also wrote on phrenology. Died at Feirburg., 13 Sept 1879. 

Cotta (C. Aurelius), Eoman philosopher, orator and states- 
man, b. B.C. 124. In '75 he became Consul. On the expiration 
of his office he obtained Gaul as a province. Cicero had a high 
opinion of him and gives his sceptical arguments in the third 
book of his De Natura Deorum. 

Courier (Paul Louis), French writ er, b. Paris, 4 Jan. 1772. 
He entered the army and became an ofScer of artillery, serving 
with distinction in the Army of the Republic. He wrote many 
pamphlets, directed against the clerical restoration, which 
place him foremost among the literary men of the generation. 
His writings are now classics, but they brought him nothing 
but imprisonment, and he was apparently assassinated, 10 
April, 1825. He had a presentiment that the bigots would kill 

Coventry (Henry), a native of Cambridgeshire, b. about 
1710, Fellow of Magdalene College, Siutlior oi Letters of Philemon 
to Ilydaspiis on False Religion (1736). Died 29 Dec. 1752. 

Coward (William), M.D., b. Winchester, 1656. Graduated at 
AVadham College, Oxford, 1677. Settled first at Northampton, 
afterwards at London. Published, besides some medical works, 
Second Thoughts Concerning Human Soul, which excited much 
indignation by denying natural immortality. The House of 
Commons (17 March, 1704) ordered his work to be burnt. He 
died in 1725. 

Cox (the Right Rev. Sir George William), b. 1827, w^as educated 

at Rugby and Oxford, where he took B.C.L. in 1849. Entered 

the Church, but has devoted himself to history and my thology. 

His most pretentious work is Mythology of the Ai-yan Nations 



(1870). He has also written an Introduction to Comparative Mytho- 
lofjij and several historical works. In 1886 he became Bishop of 
Bloemfontein. He is credited with the authorship of the 
English Life of Jesus, published under the name of Thomas 
Scott. At the Church Congress of 1888 he read an heretical 
paper on Biblical Eschatology. His last production is a Life 
ofBisho/) Colenso, 2 vols, 1888. 

Coyteux (Fernand), French writer, b. Euffec, 1800. Author 
of a materialistic system of philosophy, Brussels, 1853 
Studies on physiology, Paris, 1875, etc. 

Craig (Edward Thoma s), social reformer, b. at Manchester 
4 Aug. 1804. He was present at the Peterloo massacre '19; 
helped to form the Salford Social Institute and became a 
pioneer of co-operation. In '31 he became editor of the 
Lancashire Co-operator. In Nov. of the same year he under- 
took the management of a co-operative farm at Rahaline, co. 
Clare. Of this experiment he has written an history, '72. Mr. 
Craig has edited several journals and contributed largely to 
Radical and co-operative literature. He has published a 
memoir of Dr. Travis and at the age of 84 he wrote on Tlie 
Science of Prolonging Life. 

Cramer (Johan Nicolai), Swedish writer, b. Wisby, Gottland, 
18 Feb. 1812. He studied at Upsala and became Doctor of 
Philosophy '36 ; ordained priest in '42 ; he resigned in "58. 
In religion he denies revelation and insists on the separation 
of Church and State. Among his works we mention Separation 
from the Church, a Freethinker's annotations on the reading of 
the Bible, Stockholm, 1859. A. Confession of Faith; Forward or 
Back? (1862). He has also written on the Punishment of 
Death (1868), and other topics. 

Cranbrook (Rev. James.) Born of strict Calvinistic parents 
about 1817. Mr. Cranbrook gradually emancipated himself 
from dogmas, became a teacher, and for sixteen years was 
minister of an Independent Church at Liscard, Cheshire. He 
also was professor at the Ladies' College, Liverpool, some of 
his lectures there being published '57. In Jan. '65, he went 
to Albany Church, Edinburgh, but his views being too broad 
for that congregation, he left in Feb. '67 but continued to give 
Sunday lectures until his death, 6 June, 1869. In '66 he pub- 


lislied Credihilia : an Inquiry into the grounds of Christian faith 
and two years later 7he Founders of Christianity, discourses on 
the origin of Christianity. Other lectures on Human Depravity, 
Positive Religion, etc., were published by Thomas Scott. 

Cranch (Christopher Pearse), American painter and poet, b. 
Alexandria, Virginia, 8 March, 1813, graduated at divinity school, 
Cambridge, Mass. '35, but left the ministry in '42. He shows 
his Freethought sentiments in Satan, a Libretto, Boston, 74, 
and other works. 

Craven (M. B.), American, author of a critical work on the 
Bible entitled Triumpli of Criticism, published at Phila- 
delphia, 1869. 

Cremonini (Cesare), Italian philosopher, b. Cento, Ferrara, 
1550, was professor of philosophy at Padua from 1591 to 1631, 
when he died. A follower of Aristotle, he excited suspicion 
by his want of religion and his tea ching the mortality of the 
Boul. He was frequently ordered by the Jesuits and the 
Inquisition to refute the errore he gave currency to, but he was 
protected by the Venetian State, and refused. Like most of 
the philosophers of his time, he distinguished between reli- 
gious and philosophic truth. Bayle says. " II a passe pour un 
esprit fort, qui ne croyait point I'immortalite de I'ame." 
Larousse says, "On pent dire qu'il n'etait pas chretien.'' Lad- 
vocat says his works "contain many things contrary to 

Cross (Mary Ann). See Eliot (George). 

Crousse (Louis D.), French Pantheistic philosopher, author 
of Principles, or First Philosophy, 1839, and Thoughts, 1845. 

Curtis (S. E.), English Freethinker, author of Theology 
Displayed, 1842. He has been credited with The Protestant's 
Progress to Infidelity. See Griffith (Rees). Died 1847. 

Croly (David Goodman), American Positivist, b. New York 
3 Nov. 1829. He graduated at New York University in '54, 
and was subsequently a reporter on the New York Herald. He 
became editor of the New York World until '72. From '71 to 
'73 he edited The Modern Thinker, an organ of the most advanced 
thought, and afterwards the New Yo rk Graphic. Mr. Croly has 
wv\ttQB.ii Primer of Positivism, 'IQ, and has contributed many 


articles to periodicals. His wife, Jane Cunningham, who calls 
herself "Jennie Jime,"b. 1831, also wrote in The Modern Thinker. 

Cross (Many Ann), see Eliot (George). 

Crozier (John Beattie), English writer ''of Scottish border 
parentage, b. Gait, Ontario, Canada, 23 April, 1849. In youth 
he won a scholarship to the grammar school of the town, and 
thence won another scholarship to the Toronto University, 
where he graduated '72, taking the University and Starr medals. 
He then came to London determined to study the great problems 
of religion and civilisation. He took liis diploma from the 
London College of Physicians in '73. In '77 he wrote his first 
essay, " Go d or Force," which, being rejected by all the 
magazines, he published as a pamphlet. Other essays on the 
Constitution of the World, Carlyle, Emerson, and Spencer being 
also rejected, he published them in a book entitled The Religion 
of the Future, '80, which fell flat. He then started his work 
Civilisation and Progress, which, uppesived in '85, and was also 
un successful until republished with a few notices in '87, when 
it received a chorus of applause for its clear and original 
thoughts. Mr. Crozier is now engaged on his Autobiography, 
fter which he proposes to deal with the Social question. 

Cuffeler (Abraham Johann), a Dutch philosopher and doctor 
of law, who was one of the first partizans of Spinoza. He 
lived at Utrecht towards the end of the seventeenth century, 
and wrote a work on logic in three parts entitled Specimen Artis 
Ratiocinandi, etc., published ostensibly at Hamburg, but really at 
AmxSterdam or Utrecht, 1684. It was without name but with 
the author's portrait. 

Cuper (Frans), Dutch writer, b. Rotterdam. Cuper is sus- 
pected to have been one of those followers of Spinoza, who 
under pretence of refuting him, set forth and sustained his 
arguments by feeble opposition. His work entitled Aixana 
Atheismi Revdaia, Rotterdam 1676, was denounced as written in 
bad faith. Cuper maintained that the existence of God could 
not be proved by the light of reason. 

Cyrano de Bergerac (Savinien), French comic writer, b. 

Paris 6 March, 1619. After finishing his studies and serving in 

the army in his youth he devoted himself to literature. His 

tragedy "Agrippine" is full of what a bookseller called "belles 



impietes," and La Momioye relates that at its performance the 
pit shouted " Oh, the wretch ! The Atheist ! How he mocks at 
holy things ! " Cyrano knew personally Campanella, Gassendi, 
Lamothe Le Vayer, Liniere, Rohault, etc. His other works 
consist of a short fragment on Physic^ a collection oi Letters, and 
a Comic W.story of the States and Empires of the Moon and the Sun. 
Cyrano took the idea of this book from F. Godwin's Man in the 
Moon, 1583, and it in turn gave rise to Swift's Gulliver's Travels 
and Voltaire's Micromegas. Died Paris, 1655. 

Czolbe (Heinrich), German Materialist, b. near Dantzic, 30 
Dec. 1819, studied medicine at Berlin, writing an inaugural 
dissertation on the Principles of Physiology, '44. In '55 he 
published his New Exposition of Sensationalism, in which every- 
thing is resolved into matter and motion, and in '65 a work on 
Ihe Limits and Origin of Human Knowledge. Ho was an intimate 
friend of Ueberweg. Died atKonigsberg, 19 Feb. 1873. Lange 
says " his life was marked by a deep and genuine morality." 

D'Ablaing. See Giessenburg. 

Dale (Antonius van), Dutch writer, b. Haarlem, 8 Nov. 1638. 
His work on oracles was erudite but lumbersome, and to it 
Fontenelle gave the charm of style. It was translated into 
English by Mrs. Aphra Behn, under the title of The History 
of Oracles and the Cheats of Pagan Priests, 1699. Van Dale, in 
another work on The Origin and Progress of Idolatry and Super- 
stition, applied the historical method to his subject, and showed 
that the belief in demons was as old and as extensive as the 
human race. He died at Haarlem, 28 Nov. 1708. 

DamilaviUe (Etienne Noel), French writer, b. at Bordeaux, 
1721. At first a soldier, then a clerk, he did some service for 
Voltaire, who became his friend. He also made the friendship 
Diderot, d'Alembert, Grimm, and d'Holbach. He contributed 
to the Encyclopedie, and in 1767 published an attack on the 
theologians, entitled Theological Honesty. The book entitled 
Christianity Unveiled [see Boulanger and Holbach] was attributed 
by Voltaire, who called it hnpiety Unveiled, and by La Harpe and 
Lalande to DamilaviUe. Voltaire called him " one of our most 
learned writers." Larousse says " he was an ardent enemy of 
Christianity." He has also been credited with a share in the 
System of Nature. Died 15 Dec. 1768. 


Dandolo (Vincenzo) Couvf, Italian chemist, b. Venice, 26 
Oct. 1758, wrote Principles of Physical Chemistry, a work in 
French on TheNew Men, in which he shows his antagonism to 
religion, and many useful works on vine, timber, and silk 
culture. Died Varessa, 13 Dec. 1819. 

Danton (Georges Jacques), French revolutionist, b. Arcis 
sur Aube, 28 Oct. 1759. An uncle wished him to enter into 
orders, but he preferred to study law. During the Eevolution 
his eloquence made him conspicuous at the Club of Cordeliers, 
and in Feb. 1791, he became one of the administrators of Paris. 
One of the first to see that after the flight of Louis XVI. he 
could no longer be king, he demanded his suspension, and 
became one of the chief organisers of the Republic. In the 
alarm caused by the invasion he urged a bold and resolute policy. 
He was a member of the Convention and of the Committee of 
Public Safety. At the crisis of the struggle with Robespierre 
Danton declined to strike the first blow and disdained to fly. 
Arrested March, 1794, he said when interrogated by the judge, 
" My name is Danton, my dwelling will soon be in annihilation; 
but my name will live in the Pantheon of history." He main- 
tained his lofty bearing on the scaffold, where he perished 
5 April, 1794. For his known scepticism Danton was called 
fils de Diderot. Carlyle calls him " a very Man " 

Dapper (Olfert^, Dutch ph^^sician, who occupied himself 
with history and geography, on which he produced important 
works. He had no religion and was suspected of Atheism. He 
travelled through Syria, Babylonia, etc., in 1650. He translated 
Herodotus (1664) and the orations of the late Prof. Caspar v. 
Baerli (1663), and wrote a History of the City <f Amsterdam, 1663. 
Died at Amsteixiam 1690. 

Darget (Etienne), b. Paris, 1712 ; went to Berlin in 1744 
and became reader and private secretary to Frederick the Great 
(1745-52), who corresponded with him afterwards. Died 1778. 

Darwin (Charles Robert), English naturalist, b. Shrewsbury, 
12 Feb. 1809. Educated at Shrewsbury, Edinburgh University, 
and Cambridge. He early evinced a taste for collecting and 
observing natural objects. He was intended for a clergyman, 
but, incited by Humboldt's Personal Narrative, resolved to 
97 G 


travel. He accompanied Captain Fitzroy in the "Beagle" on a 
voyage of exploration, '31-36, which he narrated in his Voyage 
of a Naturalist Round the World, which obtained great popularity. 
In '39 he married, and in '42 left London and settled at Down, 
Kent. His studies, combined with the reading of Lamarck and 
Malthus, led to his great work on The Origin of Species by means 
of Natural Selection, '59, which made a great outcry and marked 
an epoch. Darwin took no part in the controversy raised by 
the theologians, but followed his work with The Fertilisatio7i of 
Orchids, '62 ; Cross and Self Fertilisation of Plants, '67 ; Variations 
of Plants and Animals under Domestication, '65 ; and in '71 The 
Descent of Man and Selection in relation to Sex, which caused yet 
greater consternation in orthodox circles. The following year 
he issued The Expression of the Emotions of Men and Animals. He 
also published works on the Movements of Plants, Insectivorous 
Plants, the Forms (f Flowers, and Earthworms. He died 19 April, 
1882, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, despite his ex- 
pressed unbelief in revelation. To a German student he wrote, 
in '79, " Science has nothing to do with Christ, except in so far 
as the habit of scientific research makes a man cautious in 
admitting evidence. For myself I do not believe that there 
ever has been any revelation." In his Life and Letters he relates 
that between 1836 and 1842 he had come to see " that the Old 
Testament was no more to be trusted than the sacred books of 
the Hindoos." He rejected design and said " I for one must 
be content to remain an Agnostic." 

Darwin (Erasmus), Dr., poet, physiologist and philosopher, 
grandfather of the above, was born at Elston, near Newark, 
12 Dec. 1731. Educated at Chesterfield and Cambridge he 
became a physician, first at Lichfield and afterwards at Derb3^ 
He was acquainted with Rousseau, Watt and Wedgwood. His 
principal poem, The Botanic Garden was published in 1791, and 
The Temple of Nature in 1803. His principal work is Zoomania, 
or the laws of organic life (1794), for which he was accused of 
Atheism. He was actually a Deist. He also wrote on female 
education and some papers in the Philosophical Transactions. 
Died at Derby, 18 April, 1802. 

Daubermesnil (Francois Antoine), French conventionalist. 
Elected deputy of Tarn in 1792. Afterwards became a member 


of the Council of Five Hundred. He was one of the founders 
of Theophilanthropy. Died at Perpignan 1802. 

Daudet (Alphonse), French novelist, b. at Nimes, 13 May 
1840, author of many popular romances, of which we mention 
L'EvangelLste, '82, which has been translated into English under 
the title Po7't Salvation. 

Daunou (Pierre Claude Francois), French politician and his- 
torian, b. Boulogne, 18 Aug. 1761. His father entered him in 
the congregation of the Fathers of the Oratory, which he left 
at the Revolution. The department of Calais elected him with 
Carnot and Thomas Paine to the Convention. After the Eevolu- 
tion he became librarian at the Pantheon. He was a friend of 
Garat, Cabanis, Chenier, Destutt Tracy, Ginguene and Benj. 
Constant. Wrote Historical Essay on the Temporal Power of the 
Popes, 1810. Died at Paris, 20 June, 1840, noted for his benevo- 

Davenport (Allen), social reformer, b. 1773. He contributed 
to Carlile's Republican ; wrote an account of the Life, Writings 
and Principles of Thomas Spence, the reformer (1826); and 
published a volume of verse, entitled The Muses' Wreath (1827). 
Died at Highbury, London, 1846. 

Davenport CJohn), Deist, b. London, 8 June, 1789, became 
a teacher. He wrote An Apology for Mohammed and the Koran, 
1869 ; Curiositates Eroticce Physiology, or Tabooed Subjects 
Freely Treated, and several educational works. Died in poverty 
11 May, 1877. 

David of Dinant, in Belgium, Pantheistic philosopher of 
the twelfth century. He is said to have visited the Papal 
Court of Innocent III. He shared in the heresies of Amalric 
of Chartres, and his work Quaterini was condemned and burnt 
(1209). He only escaped the stake by rapid flight. According 
to Albert the Great he was the author of a philosophical work 
De Jomis, " Of Subdivisions," in which he taught that all 
things were one. His system was similar to that of Spinoza. 

David (Jacques Louis), French painter, born at Paris, 31 

Aug. 1748, was made painter to the king, but joined the Jacobin 

Club, became a member of the Convention, voted for the king's 

death and for the civic festivals, for which he made designs. 



On the restoration he was banished. Died at Brussels, 29 
Dec. 1825. David was an honest enthusiast and a thorough 

Davidis or David (Ferencz), a Transylvanian divine, b. about 
1510. He was successively a Roman Catholic, a Lutheran and 
an Antitrinitarian. He went further than F. Socinus and 
declared there was " as much foundation for praying to the 
Virgin Mary and other dead saints as to Jesus Christ." He 
was in consequence accused of Judaising and thrown into 
prison at Deva, where he died 6 June, 1579. 

Davies (John 0.), of Stockport, an English Jacobin, who in 
1797 published a list of contradictions of the Bible under the 
title of The Scripturimi's Creed, for which he was prosecuted 
and imprisoned. The Avork was republished by Carlile, 1822, 
and also at Manchester, 1839. 

Davidson (Thomas), bookseller and publisher, was prosecuted 
by the Vice Society in Oct. 1820, for selling the Republican and 
a publication of his own, called the Deist's Magazine. For 
observations made in, his defence he was summoned and fined 
£100, and he was sentenced to two years' imprisonment in 
Oakham Gaol. He died 16 Dec. 1826. 

Detierre (Charles), French writer, author of Man Before 
History, 1888. 

De Dominicis. See Dominicis. 

De Felice (Francesco), Italian writer, b. Catania, Sicily, 1821, 
took part in the revolution of '43, and when Garibaldi landed 
in Sicily was appointed president of the provisional council 
of war. Has written on the reformation of elementary schools. 

De Greef (Guillaume Joseph), advocate at Brussels Court of 
Appeal, b. at Brussels, 9 Oct. 1842. Author of an important 
Introduction to Sociologi/, 1886. Wrote in La Liberfe, 1867-73, 
and now writes in La Societe Nouvelle. 

De Gubernatis (Angelo), Italian Orientalist and writer, 
b. Turin, 7 April, 1840; studied at Turin University and 
became doctor of philosophy. He studied Sanskrit under 
Bopp and Weber at Berlin. Sig. de Gubernatis has adorned 
Italian literature with many important works, of which we 
mention his volumes on Zoological Mythology, which has been 


translated into English, '72 : and on the Mfjthology of Plants. 
He has compiled and in large part written a Universal History 
of Literature, 18 vols. '82-85 ; edited La Revista Europea and the 
Revue Internationale, and contributed to many publications. He 
is a brilliant writer and a versatile scholar. 

De Harven (Emile Jean Alexandre), b. Antwerp, 23 Sept. 
1837, the anonymous author of a work on The Soul: its Origin 
and Destiny (Antwerp, 1879). 

Dekker (Eduard Douwes), the greatest Dutch writer and 
Freethinker of this century, b. Amsterdam, 2 March, 1820. In 
'39 he accompanied his father, a ship's captain, to the Malayan 
Archipelago. He became officer under the Dutch government 
in Sumatra, Amboina, and Assistant-Resident at Lebac, Java. 
He desired to free the Javanese from the oppression of their 
princes, but the government would not help him and he re- 
signed and returned to Holland, '56. The next four years he 
spent, in poverty, vainly seeking justice for the Javanese. In 
'60 he published under the pen name of " Multatuli " Max 
Havelnar, a masterly indictment of the Dutch rule in India, 
which has been translated into German, French and English. 
Then follow his choice Minnehrieven (Love Letters), '61 ; Vor.<ten- 
school (A School for Princes), and Millivenen Studien (Studies on 
Millions). His Lleen, 7 vols. '62-79, are full of the boldest 
heresy. In most of his works religion is attacked, but in the 
Ideas faith is criticised with much more pungency and satire. 
He wrote " Faith is the voluntary prison-cell of reason." He 
was an honorary member of the Freethought Society, De 
Dageraad, and contributed to its organ. During the latter 
years of his life he lived at Wiesbaden, where he died 19 Feb. 
1887. His corpse was burned in the crematory at Gotha. 

De Lalande (see Lalande). 

Delambre (Jean Baptiste Joseph), French astronomer, b. 
Amiens, 19 Sept. 1749, studied under Lalande and became, like 
his master, an Atheist. His Tables of the Orbit of Uranus 
were crowned hj the Academy, 1790. In 1807 he succeeded 
Lalande as Professor of Astronomy at the College de France. 
He is the author of a History of Astronomy in five volumes, and 
of a number of astronomical tables and other scientific works 
He was appointed perpetual secretary of the Academy of 


Sciences. Died 19 Aug. 1822, and was buried at Pere la Chaise, 
Cuvier pronouncing a discourse over his grave. 
De la Ramee. See Ouida. 

Delboeuf (Joseph Remi Leopold), Belgian writer, b. Liege, 
30 Sept. 1831 ; is Professor at the University of Liege, and has 
written Psychology as a Natural Science ^ its Present and its Future ; 
Applicationof the Experimental Method to the Phenomena of the Soul ^ 
'73, and other works. In his Philosophical Prolegomena to 
Geometry he suggests that even mathematical axioms may have 
an empirical origin. 

Delbos (Leon), linguist, b. 20 Sept. 1849 of Spanish father 
and Scotch mother. Educated in Paris, Lycee Charlemagne. 
Is an M.A. of Paris and officier d'Academie. Speaks many 
languages, and is a good Arabic and Sanskrit scholar. Has 
travelled widely and served in the Franco-German War. Besides 
many educational works, M. Delbos has written UAthee, the 
Atheist, a Freethought romance '79, and in English The Faith 
in Jesus not a I^'ew Faith, '85. He has contributed to the Agnostic 
Annual, and is a decided Agnostic. 

Delepierre (Joseph Octave), Belgian bibliophile, b. Bruges, 
12 March, 1802. Was for thirty-five years secretary of Legation 
to' England. His daughter married N. Truebner, who pub- 
lished his work VEnftr, 1876, and many other bibliographical 
studies. Died London, 18 Aug. 1879. 

Delescluze (Louis Charles), French journalist and revolution- 
ary, b. Dreux, 2 Oct. 1809, was arrested in '34 for sedition. 
Implicated in a plot in '35, he took refuge in Belgium. In '48 
he issued at Paris La Revolution Democratique et Sociile, but was 
soon again in prison. He was banished, came to England 
with Ledru RoUin, but returning to France in '53 was arrested 
Tn '68 he published the Reveil, for which he was again fined 
and sentenced to prison for ten years. In '59 he was amnestied, 
and imprisoned. He became head of the Commune Committee 
of Public Safety, and died at the barricade, 25 May, 1871. 

Deleyre (Alexandre), French writer, b. Porbats, near Bor- 
deaux, 6 Jan. 1726. Early in life he entered the order of Jesuits, 
but changed his faith and became the friend of Rousseau and 
Diderot. He contributed to the Encyclopedic, notably the article 



" Fanatisme," and published an analysis of Bacon and works on 
the genius of Montesquieu and Saint Evremond, and a History 
of Voyages. He embraced the Revolution with ardor, was 
made deputy to the Convention, and in 1795 was made member 
of the Institute. Died at Paris, 27 March, 1797. 
DeHsle de Sales. See Isoard Dejlisle (J. B. C.) 

DeH (John Henry), artist and poet, b. 11 Aug. 1832. Con- 
tributed to Progress, wrote Nature Pictures, 71, and The Dawn^ 
ing Grey, '85, a volume of vigorous verse, imbued with the 
spirit of democracy and freethought. Died 31 Jan. 1888. 

Deluc (Adolphe), Professor of Chemistry at Brussels, b, 
Paris, 1 Sept. 1811. Collaborated on La Libre Recherche, 

DeMaiUet. See Maillet (Benoit de). 

Democritus, a wealthy Atheistic philosopher, b. Abdera, 
Thrace, B.C. 460. He travelled to Egypt and over a great part 
of Asia, and is also said to have visited India. He is supposed 
to have been acquainted with Leucippus, and sixty works were 
ascribed to him. Died b.c. 357. He taught that all existence 
consisted of atoms, and made the discovery of causes the object 
of scientific inquiry. He is said to have laughed at life in 
general, which Montaigne says is better than to imitate 
Heraclitus and weep, since mankind are not so unhappy as 
vain. Democritus was the forerunner of Epicurus, who im- 
proved his system. 

Demonax, a cynical philosopher who lived in the second 
century of the Christian era and rejected all religion. An 
account of him was written by Lucian. 

Demora (Gianbattista), director of the Libera Pensatore of 
Milan, and author of some dramatic works. 

Denis (Hector), Belgian advocate and professor of political 
economy and philosophy at Brussels Un.iversit}^, b. Braine-le- 
Comte, 29 April, 1842. Has written largely on social questions 
and contributed to La Liberie, la Philosophic Positive, etc. Is one 
of the Council of the International Federation of Freethinkers. 

Denslow (Van Buren), American writer, author of essays on 
Modern J h inkers, 1880, to which Colonel Ingersoll wrote an 
introduction. He contributed a paper on the value of irreli- 


gion to the Religio Philosophic journal of America, Jan. '78, and 
has written in the Truthseeker and other journals. 

Denton (William, F.), poet, geologist, and lecturer, b. Dar- 
lington, Durham, 8 Jan. 1823. After attaining manhood he 
emigrated to the United States, '48, and in '56 published Poems 
for Reformers. He was a prolific writer, and constant lecturer 
on temperance, psychology, geology, and Freethought. In '72 
he published Radical Discourses on Religious'JSabjects (Boston, '72), 
and Radical Rhymes, '79. He travelled to Australasia, and died 
of a fever while conducting scientific explorations in Xew 
Guinea 26 Aug. 1883. 

De Paepe (Cesar) Dr., Belgian Socialist, b. Ostend, 12 July, 
1842. He was sent to the college of St. Michel, Brussels. He 
obtained the Diploma of Candidate of Philosophy, but on the 
death of his father became a printer with Desire Brismee 
(founder of Les Solidaires, a Rationalist society). Proudhon 
confided to him the correction of his works. He became a 
physician and is popular with the workmen's societies. He 
was one of the foremost members of the International and 
attended all its congresses, as well as those of the International 
Federation of Freethinkers. He has written much on public 
hygiene, political economy, and psychology, collaborating in a 
great number of the most advanced journals. Dr. De Paepe is a 
short, fair, energetic man, capable both as a speaker and writer 

Depasse (Hector), French writer, b. at Armentieres in 1843, 
is editor of La Repuhlique Francaise, and member of the Paris 
Municipal Council. He has written a striking work on Cleri- 
cahsm, in which he urges the separation of Church and State, 
1877; and is author of many little books on Contemporary 
Celebrities, among them are Gambetta, Bert, Ranc, etc. 

De Ponnat. See Ponnat ( — de). Baron. 

De Pontan. See Ponnat. 

De Potter (Agathon Louis), Belgian economist, b. Brussels, 
11 Nov. 1827. Has written many works on Social Science, and 
has collaborated to La Ragione (Reason), '56, and La Philosophie 
de VAccnir. 

De Potter (Louis Antoine Joseph), Belgian politician and 
writer, father of the above, b. of noble family, Bruges, 26 April, 
1786. In 1811 he went to Italy and lived ten years at Rome, 


In '21 lie wrote tlie Spirit of the Churchy in 6 vols, which are 
put on the Roman Index. A strong upholder of secular educa- 
tion in Belgium, he was arrested more than once for his radical- 
ism, being imprisoned for eighteen months in '28. In Sept. 
'30 he became a member of the provisional government. He 
was afterwards exiled and lived in Paris, where he wrote a 
philosophical and anti-clerical History of Christianity, in 8 vols., 
1836-37. He also wrote a Ratiojinl Catechism, 1854, and a 
Rational Dictionary, 1859, and numerous brochures. Died 
Bruges, 22 Jul}^, 1859. 

Deraismes (Maria), French writer and lecturer, b. Paris, 
1836. She first made her name as a writer of comedies. She 
wrote an appeal on behalf of her sex, Aux Femmes Riches, 65. The 
Masonic Lodge of Le Pecq, near Paris, invited her to become 
a member, and she was duly installed under the Grand Orient 
of France. The first female Freemason, was president of the 
Paris Anti-clerical Congress of 1881, and has written much in 
her journal, Le RtpuUicain de Seine et Oise. 
De Roberty (Eugene). See Eoberty. 

Desbarreaux (Jacques Vallee), Seigneur, French poet and 
■sceptic, b. Paris, 1602, great-nephew of Geoffrey Vallee, who 
was burnt in 1574- Many stories are related of his impiety* 
€.y. the well-known one of his having a feasts of eggs and bacon. 
It thundered, and Des Barreaux, throwing the plate out of win- 
dow, exclaimed, "What an amount of noise over an omelette.'' 
It was said he recanted and wrote a poem beginning, " Great 
God, how just are thy chastisements." Yoltaire, however, 
assigns this poem to the Abbe Levau. Died at Chalons, 
9 May, 1673. 

Descartes (Rene), French philosopher, b. at La Haye, 31 
March, 1596. After leaving college he entered the army in 
16, and fought in the battle of Prague. He travelled in 
France and Italy, and in '29 settled in Holland. In '37 he pro- 
duced his famous Discourses upon the Method of Reasoning Well^ 
etc., and in '41 his Meditations upon First Philosophy. This work 
gave such offence to the clergy that he was forced to fly his 
<30untry " parce qu'il y fait trop chaud pour lui." He burnt his 
Iraite da Monde (Treatise on the World) lest he should incur the 
fate of Gallilei. Though a Theist, like Bacon, he puts aside 


final causes. He was offered an asylum by Christina, Queen of 
Sweden, and died at Stockholm 11 Feb. 1650. 

Deschamps (Leger-Marie), known also as Dom Descharaps, 
a French philosopher, b. Eennes, Poitiers, 10 Jan. 1716. He 
entered the Order of Benedictines, but lost' his faith by 
reading an abridgment of the Old Testament. He became 
correspondent of Voltaire, Eousseau, d'Alembert, Helvetius,. 
and other philosophers. " Ce pretre athee," as Ad. Franck 
calls him, was the author of a treatise entitled La Vtrite, on le 
Vrai Sr/sfeme, in which he appears to have anticipated all the 
leading ideas of Hegel. God, he says, as separated from 
existing things, is pure nothingness. An analysis of his. 
remarkable work, which remained in manuscript for three- 
quarters of a century, has been published by Professor Beaus- 
sirefParis, 1855). Died at Montreuil-Bellay, 19 April 1774. 

Deslandes (Andre Fran(;ois Boureau), b. Pondichery, 1690. 
Became member of the Berlin Academy and wrote numerous- 
works, mostly under the veil of anonymity, the principal being 
A dritical History of Philosophy, 3 vols (1737). 'Km Pyqmalion, a 
philosophical romance, was condemned by the parliament of 
Dijon, 1742. His Reflexions sur Ics grands hommes qui sont mort en 
PLiisantant (Amsterdam, 1732) was translat-^d into English and 
published in 1745 under the title. Dying Merrily. Another work 
directed against religion was On the certainty oj Human Know- 
ledge, a philosophical examination of the different prerogatives- 
of reason and faith (London, 1741). Died Paris, 11 April, 1757. 

Des Maizeaux (Pierre), miscellaneous writer, b. Auvergne, 
1673. He studied at Berne and Geneva, and became known to 
Bayle who introduced him to Lord Shaftesbury, with whom he 
came to London, 1699. He edited the works of Bayle, Saint 
Evremond and Toland, whose lives he wrote, as well as those 
of Hales and Chilling worth. Anthony Collins was his friend, 
and at his death left him his manuscripts. These he transferred 
to Collins's widow and they were burnt. He repented and 
returned the money, 6 Jan. 1730, as the wages of iniquity. He 
became Secretary of the Royal Society of London, where he 
died, 11 July, 1745. 

Desmoulins (Lucie Simplice Oamille Benoit), French revo- 
lutionary writer, b. Guise, 2 March, 1760. He was a fellow- 


student of Robespierre at Paris, and became an advocate and 
an entliusiastic reformer. In July '89 he incited the people to 
the siege of the Bastille, and thus began the Revolution. On 
29 Dec. 1790 he married Lucile Laridon-Duplessis. He edited 
Le Vieux Cordelier and the Revolutions de France et de Brabant^ 
in which he stated that Mohammedanism was as credible as. 
Christianity. He was a Deist, preferring Paganism to Christi- 
anity. Both creeds were more or less unreasonable ; but, folly 
for folly, he said, I prefer Hercules slaying the Erymanthean 
boar to Jesus of Nazareth drowning two thousand pigs. He 
was executed with Danton, 5 April 1794. His amiable wife, 
Lucile, who was an Atheist (b. 1770), in a few days shared his 
fate (April 13). Carlyle calls Desmoulins a man of genius^ 
" a fellow of infinite shrewdness, wit — nay, humor." 

Des Periers (Jean Bonaventure), French poet and sceptic, 
b. Arnay le Due, about 1510. He was brought up in a convent, 
only to detest the vices of the monks. In 1535 he lived in 
Dyons and assisted Dolet. He probably knew Rabelais, whom 
he mentions as " Francoys Insigne." Attached to the court of 
Marguerite of Valois, he defended Clement Marot when perse- 
cuted for making a French version of the Psalms. He wrote the 
Cijmhcdum Mundi,gi satire upon religion, published under the name 
of Thomas de Clenier a Pierre Tryocan, i.e., Thomas Incredule a 
Pierre Croyant, 1537. It was suppressed and the printer, Jehan 
Morin, imprisoned. Des Periers fled and died (probably by 
suicide, to escape persecution) before 1544. An English ver- 
sion of Cymhalum Mundi was published in 1712. P. G. Brunet, the 
bibliographer, conjectures that Des Periers was the author of 
the famous Atheistic treatise. The Three Impostors. 

Destriveanx (Pierre Joseph), Belgian lawyer and politician, 
b. Liege, 13 March, 1780. Author of several works on public 
right. Died Schaerbeck (Brussels), 3 Feb. 1853. 

Destutt de Tracy (Antoine Louis de Claude) Count, French 
materialist philosopher, b. 20 July, 1754. His family was of 
Scotch origin. At first a soldier, he was one of the first 
noblemen at the Revolution to despoil himself of his title. A 
friend of Lafayette, Condorcet, and Cabanis, he was a com- 
plete sceptic in religion ; made an analysis of Dupuis' Origine 
de tons les CuUes (1804), edited Montesquieu and Cabanis, was 


made a member of the French Academy (1808), and wrote 
•several philosophical works, of which the principal is Elements 
of Ideology. He was a great admirer of Hobbes. Died Paris, 
9 March, 1836. 

Des Vignes (Pietro), secretary to Frederick II. (1245-49). 
Mazzuchelli attributes to him the treatise De Tribus Impostoribus. 

Detrosier (Rowland), social reformer and lecturer, b. 1796, 
ihe illegitimate son of a Manchester man named Morris and a 
Frenchwoman. In his early years he was " for whole days 
without food." Self-educated, he established the first Mechanics' 
Institute in England at Hulme, gave Sunday scientific lectures, 
and published several discourses in favor of secular educa- 
tion. He became secretary of the National Political Union. 
He was a Deist. Like Bentham, who became his friend, he 
bequeathed his body for scientific purposes. Died in London, 
23 Nov. 1834. 

Deubler (Konrad). The son of poor parents, b. Goisern, 
near Ischl, Upper Austria, 26 Nov. 1814. Self-taught amid 
•difficulties, he became the friend of Feuerbach and Strauss, 
and was known as "the Peasant Philosopher." In 1854 he 
was indicted for blasphemy, and was sentenced to two years' 
hard labor and imprisonment during pleasure. He was in- 
-carcerated from 7 Dec. '34, till Nov. '56 at Briinn, and after- 
wards at Olmutz, where he was released 24 March, 1857. He 
returned to his native place, and was visited by Feuerbach. 
Ill '70 he was made Burgomaster by his fellow-townsmen. 
Died 30 March, 1884. 

Deurhoff (\yillem), Dutch writer, b. Amsterdam, March 
1650. Educated for the Church, he gave himself to philosophy, 
translated the works of Descartes, and was accused of being a 
follower of Spinoza. Forced to leave his country, he took 
refuge in Brabant, but returned to Holland, where he died 
10 Oct. 1717. He left some followers. 

De Wette. (See Wette M. L. de). 

D'Holbach. See Holbach (P. H. D. von). Baron. 

Diagoras, Greek poet, philosopher, and orator, known as 

■** the Atheist," b. Melos. A pupil of Democritus, who is said 

to have freed hin^ from slavery A doubtful tradition reports 

that he became an Atheist after being the victim of an un- 



pnuislied perjury. He was accused (b.c. 411) of impiety, and 
had to fly from Athens to Corinth, where he died. A price- 
was put upon the Atheist's head. His works are not extant, 
but several anecdotes are related of him, as that he threw a 
wooden statue of Hercules into the fire to cook a dish of 
lentils, saying the god had a thirteenth task to perform ; and 
that, being on his flight by sea overtaken by a storm, hearing 
his fellow-passengers say it was because an Atheist was ou 
board, he pointed to other vessels struggling in the same storm 
without being laden with a Diagoras. 

Di Cagno Politi (Niccola Annibale), Italian Positivist, b. 
Bari, 1857. Studied at Naples under AngiuUi, has written 
on modern culture and on experimental philosophy in Italy 
and contributed articles on Positivism to the Rivista Euroma. 

Diderot (Denis), French philosopher, b. Langres, 6 Oct.. 
1713. His father, a cutler, intended him for the Church. 
Educated by Jesuits, at the age of twelve he received the 
tonsure. He had a passion for books, but, instead of becoming 
a Jesuit, went to Paris, where he supported himself by teach- 
ing and translating. In 1746 he published Philosophic Thoughts^ 
which was condemned to be burnt. It did much to advance 
freedom of opinion. Three years later his Letters on the Blind 
occasioned his imprisonment at Vincennes for its materialistic 
Atheism. Rousseau, who called him " a transcendent genius," 
visited Diderot in prison, where he remained three years.. 
Diderot projected the famous Encyclopedie, which he edited 
with Alembert, and he contributed some of the most important 
articles. With very inadequate recompense, and amidst diffi- 
culties that would have appalled an ordinary editor, Diderot 
superintended the undertaking for many years (1751-65). He 
also contributed to other important works, such as Rayiial'sPA/^o- 
sophic History, V Esprit, by Helvetius, and The System of Nature 
and other works of his friend D'Holbach. Diderot's fertile 
mind also produced dramas, essays, sketches, and novels. 
Died 30 July, 1784. Comte calls Diderot " the greatest thinker 
of the eighteenth century." 

Diercks (Gustav), German author of able works on the 
History of the Development of Human Spirit (Berlin, 1881-2) 


and on Arabian Culture in Spain, 1887. Is a member of tlie 
German Freethinkers' Union. 

Dilke (Ashton Wentworth), b. 1850. Educated at Cam- 
bridge, travelled in Eussia and Central Asia, and published a 
translation of Turgenev's Virgin Soil. He purchased and 
edited the Weekly Dispatch ; was returned as M.P. for New- 
castle in 1880, but, owing to ill health, resigned in favor of 
John Morle}^, and died at Algiers 12 March, 1883. 

Dinter (Gustav Friedrich), German educationalist, b. Borna, 
near Leipsic, 29 Feb. 1760. His Bible jor ScJioolmsters is his 
best-known work. It sought to give rational notes and ex- 
planations of the Jew books, and excited much controversy. 
Died at Konigsberg, 29 I^Iay, 1831. 

Dippel (Johann Konrad), German alchemist and physician, 
b. 10 Aug. 1672, at Frankenstein, near Darmstadt. His 
Papismus vapulans Protestantium (1698) drew on him the wrath 
of the theologians of Geissen, and he had to fly for his life. 
Attempting to find out the philosopher's stone, he discovered 
Prussian blue. In 1705 he published his satires against the 
Protestant Church, Hirt und eine Heerde^ under the name of 
•Christianus Democritos. He denied the inspiration of the 
Bible, and after an adventurous life in many countries died 
25 April, 1734. 

Dobrolyubov (Nikolai Aleksandrovich), Russian author, b. 
1836, at Nijni Novgorod, the son of a priest. Educated at St. 
Petersburg, he became a radical journalist. His works were 
edited in four vols by Chernuishevsky. Died 17 Nov. 1861. 

Dodel-Port (Prof. Arnold), Swiss scientist, b. Aifeltrangen, 
Thurgau, 16 Oct. 1843. Educated at Kreuzlingen, he became 
in '63 teacher in the Oberschule in Hauptweil; then studied 
from '64-'69 at Geneva, Ziirich, and Munich, becoming privat 
flocent in the University of Ziirich, '70. In '75 he published 
Ihe New History of Creation. In '78 he issued his world- 
famous Botanical Atlas, and was in '80 made Professor of 
Botany in the Ziirich University and Director of the Botanical 
Laboratory. He has alao written Biological Fraymeuts (1885), the 
Life and Letters of Konrad Deubler, " the peasant philosopher " 
(1886), and has just published Mattes or Darwin? a School 


Question, 1889. Dr. Dodel-Port is an lion, member of the London 
Royal Society and Vice-President of the German Freethinkers' 

Dodwell (Henry), eldest son of the theologian of that name, 
was b. Shottesbrooke, Berkshire, about the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. He was educated at Magdalen Hall, when 
he proceeded B.A., 9 Feb. 1726. In '42 he published a pam- 
phlet entitled Christianity not Founded on Argument, which in a 
tone of grave irony contends that Christianity can only be 
accepted by faith. He was brought up to the law and was a 
zealous friend of the Society for the Promotion of Arts, 
Manufaciures, and Commerce. Died 1784. 

Doebereiner ( Johann Wolfgang), German chemist, b. Bavaria, 
15 Dec. 1780. In 1810 he became Professor of Chemistry at 
Jena, where he added much to science. Died 24 March, 1849. 
He was friend and instructor to Goethe. 

Dolet (Etienne), a learned French humanist, b. Orleans 
3 Aug. 1509. He studied in Paris, Padua and Venice. For 
his heresy he had to fly from Toulouse and lived for some time 
at Lyons, where he established a printing-press and published 
some of his works, for which he was imprisoned. He was 
acquainted with Rabelais, Des Periers, and other advanced men 
of the time. In 1543 the Parliament condemned his books to 
be burnt, and in the next year he was arrested on a charge of 
Atheism. After being kept two years in prison he was 
strangled and burnt, 3 Aug. 1546. It is related that seeing 
the sorrow of the crowd, he said : " Non dolet ipe Dolet, sed 
pia turba dolet." — Dolet grieves not, but the generous crowd 
grieves. His goods being confiscated, his widow and children 
were left to beggary. " The French language," says A. F. 
Didot, "owes him much for his treatises, translations, and 
poesies." Dolet's biographer, M. Joseph Boulmier, calls him 
"le Christ de la pensee libre." Philosophy has alone the 
right, says Henri Martin, to claim Dolet on its side. His 
English biographer, R. C. Christie, says he was "neither a 
•Catholic nor a Protestant." 

Dominicis (Saverio Fausto de), Italian Positivist philoso- 
pher, b. Buonalbergo, 1846. Is Professor of Philosophy at 
■Bari, and has written on Education and Darwinism. 


Dondorf (Dr. A.), See Anderson (Marie) in Supplement. 

Doray de Longrais (Jean Paul), French man of letters, b, 
Mauvieux, 1736. Author of a Freethought romance, Faustin, or 
the Philosophical Age. Died at Paris, 1800. 

Dorscll (Eduardj, German American Freethinker, b. Warz- 
burg 10 Jan. 1822. He studied at Munich and Vienna. In 
'49 he went to America and settled in Monroe, Michigan, whero 
he published a volume of poems, some being translations from 
Swinburne. Died 10 Jan. 1887. 

Dorsey (J. M.), author of the The True History of 3foses, and 
others, an attack on the Bible, published at Boston in 1855. 

Draparnaud (Jacques Philippe Raymond), French doctor, 
b. 3 June, 1772, at Montpelier, where he became Professor of 
Natural Histor}^ His discourses on Life and Vital Functions, 
and on the Philosophy of the Sciences and Christianity (1801),. 
show his scepticism. Died 1 Feb. 1805. 

Draper (John "Williams), scientist and historian, b. St. Helens, 
near Liverpool, 5 May 1811. The son of a Wesleyan minister,, 
he was educated at London University. In '32 he emigrated 
to America, where he was Professor of Chemistrj^ and Natural 
History in New York University. He was one of the inven- 
tors of photography and the first who applied it to astronomy. 
He wrote many scientific works, notably on Human Physiology. 
His history of the American Civil War is an important work, 
but he is chieflj^ known by his History of the Intellectual Deve- 
lopment of Europe and History oj the Conflict of Religion and 
Science, which last has gone through many editions and been 
translated into all the principal languages. Died 4 Jan. 1882. 

Dreyfus (Ferdinand Camille), author of an able Avork on the 
Evolution of Worlds and Societies, 1888. 

Droysen ( Johann Gustav), German historian, b. Treptoir, 6 
July, 1808. Studied at Berlin; wrote in the HaUische Jahr- 
hilcher ; was Professor of History at Keil, 1840; Jena '51 and 
Berlin '59. Has edited Frederick the Great's Correspondence, 
and written other important works, some in conjunction with 
his friend Max Duncker. Died 15 June, 1882. 

Drummond (Sir William), of Logic Almond, antiquary and 
author, b. about 1770 ; entered Parliament as member for St. 


Mawes, Cornwall, 1795. In the following year he became 
envoy to the court of Naples, and in 1801 ambassader to Con- 
stantinople. His principal work is Oi^igines^ or Remarks on the 
Origin of several Empires, States, and Cities (4 vols. 1824-29). 
He also printed priyately The Qi!dipus Judaicus, 1811. It calls 
in question, with much boldness and learning, many legends of 
the Old Testament, to which it gave an astronomical signifi- 
cation. It was reprinted in '66. Sir William Drummond also 
wrote anonymously Philosophical Sketches of the Principles of 
Society, 1795. Died at Rome, 29 March, 1828. 

Duboc (Julius) German writer and doctor of philosophy 
b. Hamburgh, 10 Oct. 1829. Educated at Frankfurt and Giessen, 
is a clever journalist, and has translated the Historij of the' 
English Press. Has written an Atheistic work. Das Liehen Ohne 
Gott (Life without God), with the motto from Feuerbach " No 
religion is my religion, no philosophy my philosophy," 1875. 
He has also written on the Physchology of Love, and other im- 
portant works. 

Dubois (Pierre), a French sceptic, who in 1835 published 
The True Catechism of Believers — a work ordered by the Court of 
Assizes to be suppressed, and for which the author (Sept. '35) 
was condemned to six months' imprisonment and a fine of one 
thousand francs. He also wrote The Believer Undeceived, or 
Evident Proofs of the Falsity and Absurdity of Christianity; a 
work put on the Index in '36. 

Du Bois-Reymond (Emil), biologist, of Swiss father and 
French mother, b. Berlin, 7 Nov. 1818. He studied at Berlin 
and Bonn for the Church, but left it to follow science, '37. Has 
become famous as a ph^-siologist, especially by his Researches 
in Animal Electricity, '48-60. With Helmholtz he has done much 
to establish the new era of positive science, wrongly called by 
opponents Materialism. Du Bois-Reymond holds that thought 
is a function of the brain and nervous system, and that " soul " 
has arisen as the gradual results of natural combinations, but 
in his Limits of the Knowledge of Nature, '72, he contends that 
we must always come to an ultimate incomprehensible. Du 
Bois-Reymond has written on VoUnire and Natural Science, '68 ; 
La Mctirie, '75; Darwin versus Galiani, '78; and Frederick If 
113 H 


and R)usseaii, '79. Since '67 he lias been perpetual secretary of 
the Academy of Sciences, Berlin. 

Dubllissoil(PanlUlrich), French dramatist and revolutionary, 
b. Lauat, 1746. A friend of Cloots he suffered with him on the 
scaffold, 24 March, 1794. 

Dubuisson (Paul), living French Positivist, author of Grand 
Tyj^es of Humanity. 
Lu Chatelet Lomont. See Chastelet. 

Duclos (Charles Pinot), witty French writer, b. Dinan, 
12 Feb. 1704. He was admitted into the French Academy, 1747 
and became its secretary, 1755. A friend of Diderot and 
d'Alembert. His Considerations sur les Mcears is still a readable 
work. Died 27 March, 1772. 

Ducos (Jean Francois), French Girondist, b. Bordeaux in 
1765. Elected to the Legislative Assembly, he, on the 26th 
Oct. 1791, demanded the complete separation of the State from 
religion. He shared the fate of the Girondins, 31 Oct. 1793^ 
crying with his last breath, " Vive la Repuhlique I " 

Du Deffand (Marie), Marchioness^ witty literary French- 
woman, b. 1697. Chamfort relates that when young and 
in a convent she preached irreligion to her young com- 
rades. The abbess called in Massillon, to whom the little 
sceptic gave her reasons. He went away saying " She is 
charming." Her houge in Paris was for fifty years the 
resort of eminent authors and statesmen. She corresponded 
for many years with Horace Walpole, D'Alembert and Voltaire. 
Many anecdotes are told of her; thus, to the Cardinal de 
Polignac, who spoke of the miracle of St. Denis walking when 
beheaded, she said " II n'y a que le premier pas qui coute.'' Died 
24 Sept. 1780. To the cure of Saint Sulpice, who came to her 
death-bed, she said " Ni questions, ni raisons, ni sermons." 
Larousse calls her " Belle, instruite, spirituelle mais sceptique 
et materialiste." 

Dudgeon (William), a Berwickshire Deist, whose works were 
published (privately printed at Edinburgh) in 1765. 

Dudnevant (A. L. A. Dupin), Baroness. See Sand (Georges). 

Duehring (Eugen Karl), German writer, b. Berlin, 12 Jan. 

1833 ; studied law. He has, though blind, written many works 

on science and political economy, also a Critical History of 



Philosophy, '69-78, and Science Revolutionized, '78. In Oct. 1879, 
his death was maliciously reported. 

Dulaure (Jacques Antoine), French archeologist and his- 
torian, b. Clermont-Ferrand, 3 Dec. 1755. In 1788-90 he 
published six volumes of a description of France. He wrote 
many pamphlets, including one on the private lives of ecclesi- 
astics. Elected to the Convention in 1792, he voted for the 
death of the King. Proscribed as a Girondist, Sept. 1793, he 
fled to Switzerland. He was one of the Council of Five 
Hundred, 1796-98. Dulaure wrote a learned Treatise on Super- 
stitions, but he is best known by his History of Paris, and his 
Short History of Different Worships, 1825, in which he deals with 
ancient fetishism and phallic worship. Died Paris, 9 Aug. 1835. 

Dulaurens (Henri Joseph). French satirist, b. Douay, 
27 March, 1719. He was brought up in a convent, and made a 
priest 12 Nov. 1727. Published a satire against the Jesuits, 
1761, he was compelled to fly to Holland, where he lived in 
poverty. He edited VEvangile de la Raison, a collection of 
anti-Christian tracts by Voltaire and others, and wrote VAnti- 
papisme re'vele in 1767. He was in that year condemned to per- 
petual imprisonment for heresy, and shut in the convent of 
Mariabaum, where he died 1797. Dulaurens was caustic, 
cynical and vivacious. He is also credited with the Portfolios 
of a Philosopher, mostly taken from the Analysis of. Bayle, 
Cologne, 1770. 

Dulk CAlbert Friedrich Benno), German poet and writer, 
b. Konigsberg, 17 June, 1819 ; he became a physician, but was 
expelled for aiding in the Ee volution of '48. He travelled in 
Italy and Egypt. In '65 he published Jesus der Christ, em- 
bodying rationalism in prose and verse. He has also written 
Stimme der Menscheit, 2 vols., '76, '80, and Der Irrgang des Lehens 
Jesii, '84, besides numerous plays and pamphlets. Died 
29 Oct. 1884. 

Dumoilt (Leon), French writer, b. Valenciennes, 1837. 
Studied for the bar, but took to philosophy and literature. He 
early embraced Darwinism, and wrote on Hasckel and the Theory 
of Evolution, '73. He wrote in La Revue Philosophique, and 
other journals. Died Valenciennes, 17 Jan. 1877. 


Dumarsais (Cesar Chesxeau), French grammarian and philo- 
sopher, b. Marseilles, 17 July, 1676. When young he entered 
the congregation of the oratory. This society he soon quitted, 
and went to Paris, where he married. A friend of Boindin and 
Alembert, he wrote against the pretensions of Rome and con- 
tributed to the Encijclopedie, He is credited with An AnalyAsof 
the Christian Relif/ion and with the celebrated F!ssai sur Ics 
Prejugh, par Mr. D. M., but the latter was probably written by 
Holbach, with notes by Naigeon. Le Philosophe, published in 
L'Evangile de la Raison by Dulaurens, was written by Voltaire. 
Died 11 June, 1756. Dumarsais was very simple in character, 
and was styled b}' D'Alembert the La Fontaine of philosophers. 

Duinont (Pierre Etienne Louis), Swiss writer, b. Geneva, 18 
July, 1759. Was brought up as a minister, but went to France 
and became secretary to Mirabeau. After the Revolution he 
came to England, where he became acquainted with Bentham, 
whose works he translated. Died Milan, 29 Sept. 1829. 

Duncker (Maximilian Wolfgang), German historian, b. Berlin, 
15 Oct. 1811. His chief work, the History of Antiquity, 1852-57, 
thoroughly abolishes the old distinction of sacred and profane 
histor}', and freely criticises the Jewish records. A translation 
in six volumes has been made by E, Abbot. Duncker took an 
active part in the events of '48 and '50, and was appointed 
Director-General of the State Archives. Died 24 July, 1886. 

Dupont (Jacob Louis), a French mathematician and member 
of the National Convention, known as the Abbe Dupont, who^ 
14 Dec. 1792, declared himself an Atheist from the tribune of 
the Convention. Died at Paris in 1813. 

Dupont de Nemours (Pierre Samuel), French economist, b. 
Paris, 14 Dec. 1739. He became President of the Constituent 
Assembly, and was a Theophilantrophist. Died Delaware, 
X'.S.A., 6 Aug. 1817. 

Dupuis (Chalies Francois), French astronomer and philo- 
sopher, b. Trie-le-Chateau, 16 Oct. 1742. He was educated for 
the Church, which he left, and married in 1775. He studied under 
Lalande, and Avrote on the origin of the constellations, 1781. 
In 1788 he became a member of the Academy of Inscriptions. 
At the Revolution he was chosen a member of the Convention. 


During the Reign of Terror he saved many lives at his own 
risk. He was afterwards one of the Council of Five Hundred, 
and president of the legislative body. His chief work is on the 
Origin of Religions, 7 vols., 1795, in which he traces solar 
worship in various faiths, including Christianity. This has 
been described as " a monument of the erudition of unbelief." 
Dupuis died near Dijon, 29 Sept. 1809, 

Dutrieux (Pierre Joseph), Belgian physician, b. Tournai, 19 
July, 1848. Went to Cairo and became a Bey. Died 1 Jan. 

Button (Thomas), M.A., theatrical critic, b. London, 1767. 
Educated by the Moravians. In 1795 he published a Vindication 
of the Age of Reason hy Thomas Paine. He translated Kotzebue's 
Pizraro in Peru, 1799, and edited the Dnmiaiic Censor, 1800, and 
the Monthly Theatrical Rejjorter, 1815. 

Duvernet (Theophile Iraarigeon), French writer, b. at Ambert 
1730. He was brought up a Jesuit, became an Abbe, but 
mocked at religion. Duvernet became tutor to Saint Simon. 
For a political pamphlet he was imprisoned in the Bastille 
While here he wrote a curious and rare romance, Les Devotions 
dc Mme. de Bethzaniooth. He wrote on Religious Intolerance, 
1780, and a History of the Sorbonne, 1790, but is best known by 
his Life of Voltaire (1787). In 1793 he wrote a letter to the 
Convention, in which he declares that he renounces the religion 
" born in a stable between an ox and an ass." Died in 1796. 

Dyas (Richard H.), captain in the army. Author of i he Upas. 
He resided long in Italy and translated several of the works of 
C. Voysey. 

Eaton (Daniel Isaac), bookseller, b. about 1752, was edu- 
cated at the Jesuits' College, St. Omer. Being advised to 
study the Bible, he did so, with the result of discarding it as 
a revelation. In 1792 he was prosecuted for publishing 
Paine's Pdghts of Man, but the prosecution fell through. He 
afterwards published Politics for the People, which was also 
prosecuted, 1793, as was his Political Dictionary, 1796. To 
escape punishment, he fled to America, and lived there for 
three years and a half. Upon returning to England, his 
person and property were seized. Books to the value of 


£2,800 were burnt, and lie was imprisoned for fifteen months. 
He translated from Helvetius and sold at his " Ratiocinato ry 
or Magazine for Truths and Good Sense," 8 Cornhill, in 1810, The 
T/me Sense and Meaning of the System of Nature. The Law of Nature 
had been previously translated by him. In '11 he issued the 
first and second parts of Paine's Age of Reason ^ and on 6 March, 
'12, was tried before Lord EUenborough on a charge of blas- 
phemy for issuing the third and last part. He was sentenced 
to eighteen months' imprisonment and to stand in the pillory. 
The sentence evoked Shelley's spirited Letter to Lord Ellen- 
borough. Eaton translated and published Freret's Preservative 
against Religious Prejudices, 1812, and shortly before his death, at 
Deptford, 22 Aug. 1814, he was again prosecuted for publishing 
George Houston's Ecce Homo. 

Eberhard (Johann August), German Deist, b. Halberstadt, 
31 Aug. 1739, was brought up in the church, but persecuted 
for heresy in his New Apology for Socrates, 1772, was patronised 
by Frederick the Great, and appointed Professor of Philosophy 
at Halle, where he opposed the idealism of Kant and Fichte. 
He wrote a History of Philosophy , 1788. Died Halle, 7 Jan. 1809. 

Eberty (Gustav), German Freethinker, b. 2 July, 1806. 
Author of some controversial works. Died Berlin, 10 Feb. 1887. 

Echtermeyer (Ernst Theodor), German critic, b. Lieben- 
werda, 1805. He studied at Halle and Berlin, and founded, 
with A. Euge, the Hallische Jahrbllcher, which contained many 
Freethought articles, 1837-42. He taught at Halle and 
Dresden, where he died, 6 May, 1844. 

Edelmann (Johann Christian), German Deist, b. Weissenfels, 
Saxony, 9 July, 1698; studied theology in Jena, joined the 
Moravians, but left them and every form of Christianity, 
becoming an adherent of Spinozism. His principal works are 
his Unschuldige Wahrheiten, 1735 (Innocent Truths), in which 
he argues that no religion is of importance, and Moses mit 
Aufgedecktem Angesicht (Moses Unmasked), 1740, an. attack on 
the Old Testament, which, he believed, proceeded from Ezra ; 
Die Go.ttlichkeit der Verminft (The Divinit^^ of Reason), 1741, and 
Christ and Belial. His works excited much controversy, and 
were publicly burnt at Frankfort, 9 May, 1750. Edelmann was 
chased from Brunswick and Hamburgh, but was protected by 



Frederick the Great, and died at Berlin, 15 Feb. 1767. Mira- 
beau praised him, and Guizot calls him a " fameux esprit fort.'* 

Edison (Thomas Alva), American inventor, b. Milan, Ohio, 
10 Feb. 1847. As a boy he sold fruit and papers at the trains. 
He read, however. Gibbon, Hume and other important works 
before he was ten. He afterwards set up a paper of his own, 
then became telegraph ojDerator, studied electricity, invented 
electric light, the electric pen, the telephone, microphone, 
phonograph, etc. Edison is known to be an Agnostic and to 
pay no attention to religion. 

Eenens (Ferdinand), Belgian writer, b. Brussels, 7 Dec. 1811 
Eenens was an officer in the Belgian army, and wrote many 
political and anti-clerical pamphlets. He also wrote La 
Verite, a work on the Christian faith, 1859 ; Le Paradis Ter- 
restre, '60, an examination of the legend of Eden, and Du Dieu 
Thaumaturge, '76. He used the pen names " Le Pere Nicaise," 
" Nicodeme Polycarpe " and " Timon Til." Died at Brussels 
in 1883. 

Effen (Justus van), Dutch writer, b. Utrecht, 11 Feb. 1684. 
Edited the Misanthrope , Amsterdam, 1712-16; translated 
Robinson Crusoe, Swift's Ta^e o/ a TM&,and Mandeville's Thoughts 
on Religion, 1722 ; published the Dutch Spectator, 1731-35. Died 
at Bois-le-Duc, 18 Sept. 1735. 

Eichhorn (Johann Gottfried), German Orientalist and 
rationalist, b. 16 Oct. 1752, became Professor of Oriental Lite- 
rature and afterwards Professor of Theology at Gottingen. 
He published Introductions to the Old and New Testaments and 
A Commentarg on the Apocalypse, in which his criticism tends 
to uproot belief in the Bible as a divine revelation. He lec- 
tured every day for for fifty-two years. Died 25 June, 1827. 

" Elborch (Conrad von)," the pseudonym of a living learned 
Dutch writer, whose position does not permit him to reveal 
his true name. Born 14 Jan. 1865, he has contributed to De 
D'igeraad (The Daybreak), under various pen-names, as " Fra 
Diavolo," " Denis Bontemps," " J. Van den Ende," etc. He 
has given, in '88, a translation of the rare and famous Latin 
treatise, De Jrihus Impostoribus (On Three Impostors) [Jesus, 
Moses, and Muhammad], with an important bibliographic and 
historical introduction. 

" Eliot (George)," the pen-name of Mary Ann Lewes {nee 
Evans) one of the greatest novelists of the century, b. at 
Arbury Farm, near Griff, Warwickshire, 22 Nov. 1819. In '41 
the family removed to Foleshill, near Coventry. Here she 
made the friendship of the household of Charles Bray, and 
changed her views from Evangelical Christianity^ to philo- 
sophical scepticism. Influenced hj The Inquiry into the Origin 
of Christianity, by C. C. Hennell (Bray's brother-in-Ui\v), she 
made an analysis of that work. Her first literar}^ venture was 
translating Strauss' Lehen Jesu, published in 1846. After the 
death of her father ('49) she travelled with the Brays upon 
the Continent, and upon her return assisted Dr. Chapman in 
the editorship of the Westminster Revieiv, to which she contri- 
buted several articles. She translated Feuerbach's Essence of 
Christianity, '54, the only work published with her real name, 
and also translated from Spinoza's Ethics. Introduced by 
Herbert Spencer to George Henry Lewes, she linked her life 
with his in defiance of the conventions of society, July, '54. 
Both were poor, but by his advice she turned to fiction, in 
Avhich she soon achieved success. Her Scenes of Clerical Life, 
Adam Bede, Mill on the Floss, Silas Marner, Romola, Felix Holt, 
Middlenurch, Daniel Deronda, and Theophrastus Such have be- 
come classics., As a poet, "George Eliot" does not rank so 
high, but her little piece, " Oh, may I join the choir invisible," 
well expresses the emotion of the Religion of Humanit}^ and 
her SjmnLsh Gipsy she allowed was "a mass of Positivism.'' 
Lewes died in 1878, and within two 3^ears she married his 
friend, J. W. Cross. Her new happiness was short-lived- 
She died 22 Dec. 1880, and is buried with Lewes at Highgate. 

Ellero (Pietro) Italian jurisconsult, b. Pordenone, 8 Oct. 
'1833, Counsellor of the High Court of Rome, has been Pro- 
fessor of Criminal Law in the University of Bologna. Author 
of many works on legal ,and social questions. His Scritti 
Minori, Scritti Politici and La Question Sociale have the honor 
of a place on the Roman Index. 

Elliotson (John, M.D., F.R.S.), an eminent medical man, b. 

London, 1791. He became phj^sician at St. Thomas's Hospital 

in 1822, and made many contributions to medical science. By 

new prescriptions of quinine, creasote, etc, he excited much 



liostility in the profession. He was the first in this country 
to advocate the use of the stethoscope. He was also the first 
physician to discard knee-breeches and silk stockings, and to 
wear a beard. In '31 he was chosen Prosessor at University 
College, but, becoming an advocate of curative mesmerism, he 
resigned his appointments, '38. He was founder and President 
of the London Phrenological Society, and, in addition to many 
medical works, edited the Zoist (thirteen vols.), translated 
Blumenbach"s Physiology, and wrote an introduction to Engle- 
due's Cerebral Physiology, defending materialism. Thackeray 
dedicated Pendcnnis to him, '50, and he received a tribute of 
praise from Dickens. Died at London, 29 July, 1868. 

Eichthal (Gustavo d'), French writer, b. of Jewish family, 
Nancy, 22 March, 1804. He became a follower of Saint Simon, 
was one of the founders of the Societe d'Ethnologie, and pub- 
lished Les Evangiles, a critical analysis of the gospels, 2 vols, 
Paris, '63. This he followed by The Three Great Mediterranean- 
Nations and Christianity and Socrates and our Time, '84. He died 
at Paris, April, 1886, and his son published his Melanges dc 
Critique Bihlique (Miscellanies of Biblical Criticism), in which 
there is an able study on the name and character of " Jahveh." 

Emerson (Ralph Waldo), American essayist, poet, and philo- 
sopher, b. Boston 25 May, 1803. He came of a line of ministers, 
and was brought up like his father, educated at Harvard Col- 
lege, and ordained as a Unitarian minister, 1829. Becoming 
too broad for the Church, he resigned in '32. In the next year 
he came to Europe, visiting Carlyle. On his return he settled 
at Concord, giving occasional lectures, most of which have been 
published. He wrote to the Dial, a transcendentalist paper. 
Tending to idealistic pantheism, but without systematic philo- 
sophy, all his writings are most suggestive, and he is always 
the champion of mental freedom, self-reliance, and the free 
pursuit of science. Died at Concord, 27 April, 1882. Matthew 
Arnold has pronounced his essays ^' the most important work 
done in prose " in this century. 

Emerson (William), English mathematician, b. Hurworth, 

near Darlington, 14 May, 1701. He conducted a school and 

wrote numerous works on Mathematics. His vigorous, if 

eccentric, individuality attracted Carlyle, who said to Mrs. 



Gilchrist, "Emerson was a Freethinker who looked on his 
neighbor, the parson, as a humbug. He seems to have de- 
fended himself in silence the best way he could against the 
noisy clamor and unreal stuff going on around him." Died 
21 May, 1782, He compiled a list of Bible contradictions. 

Emmet (Robert), Irish revolutionist, b. in Dublin 1778, was 
educated as a barrister. Expelled from Dublin University for 
his sympathy with the National Cause in 1798 ; he went to the 
Continent, but returned in 1802 to plan an ill-starred insurrec- 
tion, for which he was executed 20 Sept. 1803. Emmet made 
a thrilling speech before receiving sentence, and on the scaffold 
refused the services of a priest. It is well known that his 
desire to see once more his sweetheart, the daughter of Curran, 
was the cause of his capture and execution. 

Engledue (William Collins), M.D., b. Portsea 1813. After 
taking his degree at Edinburgh, he became assistant to Dr. 
Lizars and was elected President of the Eoyal Medical Society 
of Edinburgh. He returned to Portsmouth in 1835; originated 
the Royal Portsmouth Hospital and established public baths 
and washhouses. He contributed to the Zoist and published an 
exposition of materialism under the title of Cerebral Physiology, 
1842, republished by J. Watson, 1857. Died Jan. 1859. 

English (George Bethune), American writer and linguist, b. 
Cambridge, Mass., 7 March, 1787. He studied law and divinity, 
and graduated at Harvard, 1807, but becoming sceptical pub- 
lished Grounds of Christianity Examined, 1813. The work 
excited some controversy, and has been reprinted at Toronto. 
He joined the Egyptian service and became General of Artillery, 
He bad a variable genius and a gift of languages. At Mar- 
seilles he passed for a Turk with a Turkish ambassador ; and 
at Washington he sui prised a delegation of Cherokees by dis- 
puting with them in their own tongue. He wrote a reply to his 
critics, entitled Five Smooth Stones out of the Brook, and two 
letters to Channing on his sermons against infidelity. Died at 
Washington, 20 Sept. 1828. 

Ense (Yarnhagen von). See Varnhagen. 

Ensor (George), an Irish writer, b. Loughgall, 1769. Edu- 

Civted at Trinity College; he became B.A. 1790, He travelled 

largely, and was a friend of liberty in every country. Besides 





other political works he published, The Independent Man, 1806; 
On National Government, 1810; A Revieio of the Miracles, Pro- 
phecies and Mysteries of the Old and New Testaments, first printed 
as Janus on Sion, 1816, and republished 1835 ; and Natural 
Theology Examined, 1836, the last being republished in The 
Library of Reason. Bentham described him as clever but 
impracticable. Died Ardress, Co. Armagh, 3 Dec. 1843. 

Epicurus, Greek philosopher, b. Samos, B.C. 342. He re- 
paired to Athens, B.C. 323. Influenced by the works of Demo- 
kritos, he occupied himself with philosophy. Ke purchased 
a garden in Athens, in which he established his school. 
Although much culminated, he is now admitted to have been a 
man of blameless life. According to Cicero, he had no belief 
in the gods, but did not attack their existence, in order not to 
offend the prejudices of the Athenians. In physics he adopted 
the atomic theory, and denied immortality. He taught that 
pleasure is the sovereign good ; but by pleasure he meant no 
transient sensation, but permanent tranquility of mind. He 
wrote largely, but his works are lost. His principles are 
expounded in the great poem of Lucretius, De Rermn Natura. 
Died B.C. 270, leaving many followers. 

" Erdan (Alexandre)," the pen-name of Alexandre Andre 
Jacob, a French writer, b Angles 1826. He was the natural son 
of a distinguished prelate. Educated at Saint Sulpice for the 
Church, he read Proudhon, and refused to take holy orders. 
He became a journalist and an advocate of phonography. His 
work, Z-a France Mystique (1855), in which he gives an account 
of French religious eccentricities, was condemned for its 
scepticism which appears on every page. Sentenced to a 
year's imprisonment and a fine of three thousand francs, he 
took refuge in Italy. Died at Frascati, near Rome, 24 Sept. 1878- 

Ernesti (Johann August), German critic, b. Tennstadt, 
4 Aug. 1707. Studied at Wittenberg and Leipsic, where he 
was appointed professor of classical literature. Renowned as 
a philologist, he insisted that the Bible must be interpreted 
like any other book. Died Leipsic, 11 Sept. 1781. 

Escherny (Francois Louis d') Count, Swiss litterateur, b. 
Neufchatel, 24 Nov. 1733. He spent much of his life in travel. 
At Paris he became the associate of Helvetius, Diderot, and 


particularly ilousseau, whom he much admired. He wrote 
Lacunes de la Philosophic (Amsterdam, 1783) and a work on 
Equality (1795), in which he displays his Freethought. Died at 
Paris, 15 July, 1815. 

Espinas (Alfred), French philosopher, b. Saint-Florentin, 
1844. Has translated, with Th. Eibot, H. Spencer's Principles 
of P.-<ychologi) , and has written studies on Experimental Philo- 
sophy in Italy, and on Animal Societies (1877). 

Espronceda (Jose), popular Spanish poet, b. Almendralejo 
(Estremadura) in 1810. After the War of Independence he 
went to Madrid and studied under Alberto Lista, the poet and 
mathematician. He became so obnoxious to the government 
b}'^ his radical principles that he was imprisoned about the 
age of fifteen, and banished a few years later. He passed 
several years in London and Paris, and was brought under 
tlie influence of Byron and Hugo. He fought with the people 
in the Paris Revolution of July, 1830. On the death of the 
Spanish King in '33 he returned to Madrid, but was again 
banished for too free expression of his oiDinions. He returned 
and took part in the revolutionary contest of '35-36. He was 
elected to the Cortes in '41, and appointed secretary of embassy 
to The Hague. Died 23 Ma}', 1842. Among his works are 
lyrical poems, which often remind us of Heine ; an unfinished 
epic. El Pelayo ; and El Diahlo-Mundo (the Devil- World), a fine 
poem, due to the inspiration of Faust and Don Juan. Espro- 
ceda was a thorough sceptic. In his Song of the Pirate he asks, 
" Who is my God ? — Liberty " ; and in his concluding lines to 
a star he says : 

I unheedingly follow my path, 
At the mercy of winds and of waves. 
Wrapt thus within tlie arms of Fate, 
What care I if lost or saved. 

Estienne (Henri), the ablest of a family of learned French 
printers, known in England as Stephens ; b. Paris, 1528. At 
the age of eighteen he assisted his father in collating the 
MSS. of Dionysius and Halicarnassus. In 1557 he established 
a printing ofiice of his own, and issued many Greek authors ; 
and in 1572 the Thesaurus Linguss Grxcx His Apologic pour 
Herodote (Englished as a World of WondersJ is designed as 
a satire on Christian legends, and directed against priests and 




priestcraft. He was driven from place to place. Sir Philip 
Sidney highly esteemed him, and " kindly entertained him in 
his travaile." Died 1598. Garasse classes him with Atheists. 

Esteve (Pierre), French writer, b. Montpelier at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. He wrote a History of 
Astronomy and an anonymous work on the Origin of the 
Universe explained from a Principle of Matter : Berlin, 1748. 

Ettel (Konrad), Austrian Freethinker, b. 17 Jan. 1847, at 
Neuhof, Sternberg. Studied at the Grymnasium Kremsier, and 
at the wish of his parents at the Theological Seminary Olmiitz, 
which he left to study philosophy at Vienna. He has written 
many poems and dramas. His Grundzuye dtr Naturlirhen 
Weltanschauung (Sketch of a Natural View of the World), a 
Freethinker's catechism, 1886, has reached a fourth edition. 

Evans (George Henry), b. at Bromyard, Herefordshire, 25 
March, 1803. While a child, his parents emigrated to New 
York. He set up as a printer, and published the Correspondent^ 
the first American Freethought paper. He also published the 
Working Man's Advocate, Man, Young America, and the Radical. 
He labored for the transportation of mails on Sundays, the 
limitation of the right to hold lands, the abolition of slavery, 
and other reforms. His brother became one of the chief elders 
of the Shakers. Died in Granville, New Jersey, 2 Feb. 1855. 

Evans (William), b. Swansea, 1816, became a follower of 
Robert Owen. He established The Potter's Examiner and 
Worknian''s Advocate, '43, and wrote in the Co-operative journals 
under the anagram of " Millway Vanes." Died 14 March-, 1887. 

Evanson (Edward), theological critic, b. Warrington, Lan- 
cashire, 21 April, 1731. He graduated at Cambridge, became 
vicar of South Mimms, and afterwards rex?tor of Tewkesbury. 
Entertaining doubts on the Trinity, he submitted them to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury without obtaining satisfaction. He 
made some changes in reading the Litany, and for expressing 
heretical opinions in a sermon in 1771, he was prosecuted, but 
escaped in consequence of some irregularity in the proceedings. 
In 1772 he published an anonymous tract on the Trinity. In 
1797 he addressed a letter to the Bishop of Lichfield on the 
Prophecies of the New Testament, in which he tried to show 
that either Christianitv was false or the orthodox churches. In 


the following year he resigned both his livings and took pupils. 
In 1792 he published his principal work, The Dissonance of the 
Four Generally -heceived Evangelists^ in which he rejected all the 
gospels, except Luke, as unauthentic. This work involved him 
in a controversy with Dr. Priestley, and brought a considerable 
share of obliquy and persecution from the orthodox. Died 25 
Sept. 1805. 

Eve'merus or Euhemerus (Ev-qix^po^), a Sicilian author of 
the time of Alexander the Great, who sought to rationalise 
religion, and treated the gods as dead heroes. He is usually 
represented as an Atheist. 

Eudes (Emile Frangois Desire), French Communist, b. Eoncey, 
1841. He became a chemist, and was condemned, with 
Regnard, to three months' imprisonment for writing in La 
Libre Pensee, '67, of which he was director. He joined the 
ranks of the Commune and became a general. When the 
Versailles troops entered Paris he escaped to Switzerland. On 
his return after the Amnesty, he wrote with Blanqui. Died at 
a public meeting in Paris, 5 Aug. 1888. 

Ewerbeck (August Hermann), Dr., b. Dantzic. After the 
events of 1848, he lived at Paris. He translated into German 
Cabet's Voyage en Icarie, and in an important work entitled 
Qu'est ce que La Religion? (What is Religion), '50, translated into 
French Feuerbach's " Essence of Religion," " Essence of 
Christianity," and " Death and Immortality." In a succeeding 
volume What is the Bible / he translated from Dauraer, Ghillany, 
Luetzelberger and B. Bauer. Ewerbeck also wrote in French 
an historical work on Germany and the Germans; Paris, 1851. 

ITabre D'Eglantine (Philippe Francois Nazaire), French 
revolutionist and play writer, b. Carcassonne, 28 Dec. 1755. 
After some success as a poet and playwright he was chosen as 
deputy to the National Convention. He voted for the death of 
Louis XVI., and proposed the substitution of the republican 
for the Christian calendar, Sept. 1793. He was executed with 
his friend Danton, 5 April, 1794. 

Fabricator e (Bruto), Italian writer, b. Sarno, Naples, 1824. 

His father Antonio had the honor of having a political work 

placed on the Index, 1821. He took part in the anti-papal 

Freethought Coucil of 1869, and has writen works on Dante, etc. 



Farinata. See Ubkrti (Farinata degli). 

Fauche (Hippolyte), French Orientalist, b. Auxerre, 22 May, 
1797. Translations of the Mahabharata, the Eamayana, and 
the plays of Kalidasa, attest his industry and erudition. He 
contributed to La Liberie de Penscr. Died at Juilly, 28 Feb. 

Fausto (Sebas tiano), Da LoNGiANO, Italian of the beginning of 
the 16th centmy, whois said to have projected a work The 
Temple of Truth, with the intention of overturning all religions. 
He translated the Meditations of Antoninus, also wrote observa- 
tions on Cicero, 1566. 

Feer (Henri Leon), French Orientalist, b. Eouen, 27 Nov. 
1830, is chiefly known by his Buddhistic Studies, 1871-75. 

Fellens (Jean Baptiste), Professor of History, b. Bar-sur- 
Aube, 1794. Author of a work on Pantheism, Paris, 1873. 

Fellowes (Robert), LL.D., b. Norfolk 1771, educated at 
Oxford. He took orders in 1795, and Avrote many books, but 
gradually quitted the doctrines of the Church and adopted the 
Deistic opinions maintained in his work entitled The Religion 
of the Universe (1836). Dr. Fellowes was proprietor of the 
Examiner and a great supporter of the London University. 
Died 5 Feb. 1847. 

Fenzi fSebastiano), Italian writer, b. Florence, 22 Oct. 1822 
Educated by the Jesuits in Vienna, England and Paris. 
Founded in '49 the Revista Britannica, writer on the journal 
L'ltaliano, and has written a credo which is a non-credo. 

Feringa (Frederik), Dutch writer, b. Groningen, 16 April, 
1840. Studied mathematics. A contributor to De Vageraad 
(The Daybreak) over the signature, " Muricatus " ; he has 
written important studies, entitled Democratie en Wetenschap 
(Democracy and Science), 1871, also wrote in De Vrye Gedachte 

Fernau (Rudolf), Dr , German author of Christianity and Prac- 
tical Life, Leipsic, 1868 ; The Alpha and Omega of Reason, 
Leipsic, 1870 ; Zoologica Humoristica, 1882 ; and a recent work 
on Religion as Ghost and God Worship. 

Feron (Emile), Belgian advocate, b. Brussels, 11 Jul}^ 1841. 
Councillor of the International Freethought Federation. 

Ferrari (Giuseppe), Italian philosopher, b. Milan 7 March, 


1811 A disciple of Romagnosi, a study of whose philosophical 
writings he published '35. He also published the works of 
Vico, and in '39 a work entitled Tico and Italy, and in the 
following year another on the Religious Opinions of Campanella, 
Attacked by the Catholic party, he was exiled, living in 
Paris, where he became a collaborator with Proudhon and a 
contributor to the Revue de Deux Mondes. In '42 he was made 
Professor of Philosophy at Strasbourg, but appointment was soon 
cancelled on account of his opinions. He wrote a Hi^^tonj of the 
Revolution of Italy, '55, and a work on China and Europe. His 
history of the Reason of the State, '60, is his most pronounced 
work In '59, he was elected to the Italian Parliament, 
where he remained one of the most radical members until 
his death at Rome 1 July, 1876 

Ferri (Enrico), Member of the Italian Parliament, formerly 
professor of criminal law at the University of Siena, studied at 
Mantua under Professor Ardigo. Has written a large work 
on the Non-Existence of Free Will, and is with Professor 
Lombroso, leader of the new Italian school of criminal law 

Ferri (Luigi), Italian philosopher, b. Bologna, 15 June 182 6 
Studied in Paris and became licentiate of letters in 1850. 
Author of History of Philosophy in Italy, Paris 1868 ; The Psycho- 
logy ofPomponazzi. etc. 

Ferriere (Emile), French writer and licentiate of letters, 
b. Paris, 1830 ; author of Literature and Philosophy, 1865 ; Dar- 
icinism, 1872, which has gone through several editions; Ihe 
Apostles, a work challenging early Christian Morality, 1879 ; 
The Soul the Function of the Brain, a scientific work of popular 
character in two vols., 1883 ; and Paganism of the Hebrews until 
the Babylonian Captivity, 1884. All these are works of pro- 
nounced Freethought. M. Ferriere has also announced a work 
Jesus bar Joseph. 

Feuerbach (Fried rich Heinrich), son of a famous German 
jurist, was b. at Ansbach 29 Sept. 1806. He studied philology, 
but set himself to preach what his brother LudAvig taught. He 
wrote Theanthropos, a series of Aphorisms (Zurich, '38), and an 
able work on the Religion of the Future, '43-47 ; and Ihoughts 
and Facf6', Hamburg, '62. Died Nurenberg, 24 Jan. 1880. 


Feuerbach (Ludwig Andreas), brother of the preceding, b. 
Landshut, Bavaria, 28 July 1804. He studied theology with a 
view to the Church, but under the influence of Hegel abandoned 
it for philosophy. In '28 he was made professor at Erhmgen, 
but w^as dismissed in consequence of his first published work. 
Thoughts upon Death and Immortalify, '30, in which he limited 
immortality to personal influence on the human race. After a 
wandering life he married in '37, and settled near Anspach. 
He published there a history of modern philosophy from Bacon 
to Spinoza. This was followed by a work on Peter Bayle. In 
'38 he wrote on philosophy and Christianity, and in '41 his 
work called the The Essence of Christianity, in which he resolves 
theology into anthropology. This book w^as translated by 
Mary Ann Evans, '53. He also wrote Principles of the Philoso- 
phy of the Future. After the revolution of '48 he was invited 
to lecture by the students of Heidelberg, and gave his course 
on The Essence of Religion, published hi '51. In '57 he published 
Theogony from the Sources of Classical^ Hebrew, and Christian 
Antiquity, and in '66 Theism, Freedom, and Immortality from the 
Standpoint of Anthropology. Died at Rechenberg, near Nuren- 
berg, 13 Sept. 1872. His complete works were published at 
Leipsic in 1876. He was a deep thinker and lucid writer. 

Fichte (Johann Gottlieb), one of the greatest German 
thinkers, b. 19 May, 1762. He studied at the Universities of 
Jena, Leipsic, and Wittenberg, embraced " determinism"," be- 
came acquainted with Kant, and published anonymously, A 
Criticism of all Revelaiion. He obtained a chair of philosophy 
at Jena, where he developed his doctrines of science, asserting 
that the problem of philosophy is to seek on what foundations 
knowledge rests. He gave moral discourses in the lecture-room 
on Sunday, and was accused of holding atheistical opinions. He 
was in consequence banished from Saxony, 1799. He appears to 
have held that God was not a personal being, but a system of 
intellectual, moral, and spiritual laws. Fichte took deep inte- 
rest in the cause of German independence, and did much to 
rouse his countrymen against the domination of the French 
during the conquest which led to the fall of Napoleon. Besides 
many publications, in which he expounds his philosoph}^, he 
wrote eloquent treatises on The Vocation of Man, The Mature 
129 I 


•and Vocation of the Scholar^ The Way To wards the Blessed Life, 
•etc. Died Berlin 27 Jan. 1814. 

" Figaro." See Lahra (Mariano Jose de). 
Figuiera (Gnillem), Provencal troubadour and precursor of 
the Renaissance, b. Toulouse about 1190. His poems were 
•directed against the priests and Court of Rome. 

Filangieri (Gaetano), an Italian writer on legislation, b. 
Naples, 18 Aug. 1752. He was professor at that city. His 
principal work is La Scienza dtlla Leyidazione, 1780. In the fifth 
volume he deals with pre-Christian religions. The work was 
put on the Index. Died 21 July, 1788. 

Fiorentino (Francesco), Italian philosopher, b. Sambiasa, 
Nicastro, 1 May, 1834. In 1860 he became Professor of Philo- 
sophy at Spoletto, in '62 at Bologna, and in '71 at Naples. He 
was elected deputy to Parliament, Nov. '70. A disciple of 
Felice Tocco, he paid special attention to the early Italian 
Freethinkers, writing upon The Pantheism of Giordano Bruno, 
Naples, '61 ; Pietro Pomponazzi, Florence, '68 ; Bernardius 
Telesio, Florence, 2 vols., '72-74. He has also written on 
Strauss and Spinoza. In the Xuova Antologia he wrote on 
J. C. Vanini, and on CEesalpinus, Campanella, and Bruno. 
A friend of Bertrando Spaventa, he succeeded to his chair at 
Naples in '83. Died 22 Dec. 1884. 

Fischart (Johann), German satirist called Mentzer, b. Stras- 
bourg about 1545. His satires in prose and verse remind 
one of Rabelais, whom he in part translated, and are often 
directed against the Church. Died at Forbach in 1614. 

Fischer (J. C), German materialist, author of a work on 
the freedom of the will 1858, a criticism of Hartmann's Phdo- 
sophy of the Unconscious, '72; Das Bcicusstcin, '74. Died 1888. 

Fischer (Kuno), German philosopher, b. 23 July, 1824, at 
San-dewald, Silesia. Educated at Leipsic and Halle, in 1856 
he was appointed Professor of Philosophy at Jena. His chief 
works are History of Modern Philosophy , '52-72 ; Life and 
Character of Spinoza ; Francis Bacon, '56 ; and Lessing, '81. 

Fiske (John), American author, b. Hartford, Connecticut, 
30 March, 1842. Graduated at Harvard, '03. In '69-71 was 
Lecturer on Philosophy at that University, and from '72-9 


Librarian. Mr. Fiske has lectured largely, and has written 
Myths and Mythmakers^ 72 ; Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy, 2 vols. 
'74 ; Darwinism, and other essays, '79 ; Excursions of an Evolutionist, 
'83 ; The Idea of God as Affected hy Modern Knowledge, '85. 

Flaubert (Gustave), French novelist, b. Rouen, 12 Dec. 1821. 
The son of a distinguished surgeon, he abandoned his father's 
profession for literature. His masterpiece, Madame Bo vary, 
published in '56 in the Revue de Paris, drew a prosecution upon 
that journal which ended in a triumph for the author. For his 
next great work, Sulammbo, '62, an epic of Carthage, he pre- 
pared himself by long antiquarian studies. His intellectual 
tendencies are displayed in The Temptation of Saint Anthony. 
He stands eminent among the naturalist school for his artistic 
fidelity. He was a friend of Theophile Gautier, Ivan Turgenev, 
Emile Zola and " George Sand," His correspondence with the 
last of these has been published. He distinctly states therein 
that on subjects like immortality men cheat themselves with 
words. Died at Rouen, 9 May, 1880. 

Flourens (Marie Jean Pierre), French scientist, b. near 
Beziers, 15 April, 1794. In 1828 he was admitted into the 
Academy of Sciences, after having published a work on the 
nervous system of vertebrates ; he became perpetual secretary 
in '33. A work on Human Lonytrify and the Quantity of Life on 
the Globe was very popular. Died near Paris, 6 Dec. 1867. 

Flourens (Gustave), eldest son of the preceding, b. Paris, 
4 Aug. 1838. In '63 he took his father's chair at the College 
of France, and his course on "Ethnography" attracted much 
attention. In the following year he published his work on 
The Science of Man. His bold her^^sy lost him his chair, and 
he collaborated on Larousse's Grand ]Hctio7inaire. In '65 he 
left France for Crete, where for three years he fought in the 
mountains against the Turkish troops. Upon his return he was 
arrested for presiding at a political meeting. He showed him- 
self an ardent Revolutionist, and was killed in a skirmish near 
Nanterre, 3 April, 1871. 

Fonblanque (Albany William), English journalist, b. London, 

1793 ; the son of an eminent lawyer. In 1820 he was on the 

staff of the Tim^s, and contributed to the Westminster Review, 

In '30 he became editor of the Examiner, and retained his post 



until '47. His eaiistic wit and literary attainments did much 
to forward advanced liberal views. A selection of his editorials 
was published under the title, England under Seven Administra- 
tions. Died 13 Oct. 1872. 

Fontanier (Jean), French writer, who was burnt at the 
Place de Greve, 1621, for blasphemies in a book entitled Le 
Jresor InestimaUe. Garasse, with little reason, calls him an 

Fontenelle (Bernard le Bovier de), nephew of Corneille. 
called by Voltaire the most universal genius of the reign 
of Louis XIV., b. Eouen. 11 Feb. 1657. Dedicated to the 
Virgin and St. Bernard, he was educated at the Jesuits' 
College. He went to Paris in 1674 ; wrote some plays and 
Dialogues of the Dead, 1683. In 1686 appeared his Conversations 
on the Plurality of Woj-lds, and in the following year his History 
of Oracles, based on the work of Van Dale, for which he was 
warmly attacked by the Jesuit Baltus, as impugning the Church 
Fathers. He was made secretary to the Academy of Sciences 
in 1699, a post he held fortj^-two years. , He wrote Doubts on 
the Physical System of Occasional Causes, and is also credited 
with a letter on the Resurrection of the Body, a piece on The 
Infinite, and a Treatise on Liberty ; " but, says I'Abbe Ladvocat, 
" as these books contain many things contrary to religion, it 
is to be hoped they are not his." Fontenelle nearly reached 
the age of one hundred. A short time before he died (9 Jan. 
1757), being asked if he felt any pain, "I only feel,' he replied, 
" a difficulty of existing." 

Foote (George William), writer and orator, b. Plymouth, 
11 Jan. 1850. Was "converted" in youth, but became a 
Freethinker by reading and independent thought. Came to 
London in 1868, and was soon a leading member of the Young 
Men's Secular Association. He taught in the Hall of Science 
Sunday School, and became secretary of the Republican 
League. Devoting his time to propagating his principles, he 
wrote in the Secular Chronicle and National P^eformer, and in '76 
started the Secularist in conjunction with Mr. G. J. Holyoake, and 
after the ninth number conducting it alone. This afterwards 
merged in the Secular Review. In '79 Mr. Foote edited the 
Liberal, and in Sept. '81, started the Freethinker, which he still 


edits. In the following year a prosecution was commenced 
loy the Public Prosecutor, who attempted to connect Mr. 
Bradlaugh with it. Undaunted, Mr. Foote issued a Christmas 
number with an illustrated " Comic Life of Christ." For this a 
prosecution was started b}^ the City authorities against him 
and his publisher and printer, and the trial came on first in 
March, '83. The jury disagreed, but Judge North refused to 
discharge the prisoners, and they were tried again on the 5th 
March ; Judge North directing that a verdict of guilty must 
be returned, and sentencing Mr. Foote to one year's imprison- 
ment as an ordinary criminal subject to the same " discipline " 
as burglars. " I thank you, my lord ; your sentence is worthy of 
your creed," he remarked. On 24 April, '83, Mr. Foote was 
brought from prison before Lord Coleridge and a special jury 
on the first charge, and after a splendid defence, upon which 
he was highly complimented by the judge, the jury disagreed. 
He has debated with Dr. McCann, Eev. A. J. Harrison, the 
Rev. W. Howard, the Eev. H. Chapman, and others. Mr. 
Foote has written much, and lectures continually. Among his 
works we mention Heroes and Martyrs of Frccthought (1876) ; 
God, the Soul, and a Future State ; Secularism the True Philosophy of 
Life (1879); Atheism and Morality ; The Futility of Prayer ; Bible 
Romances ; Death's Test, afterwards enlarged into Infidel Death- 
Beds; The God Christians Swear hy ; Was Jesus Insane? Blasphemy 
No Crime; Arrows of Freethought ; Prisoner for Blaspheiny (1884); 
Letters to Jesus Christ ; What Was Christ ? Bible Heroes ; and has 
edited The Bible Hand-book with Mr. W. P. Ball, and the Jewish 
Life of Christ with the present writer, in conjunction with whom 
he has written The Crimes of Christianity. From 1883-87 he 
edited Progress, in which appeared many important articles 
from his pen. Mr. Foote is President of the London Secular 
.Federation, and a Vice-President of the National Secular Society. 

FouiUee (Alfred), French philosopher, b. La Poueze, near 
Angers, 18 Oct. 1838. Has been teacher at several lyceums, 
notably at Bordeaux. He was crowned by the Academy of 
Moral Sciences for two works on the Philosophy of Plato and 
Socrates. Elected Professor of Philosophy at the Superior 
Normal School, Paris, he sustained a thesis at the Sorbonne 
on Liberty and Determinism, which was violently attacked by 



the Catholics. This work has gone through several editions. 
M. Fonillee has also written an able History of Philoso/ihy, 1875, 
Contemporary Social Science, and an important Critique of Contem- 
porary Moral Systems (1883). He has written much in the Revue 
ihs Deux Mondes, and is considered, with Taine, Eibot, and 
Renan, the principal representative of French philosophy. His 
system is known as that of idles -forces, as he holds that ideas 
are themselves forces. His lalest work expounds the views of 
M. Guyau. 

For'b3rg (Friedrich Karl), German philosopher, b. Meusel- 
witz, 30 Aug. 1770, studied theology at Leipsic, and became 
private docent at Jena. Becoming attached to Fichte's philo- 
sophy, he wrote with Fichte in Niethammer's Philosophical 
Journal on "The Development of Religious Ideas," and an 
article on " The Ground of our Faith in Divine Providence," 
which brought on them a charge of Atheism, and the journal 
was confiscated by the Electorate of Saxony. Forberg held 
religion to consist in devotion to morality, and wrote An 
Apology for Alleged Atheism, 1799. In 1807 he became librarian 
at Coburg, and devoted himself to the classics, issuing a Ma/meZ 
d'Eretologie Classiqne. Died Hildburghausen 1 Jan. 1848. 

Forder (Robert), b. Yarmouth, 14 Oct. 1844. Coming to 
to Woolwich, he became known as a political and Freethought 
lecturer. He took part in the movement to save Plumstead 
Common from the enclosers, and was sent to trial for riotous 
proceedings, but was acquitted. In "77 he was appointed 
paid secretary to the National Secular Society, a post he has 
ever since occupied. During the imprisonment of Messrs. 
Foote, Ramsey, and Kemp, in '83, Mr. Forder undertook 
charge of the publishing business. He has lectured largely, 
and written some pamphlets. 

Forlong (James George Roche). Major General, H.B.A., b. 
Lanarkshire, Scotland, Nov. 1824. Educated as an engineer, 
joined the Indian army '43, fought in the S. Mahrata campaign 
'45-6, and in the second Barmese war. On the annexation of 
Barma he became head of the Survey, Roads and canal 
branches. In '58-9 he travelled extensively through Egypt, 
Palestine, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, etc. From '61-71 
was a superintending engineer of Calcutta, and in Upper Bengal, 



Korth-west Provinces, and Rajputana, and '72-76 was Secretaiy 
and Chief Engineerto the Government of Oudli, He retired in '77' 
after an active service of 33 years, during which he frequently 
received the thanks of the Indian and Home Governments. In 
his youth he was an active Evangelical, preaching to the 
natives in their own tongues. He has, however, given his 
testimony that during his long experience he has known no one 
converted solely by force of reasoning or" Christian evidences. ' 
A great student of Eastern religions, archaeology, and languages,, 
he has written in various periodicals of the East and West, and 
has embodied the result of many years researches in two- 
illustrated quarto volumes called Rivers of Life, setting forth the- 
evolution of all religions from their radical objective basis to 
their present spiritualised developments. In an elaborate chart 
he shows by streams of color the movements of thought from 
10,000 B.C. to the present time. 

Fourier (Francois Marie Charles), French socialist, b.. 
Besancon, 7 April, 1772. He passed some of the early years- 
of his life as a common soldier. His numerous works amid 
much that is visionary have valuable criticisms upon society',, 
and suggestions for its amelioration. He believed in the trans- 
migration of souls. Died at Paris, 8 Oct. 1837. 

Fox (William Johnson), orator and political writer, b. near 
Wrentham, Suffolk, 1786. Intended for the Congregational 
Ministry, he became a Unitarian, and for many years preached 
at South Place, Finsbury, where he introduced the plan of 
taking texts from other books besides the Bible. One of his 
first published sermons was on behalf of toleration for Deists at 
the time of the Carlile prosecutions 1819. He gradually advanced 
from the acceptance of miracles to their complete rejection. 
During the Anti-Corn Law agitation he was a frequent and 
able speaker. In 1847 he became M.P. for Oldham, and re- 
tained his seat until his retirement in '61. He was a prominent 
worker for Radicalism, contributing to the Westminster Review, 
Weekly Di-patch, and Daihj Neirs. For some years he edited 
the Monthly Repository. His works, which include spirited 
Lectures to the W\wking Classes, and a philosophical statement of 
Relifjions Ideas, were published in twelve volumes, '65-68.- 
Died 3 June, 1864. 


" Franchi (Ausonio)," the pen name of Francesco Cristoforo 
BoNAViNO, Italian ex-priest, b. Pegli, 24 Feb. 1821. Brought 
up in the Church and ordained priest in '44, the practice of the 
confessional made him sceptical and he quitted it for philo- 
fjophy, having ceased to believe in its dogmas, '49. In '52 he 
published his principle work, entitled The Philosophy q/ the 
Italian Schooh. The following 3'ear he published Ihe Religion 
of the Nineteenth Century. He established La Razione (Reason) 
and II Lihero Pensiero at Turin, '54-57; wrote on tho, Rationalism 
of the People, Geneva., '56, and became an active organiser of 
anti-clerical societies. In '66 he published a criticism of 
Positivism, and has since written Critical and Polemic^d Essays, 
3 vols. Milan, '70-72. In '68 was appointed Professor of Philo- 
sophy in the Academy of Milan by Terenzio Mamiani. 

Francis (Samuel), M.D., author of Watson Refuted, published 
by Carlile, 1819. 

Francois de Neufchatean (Nicolas Louis), Count, French 
statesman, poet, and academician b. Lorraine, 17 April, 1750. In 
his youth he became secretary to Voltaire, who regarded him 
as his successor. He favored the Eevolution, and was elected 
to the Legislative Assembly in '91. As Member of the Direc- 
tory, '97, he circulated d'Holbach's Contagion Sacree. He became 
President of the Senate, '14-16. He wrote numerous pieces. 
Died at Paris 10 Jan. 1828. 

Franklin (Benjamin), American patriot and philosopher, b. 
Boston 17 Jan. 1706. He Avas apprenticed to his uncle as a 
printer, came to England and worked at his trade '24-26; re- 
turned to Philadelphia, where he published a papei- and became 
known by his Poor Richard's Almanack. He founded the public 
library at Philadelphia, and made the discovery of the identity 
of lightning with the electric fluid. He became member of the 
Provincial Assembly and was sent to England as agent. When 
examined before the House of Commons he spoke boldly against 
the Stamp Act. He was active during the war with this 
country, and was elected member of Congress. Became envoy 
to France, and effected the treaty of alliance with that country, 
<5 Feb. '78, which secured the independence of the American 
colonies. Turgot summed up his services in the fine line 
Eripuit coelo falmen, sceptrumque tyrannis. " He wrested the 


thunderbolt from heaven and the sceptre from kings." Died 
at Philadelphia, 17 April, 1790. 

Fransham (JohnJ, a native of Norwich, h. 1730, became a 
teacher of mathematics, renounced the Christian religion, and 
professed Paganism, writing several treatises iu favor of dis- 
belief. Died 1810. 

Frauenstaedt (Christian Martin Julius), Dr., philosopher and 
disciple of Schopenhauer, b. 17 April, 1813, at Bojanowo, Posen. 
He studied philosophy and theology at Berlin, but meeting 
Schopenhauer at Frankfort in '47 he adopted the views of the 
pessimist, who made him his literary executor. Among 
Frauenstadt's works are Letters on Natural Relkjion,'^S, The Liberty 
of Men and the Personality of God, '38; Letters on the Philosophy 
of Schopenhauer, '54, etc. Died at Berlin, 13 Jan. 1879. 

Frederick II. (Emperor of Germany), the greatest man of 
the thirteenth century and founder of the Renaissance, b. 26 Dec. 
1194. Was elected to the throne in 1210. He promoted learn- 
ing, science, and art, founded the Universities of Vienna and 
Naples, had the works of Aristotle and Averroes translated, 
and was the patron of all the able men of his time. For his 
resistance to the tyranny of the Church he was twice excom- 
municated. He answered by a letter attacking the Pope (Gre- 
gory IX.), whom he expelled from Rome in '28. He made a 
treaty with the Sultan of Egypt, by which he became master of 
Jerusalem. For some heretical words in his letter, in which 
he associates the names of Christ, Moses, and Mohammed, he 
was reported author of the famous work Be Tribus hnpostoribus. 
He addressed a series of philosophical questions to Ibn Sabin, a 
Moslem doctor. He is said to have called the Eucharist trnffa 
ista, and is credited also with the saying " Ignorance is the 
mother of devotion." Died at Florence, 13 Dec. 1250. 

Frederick the Great (King of Prussia), b. 24 Jan. 1712, was 
educated in a very rigid fashion by his father, Frederick 
William I. He ascended the throne and soon displayed his 
political and military ability. By a war with Austria he 
acquired Silesia. He wrote several deistical pieces, and 
tolerated all religions and no religion saying " every man 
must get to heaven his own way." He attracted to his court 


men like Lamettrie, D'Argens, Maupertuis, and Voltaire, who,. 
Rays Carlyle, continued all his days Friedrich's chief thinkeiv 
In 1756 France, Austria, Sweden, and Eussia united against 
him, but he held his own against " a world in arms." 
After a most active life Frederick died at Potsdam, 17 Aug. 
1786. The Philosophical Breviary attributed to him was really 
written by Cerutti. 

Fredin (Nils Edvard), Swedish writer, b. 1857. Has pub- 
lished translation of modern poets, and also of Col. Ingersoll's 
writings. In '80 he was awarded first prize by the Swedish 
Academy for an original poem. 

Freeke (William), b. about 1663, wrote A Brief but Clear 
Confutation of the Trinity, which, being brought before the notice 
of the House of Lords it was on 3 Jan. 1693 ordered to be 
burnt by the common hangman, and the author being pro- 
secuted by the Attorney General was fined £500. 

Freiligrath (Ferdinand) German poet, b, Detmold 17 June, 
1810. In '35 he acquired notice by some poems. In '44 he- 
published his profession of faith Mcin Glauhend/ckenntniss^ and. 
was forced to fly the country. In '48 he returned and joined 
Karl Marx on the Neue Rhcinische Zeituvg. Again prosecuted 
he took refuge in London, devoting his leisure to poetry and 
translation. Freiligrath holds a high place among the poets of 
his time. Died Kannstadt, near Stuttgart, 18 March 1876. 

Freret (Nicolas), French historical critic, b. 15 Feb. 1688. 
He was a pupil of RoUin, and was patronised by Boulainvilliers.. 
Distinguished by his attainments in ancient history, philoso- 
sophy and chronology, he became member of the Academy of 
Inscriptions 1714. For a Discourse on the "Origin of the 
Franks," he was incarcerated for four months in the Bastille. 
"While here he read Bayle so often that he could repeat much 
from memory. He was an unbeliever, and the author of the 
atheistic Letters from T/irasyhulus to Leucipps on Natural and 
Revealed Religion, and perhaps of La Moisade, a criticism of the 
Pentateuch, translated by D. I. Eaton, as A Preservative against 
Paligous Prejudices. The Letters to Engenip^ attributed to Freret,. 
were written by D'Holbach, and the Critical Examination of 
the Apologists of the Christian Religion hy J. Levesque de 


Burigny. A Critical Ex unia ttiun of the New Icf-t'iment^ 1777 
which long circulated in MS. has also been wrongly attributed 
to Freret. Died at Paris, 8 March, 1749. 

Frey (William), the adopted name of a Russian Positivist 
and philanthropist, b. of noble family, the son of a general, 
1839. Educated at the higher military school, St. Petersburg, 
he became teacher in a Government High School, and dis- 
gusted with the oppression and degradation of his country he 
went to New York in 1866 where he established co-operative 
communities and also Russian colonies in Kansas and Oregon. 
In 1881 he came to London in order to influence his countr}^- 
raen. In '87 he revisited Russia. Died 6 Nov. 1888. 

Fries (Jacob Friedrich), German philosopher, b. Barby, 23 
Aug. 1773. Brought up as a Moravian, he became a Deist. 
Fries is of the Neo-Kantian rationalistic school. Among his 
writings are a System of Metaphysics, 1 824 ; a Meinnal of the P/dlo- 
^ophy of Pi,elig ion and Philosophical ^Esthetics, Heidelberg '32; in 
Avhich he resolves religion into poetry. He criticised Kant's 
proofs of God and immortality, and wrote a History of Philosophy . 
Died Jena, 10 Aug. 1843. 

Frothingham (Octavius Brooks), American author, b. Boston, 
26 Nov. 1822. Graduated at Harvard, '43, and became Unitarian 
minister. In '60 he became pastor of the most radical Cnitarian 
congregation in New York. In '67 he became first president of 
the Free Religious Association, but, becoming too advanced, 
resigned in '79 and came to Europe. Since his return to Boston, 
'81, he has devoted himself to literature. He has published 
The Reliyion of Humanity, N.Y., '73 ; Life of Theodore Parker^ 
'74 ; The Cradle of the Christ, '77 ; Life of Gerrit Smith, 78; and 
numerous sermons. 

Froude (James Anthony), man of letters and historian, the 
son of an Archdeacon of Totnes, was b. Dartington, Devon, 23 
April, 1818, and educated at Westminster and Oxford, where he 
took his degree in '40, was elected fellow of Exeter College 
and received deacon's orders. At first, under the influence of 
the Romanising movement, he became a rationalist and 
abandoned his fellowship and clerical life. His Nemesis of Faith, 
'48, showed the nature of his objections. Mr. Froude devoted 


his abilities to a literary career, and fell under the influence of 
Carlyle. For many years he edited Fraser's Magazine, in which 
he wrote largely. His essay's are collected under the title of 
Short Studies on Great Subjects^ ^71-83. His largest work is the 
History of England, from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the 
Spanish Armada, '56-76. His Life of Carlyle, '82, and publica- 
tion of CarlyWs Reminiscenses provoked much controversy. His 
magical translation of Lucian's most characteristic Dialogue of 
the Gods is done with too much verve to allow of the supposition 
that the translator is not in sympathy with his author. 

Fry (John), a colonel in the Parliamentary army. In 1640 
he was elected one of the burgesses of Shaftesbury, but his 
return was declared void. After serving with distinction in 
the army, he was called to the House of Commons by the 
Independents in 1648. He voted for Charles I. being put on 
trial ; and sat in judgment when sentence was passed on him. 
He was charged with blasphemy and wrote The Accuser Shamed, 
1649, which was ordered to be burnt for speaking against 
"that chaffie and absurd opinion of three persons in the 
Godhead." He also wrote The Clergy in their Colors, 1650. 

Fuller (Sarah Margaret), American authoress, b. Cambridge- 
port, Massachusetts, 23 May, 1810. In '40-42 she edited the 
Dial. She also published Womari in the Nineteenth Century, '44. 
Among friends she counted Emerson, Hawthorne, Channing, 
and Mazzini. She visited Europe and married at Eome the 
Marquis D'Ossoli. Returning she was shipwrecked and 
drowned off the coast of Xew Jersey, 16 July, 1850. 

Furnemont (Leon), Belgian advocate, b. Charleroi, 17 April, 
1861. Entered the school of Mines Liege in '76, and founded 
the Circle of Progressive Students. Became president of Inter- 
national Congress of Students, '84, and represented Young 
Belgium at the funeral of Victor Hugo. Radical candidate at 
the Brussels municipal elections, he obtained 3,500 votes, but 
was not elected. He is a Councillor of the International 
Federation of Freethinkers and director of a monthly journal. 
La Raison, 1889. 

Gabarro (Bartolome) Dr., Spanish writer, b. Ygualade, 
Barcelona, 27 Sept. 1846, was educated in a clerical college 


witli a view to taking the clerical habit, he refused and went 
to America. After travelling much, he established a day school 
in Barcelona and founded an Anti-clerical League of Free- 
thinkers pledged to live without priests. This induced much 
clerical whath, especially when Dr. Gabarro founded some 200 
Anti-clerical groups and over 100 lay schools. For denouncing 
the assassins of a Freethinker he was pursued for libel, 
sentenced to four years' imprisonment, and forced to fly to 
Cerbere on the frontier, where he continues his anti-clerical 
journal La Tronada. He has written many anti-clerical 
brochures and an important work on Pius IX. and History. 

Gabelli (Aristide), Italian writer, b. Belluno, 22 March, 1830. 
Author of The Rdigioiis Question in Italy, '64, Man and the Moral 
Sciences, '69, in which he rejects all metaphysics and super- 
naturalism, and Thoughts, 1886. 

G-age (Matilda Joslyn), American reformer, b. Cicero, New 
York, 24 March, 1826. Her father. Dr. H. Joslyn, was an active 
abolitionist. Educated at De Peyster and Hamilton, N.Y., in 
'45 she married Henry H. Gage. From '52 till '6l she wrote 
and spoke against slavery. In '72 she was made President of 
the National Woman's Suffrage Association. She is joint 
author of The History of Woman Suffrage with Miss Anthony 
and Mrs. Stanton, and with them considers the Church the 
great obstacle to woman's progress. 

Gagertl (Carlos von), b. Rehdorf, Neumark, 12 Dec. 1826. 
Educated at Berlin, travelled in '47 to Paris where he became 
acquainted with Humboldt. He went to Spain and studied 
Basque life in the Pyrenees ; served in the Prussian army, 
became a friend of Wislicenus and the free-religious 
movement. In '52 he went to Mexico; here he had an 
appointment under General Miramon. In the French- 
Mexican expedition he was taken prisoner in '63; released 
in' '65 he went to New York. He was afterwards military 
attache for Mexico at Berlin. His freethought appears 
in his memoirs entitled Dead and Living, 1884, and in his 
volume Sword and Trowel, 1888. Died Madrid 19 Dec 1885. 

Gall (Franz Joseph), founder of phrenology, b. Baden, 
6 March, 1758. He practised as a physician in Vienna, devoting 


much time to the study of the brain, and began to lecture on 
craniology in that city. In 1802 he was prohibited from lectur- 
ing. He joined Dr. Spurzheim and they taught their system in 
various cities of Europe. Died at Paris, 22 Aug. 1828. 

Galton (Francis), grandson of Erasmus Darwin, was born in 
1822. Educated at Birmingham, he studied medicine at King's 
College, London, and graduated at Cambridge, '24. In '48 and 
'50 he travelled in Africa. He wrote a popular A?'t of Travel, 
and has distinguished himself by many writings bearing on 
heredity, of which we name Hereditary Geniuft, '69, English Men 
oj Science J '70. In his Inquiries into Human Faculty and Developc- 
ment, '83, he gives statistical refutation of the theory of prayer. 
Mr. Galton was Secretary of the British Association from 
'63-68, President of the Geographical Section in '62 and '72, 
and of the Anthropological Section in '77 and '85. He is 
President of the Anthropological Institute. 

Gambetta (Leon Michel^, French orator and statesman, 
b. Cahors, 30 Oct. 1838. His uncle was a priest and his father 
wished him to become one. Educated at a clerical seminary, 
he decided to study for the law. In '59 he was enrolled at the 
bar. His defence of Deleseluze (14 Nov. 1868), in which he 
vigorously attacked the Empire, made him famous. Elected 
to the Assembly by both Paris and Marseilles, he became the 
life and leader of the Opposition. After Sedan he proclaimed 
the Republic and organised the national defences, leaving 
Paris, then invested by the Germans, in a balloon. From Tours 
he invigorated every department, and was the inspiration of 
the few successes won by the French. Gambetta preserved 
the Republic against all machinations, and compelled Mac- 
Mahon to accept the second of the alternatives, " Se soumettre 
ou se demettre.'' He founded the RepuUique, and became 
President of the Chamber, Gambetta was a professed disciple 
of Voltaire, an admirer of Comte, and an open opponent of 
clericalism. All the members of his Cabinet were Freethinkers. 
Died 31 Dec. 1882. His public secular funeral was one of the 
largest gatherings ever witnessed. 

Gambon (Ferdinand Charles), French Communist, b. 
Bourges, 19 March, 1820. In 1839 he became an Advocate, 
and he founded the Journal des Hcoles. In '48 he was elected 


representative. The Empire drove him into exile, he returned 
at amnesty of '59. In '69 he refused to pay taxes. In '71 was 
elected deputy at Paris, and was one of the last defenders of 
the Commune. Imprisoned, he was released in '82. Formed a 
League for abolishing standing army. Died 17 Sept. 1887. 

Garat (Dominique Joseph), Count, French revolutionist, 
orator and writer, b. near Bayonne, 8 September, 1749. He 
became a friend of d'Alembert, Diderot and Condercet, and in 
3 789 was elected to the Assembly, where he spoke in favor of 
the abolition of religion. As ministtr of justice he had to 
notify to Louis XVI his condemnation. He afterwards taught 
at the Normal School, and became a senator, count, and presi- 
dent of the Institute. Died at Urdains 9 December, 1833. 

Garborg (Arne), b. Western Coast of Norway, 25 Jan. 1851, 
Brought up as a teacher at the public schools, he entered the 
University of Christiania in 1875. Founded a v/eekly paper 
Fedraheimen, written in the dialect of the peasantiy. Held an 
appointment for some years in the Government Audit Office. 
In '81 he published a powerfully written tale, A Freethinkery 
which created a deal of attention. Since he has published 
Peasant Students^ Tales and Legends, Youth, Men, etc, He is one 
of the wittiest and cleverest controversialists on the Norwegian 

Garcia- Vao (Antonio Rodriguez), Spanish poet and . miscel- 
laneous writer, b. Manzanares, 1862. Educated at the institute 
of Cardinal Cisneros, where he made brilliant studies. He 
afterwards studied at the Madrid University and became a 
lawyer. After editing several papers, he attached himself to 
the staif of Las Dumlnicales del Libre Peiisiamento. Among his 
numerous works are a volume of poems. Echoes of a Free 
Mind, Luve and the Monks, a satire, a study of Greco-Roman 
philosophy, etc. This promising student was stabbed in the 
back at Madrid, 18 December, 1886. 

Garde (Jehan de la), bookseller, burnt together with four 
little blasphemous books at Paris in 1537. 

Garibaldi (Guiseppe), Italian patriot and general, b. Nice, 
4 July, 1807. His father, a small shipmaster, hoped he would 
become a priest. Young Garibaldi objected, preferrin<^ a 


sailor's life. A trip to Rome made him long- to free his 
country. He joined Mazzini's movement, " Young Italy," and 
being implicated in the Genoese revolt of '33, he fled at risk of 
his life to Marseilles, where he learnt he was sentenced to 
death. He went to South America and fought on behalf of the 
republic of Uruguay. Here he met Anita Eivera, his beautiful 
and brave wife, who accompanied him in numerous adventures. 
Returning to Italy he fought against the Austrians in '48, and 
next 3^ear was the soul of resistance to the French troops, who 
came to restore Papal authority. Garibaldi had to retire ; his 
wife died, and he escaped with difficulty to Genoa, whence he 
went to New York, working for an Italian soap and candle- 
maker at Staten Island. In '54 he returned and bought a farm 
on the isle of Caprera. In '59 he again fought the Austrians, 
and in May, '60, landed at Marsala, Sicily, took Palermo, and 
drove Francis II. from Naples. Though a Republican he 
saluted Victor Emanuel as King of Italy. Vexed by the 
cessation of Nice to France, he marched to Rome, but was 
wounded by Victor Emanuel's troops, and taken prisoner to 
Varignaro. Here he wrote his Rule of the Monk, a Avork 
exhibiting his love of liberty and hatred of the priesthood. In 
'64 he visited England, and was enthusiastically received. In 
'67 he again took part in an attempt to free Rome from the 
Papal government. In '71 he placed his sword at the service 
of the French Republic, and the only standard taken from the 
Germans was captured by his men. Elected Member of the 
Italian Parliament in his later years he did mnch to improve 
the city of Rome. In one of his laconic letters of '80, he says 
" Dear Friend, — Man has created God, not God man,— Yours 
ever. Garibaldi." He died 2 June, '82, and directed in his 
will that he should be cremated without any religious cere- 

Garrison (H. D.), Dr. of Chicago. Author of an able pam- 
phlet on Ihe Absence of Design in Nature, 1876. 

Garth (Sir Samuel), English poet, wit, and physician, b. 
Yorkshire, 1672, and educated at Cambridge. He helped to 
establish dispensaries, and lashed the opposition in his poem 
llie Diq)eiisarij. He Avas made physician to King George I 
Died 18 June 1719. 


Gaffton (H.), French author of a brochure with the title 
Dieu, voila, Vtnnemi, God the enemy, 1882. 

Gattina (F. P. delhi). See Petrucelli. 

Gautama (called also Gotama, Buddha, and Sakyamuni^, 
great Hindu reformer and founder of Buddhism, b. Kapilavastu, 
624 B.C. Many legends are told of his birth and life. He is 
said to have been a prince, who, pained with human misery, 
left his home to dedicate himself to emancipation. His system 
was rather a moral discipline than a religion. Though he did 
not deny the Hindu gods he asserted that all beings were 
subject to "Karma," the result of previous actions. He said, 
'If a man for a hundred years worship Agni in the forest, and 
ii he but for one moment pay homage to a man whose soul is 
grounded in true knowledge, better is that homage than 
sacrifice for a hundred years." According to Ceylonese writers 
Gautama Buddha died at Kusinagara, B.C. 543. 

Gautier (Theophile), exquisite French poet and prose writer, 
b. Tarbes, 31 Aug. 1811. He wa-ote no definite work against 
priestcraft or superstition, but the whole tendency of his writings 
is Pagan. His romanticism is not Christian, and he made merry 
with "sacred themes" as well as conventional morality. 
Baudelaire called him an impeccable master of French 
literature, and Balzac said that of the two men who could 
write French, one was Theophile Gautier. Died 22 Octi 

Geijer (Erik Gustaf), eminent Swedish historian, poet, and 
critic, b. Wermland, 12 Jan. 1783. At the age of 20 he was 
awarded the Swedish Academy s first prize for a patriotical 
poem. At first a Conservative in religious, philosophical, and 
political matters he became through his historical researches 
an ardent adherent of the principles of the French revolution. 
His historical work and indictment against " The Protestant 
creed " was published in 1820 in a philosophical treatise, 
TJiorilJ, which was prosecuted. His acquittal by an enlightened 
jury stayed religious prosecutions in Sweden for over sixty 
years. He died 23 April 1847. A monument was erected to 
him last year at the University oi Upsala, where he was 
professor of history. His works have been republished. 
145 K 


Geijerstam (Gustaf), Swedish novelist, b. 1858. Is one of 
the Freethinking group of Youiifj Sweden. 

Geismar (Martin von), editor of a Library of German 
Eationalists of the eighteenth century, in five parts, including 
some of tlie works of Bahrdt, Eberhardt, Knoblauch, etc , 
1846-7. He also added pamphlets entitled Germany in the 
Eighteenth Century. 

Gellion-Danglar (Eugene), French writer, b. Paris, 1829 
Became Professor of Languages at Cairo, wrote in La Pensee 
Nouvelle. was made sous prefect of Compiegne, '71, wrote 
History of the Rccolution of 1830, and A Study of the Semites, '82. 

Gemistos (Georgios), surnamod Plethon, a philosophic 
reviver of Pagan learning, b. of noble parents at Byzantium 
about 1355. He early lost his faith in Christianity, and was 
attracted to the Moslem court at Brusa. lie went to Italy in 
the train of John Pal^logus in 1438, where he attracted much 
attention to the Platonic philosophy, by which he sought to 
reform the religious, political and moral life of the time. 
Gennadius, the patriarch of Constantinople, roundl}'- accused 
him of Paganism. Died 1450. 

Genard (Francois), French satirist, b. Paris about 1722. He 
wrote an irreligious work called A Parallel of the Portraits of the 
Aye, with the Pictures of the Holy Scriptures, for which he was 
placed in the Bastille, where it is believed he finished his days. 

Gendre (Barbe), Eussian writer in French, b. Cronstadt, 
15 Dec. 1842. She was well educated at Kief, where she 
obtained a gold medal. By reading the works of Biichner, 
Buckle, and Darwin she became a Freethinker. Settling in 
Paris, she contributed to the R^vue Internationale des Sciences, to 
La Justice and the Nouvelle Revue, etc. Some of her pieces have 
been reprinted under the title Etudes Suciales (Social Studies. 
Paris, 1886), edited by Dr. C. Letourneau. Died Dec. 1884. 

Gener (Pompeyo), Spanish philosopher, b. Barcelona, 1849, is 
a member of the Society of Anthropology, and author of a 
study of the evolution of ideas entitled Death and the /)cy<7, Paris, 
'80. This able work is dedicated to Renan and has a preface 
by Littre. The author has since translated it into Spanish. 


Genestet (Petrus Augustus de), Dutch poet and Agnostic, b. 
Amsterdam, 21 Nov. 1829. He studied theology, and for some 
years was a Protestant minister. His verses show him to be a 
Freethinker. Died at Rozendaal, 2 July, 1861. 

Genin (Frangois), French philologist, b. Amiens, 16 Feb. 
1803, He became cne of the editors of the National, of Paris, 
about '37, and wrote for it spirited articles against the Jesuits. 
He published works en The Jesuits and the Universities, The Church 
or the State, etc. In '45 the French Academy awarded a prize to 
\n% Lexicon of the Language of Molil re. He edited Diderot, '47, 
and is known for his researches into the origin of the French 
language and literature. Died Paris, 20 Dec. 1856. 

Genovesi (Antonio), Italian philosopher, b. Castiglione, 
1 Nov. 1712. He read lectures in philosophy at Naples, 
but by his substitution of doubt for traditional belief he drew 
upon himself many attacks from the clergy. The book by 
which he is best known is his Italian Morality. Died 
at Naples, 20 Sept. 1769. 

Gensonne (Armand), French lawyer and one of the leaders 
of the Girondists, b. Bordeaux, 10 Aug. 1758. He was, 
elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1791, and to the Con- 
vention in 1792. In the struggle with the Jacobins, Gensonne 
was one of the most active and eloquent champions of his 
party He was executed with his colleagues 31 Oct. 1793. 

Gentilis (Giovanni Valentino), Italian heretic, b. Consenza, 
Naples, about 1520. He fled to avoid persecution to Geneva, 
where in 1558 he was thrown into prison at the instigation of 
Calvin. Fear of sharing the fate of Servetus made him recant. 
He wandered to Poland, where he joined Alciati and Biandrata, 
but he was banished for his innovations. Upon the death of 
Calvin he returned to Switzerland, where he was arrested for 
heresy, 11 June, 1566. After a long trial he was condemned 
for attacking the Trinity, and beheaded at Berne, 26 (?) 
Sept. 1566. T^'idoocat says "He died very impiously, 
saying he thought himself honored in being martyred for the 
glory of the Father, whereas the apostles and other martyrs' 
only died for the glory of the Son." ' 

147 • ' 


Greoffrin (Marie Therese, nee Rodet). a French lady distin- 
guished as a patroness of learning and the fine arts, b. Paris, 
2 June, 1699. She was a friend of Alembert, Voltaire, Marmontel, 
Montesquieu, Diderot, and the encyclopgedists, and was noted 
for her benevolence. Died at Paris, 6 Oct. 1777. 

Gerhard (H.), Dutch socialist, b, Delft, 11 June, 1829. 
Educated at an orphanage he became a tailor, travelled through 
France, Italy, and Switzerland, and in '61 returned to Amster- 
dam. He wrote for De Dageraad, and was correspondent of the 
Internationale. Died 5 July, 1886. 

Gerhard (A. H.), son of foregoing, b. Lausanne, Switzerland, 
7 April, 1858. Is headmaster of a public school, and one of 
the editors of De Dageraad. 

Germond (J. B. L.), editor of Marechal's Dictionnaire des 
Athee^, Brussels, 1833. 

Gertsen (Aleksandr Ivanovich). See Herzen. 

Ghillany (Friedrich TVilhelm), German critic, b. at Erlangan, 
18 April, 1807. In '35 he became Professor of History at 
Nurenberg. His principal work is on Human Sacrifices among 
the Ancient Jcirs, Nurnberg, '42. He also wrote on the Pagan 
and Christian writers of the first four centuries. Under the 
pseudonym of " Richard von der Aim " he wrote Theological 
Letters, 1862 ; Jesus of Nazareth, 1868 ; and a collection of the 
ojiinions of heathen and Jewish writers of the first four cen- 
turies upon Jesus and Christianity. Died 25 June, 1876. 

Giannone (Pietro), Italian historian, b. Ischitella, Naples, 
7 May, 1 676. He devoted many years to a History of the Kingdom 
of Naples, in which he attacked the papal power. He was 
excommunicated and fled to Vienna, where he received a 
pension from the Emperor, which was removed on his avowal 
of heterdox opinions. He was driven from Austria and took 
rpfuge in Venice : here also was an Inquisition. Giannone was 
seized by night and cast before sunrise on the papal shore. 
He found means, however, of escaping to Geneva. Having 
j^een enticed into Savoy in 1736, he was arrested by order of 
^he King of Sardinia, and confined in prison until his death, 
7 March, 1748. 


Gribbon (Edward), probabl}'' the j^reatest of liistorians, 
b. Putney, 27 April 1737. At Oxford he became a Romanist, but 
being sent to a Oalvinist at Lausanne, was brought back to 
Protestantism. When visiting the ruins of the Capitol at 
Rome, he conceived the idea of writing the Decline and Fall of 
that empire. For twenty-two years before the appearance of 
his first volume he was a prodigy of arduous application, his 
investigations extending over the whole range of intellectual 
and political activity for nearly fifteen hundred years. His 
monumental work, bridging the old world and the new, is an 
historic exposure of the crimes and futility of Christianity. 
Gibbon was elected to Parliament in '74, but did not distin- 
guish himself. He died of dropsy, in London, 16 Jan. 1794. 

Gribson (Ellen Elvira), American lecturess, b. Winchenden, 
Mass. 8 May, 1821, and became a public school teacher. Study 
of the Bible brought her to the Freethought platform. At the 
outbreak of the American Civil War she organised Ladies' 
Soldiers' Aid Societies, and was elected chaplain to the 1st 
Wisconsin Volunteer Artillery. President Lincoln endorsed 
the appointment, which was questioned. She has written 
anonymously Godly Women of the Bible, and has contributed to 
the Truthseeker, Boston Investigator, and Ironclad Age, under her 
own signature and that of " Lilian." 

Giessenburg (Rudolf Charles d'Ablaing van), one of the 
most notable of Dutch Freethinkers, b. of noble family, 
26 April, 1826. An unbeliever in youth, in '47 he went to 
Batavia, and upon his return set up as a bookseller under the 
name of R. C. Meijer. With Junghuhn and Giinst, he started 
de Dageraad, and from '56-68 was one of the contributors, 
usually under his name " Rudolf Charles." He is a man of 
great erudition, has written Met verboud der rrije gedachte (The 
Alliance of Freethought^; de l\jdgenoot op het gebied der Rede 
(The Contemporary in the Reign of Reason) ; De Regtbank des 
Onderzoeks (The Tribunal of Inquiry) ; Zedekundeen Christendom 
(Ethics and Christianity) ; Curiosities van allerlei aard (Curiosi- 
ties of Various Kinds). He has also published the Religion 
and Philosophy of the Bible by W. J. Birch and Brooksbank's 
work on Revelation. He was the first who published a com- 
plete edition of the famous Testament da Cure Jean Meslier in 


three parts ('64), has published the works of Douwes Dekker 
and other writers, and also Curieuse Gthruiken. 

Gilbert (Claude), French advocate, b. Dijon, 7 June, 1652. 
He had printed at Dijon, in 1700, Histoire de Calejava, ou de 
Visle des hommes raisonablo', avec le paralelle de leiir Morale et du 
Christianisme. The book has neither the name of author or 
printer. It was suppressed, and only one copy escaped des- 
truction, which was bought in 1784 by the Due de La Valliere 
for 120livres. It was in form of a dialogue (329 pp.), and attacked 
both Judaism and Christianity. Gilbert married in 1700, and 
died at Dijon 18 Feb. 1720. 

Gill (Charles), b. Dublin, 8 Oct. 1824, was educated at the 
University of that city. In '83 he published anonymously a 
work on Tlie Evolution of Christianity. It was quoted by Mr. 
Foote in his defences before Judge North and Lord Coleridge, 
and in the following 3'ear he put his name to a second edition. 
Mr. Gill has also written a pamphlet on the Blasphemy Laws, 
and has edited, with an introduction. Archbishop Laurence's 
Book of Enoch, 1883. 

Giles (Rev. John Allen, D.Ph.), b. Mark, Somersetshire, 
26 Oct. 1808. Educated at the Charterhouse and Oxford, where 
he graduated B.A. as a double first-class in '28. He was ap- 
pointed head-master of the City of London School, which post 
he left for the Church. The author of over 150 volumes of 
educational works, including the Keys to the Classics ; privately 
he was a confirmed Freethinker, intimate with Birch, Scott, 
etc. His works bearing on theology show his heresy, the 
principal being Eehreiv Records 1850, Christian Records 1854. 
These two were published together in amended form in 1877. 
He also wrote Codex Apocryphns Novi Testamenti 1852, Writings 
of the Early Christians of the Second Century 1857, and Apostolic 
Records, published posthumously in 1886. Died 24 Sept 1884. 

Ginguene (Pierre Louis), French historian b. Rennes, 
25 April, 1748. Educated, with Parny, by Jesuits. At Paris 
he became a teacher, embraced the Revolution, wrote on Rous- 
seau and Rabelais, and collaborated with Chamfort in the His- 
toric Pictures of the French Revolution. Thrown into prison 
during the Terror, he escaped on the fall of Robespierre, and 


became Director of Public Instruction. His principal work is 
a Literary Elslonj oj Italy ^ Died Paris, 11 Nov. 181G. 

Gilliland (M. S.) Miss, b. Londonderry 1853, authoress of a 
little work on 21ie Future of Morality, from the Agnostic stand- 
point, 1888. 

Grioja (Melchiorre), Italian political economist, b. Piazenza, 
20 Sept. 1767. He advocated republicanism, and was appointed 
head of a bureau of statistics. For his brochure Ln Scienza del 
Fovero Diavolo he was expelled from Italy in 1809. He published 
works on Merit and Rewaj'ds and The Philosophy of Statistics. Died 
at Milan 2 Jan. 1829. 

Girard (Stephen), American philanthropist, b. near Bordeaux 
France, 24 May, 1750. He sailed as cabin boy to the West 
Indies about 1760; rose to be master of a coasting vessel and 
earned enough to settle in business in Philadelphia in 1769. 
He became one of the richest merchants in America, and during 
the war of 1812 he took the whole of a Government loan of five 
million dollars. He called his vessels after the names of the 
philosophers Helvetius, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Kousseau, etc. 
He contributed liberally to all public improvements and radical 
movements. On his death he left large bequests to Philadelphia, 
the principal being a munificent endowment of a college for 
orphans. By a provision of his will, no ecclesiastic or minister 
of any sect whatever is to hold any connection with the college, 
or even be admitted to the premises as a visitor ; but the 
officers of the institution are required to instruct the pupils in 
secular morality and leave them to adopt their own religious 
opinions. This will has been most shamefully perverted. Died 
Philadelphia, 26 Dec. 1831. 

Glain (D. de Saint). See Saint Glain. 

Glennie (John Stuart Stuart), living English barrister and 
writer, author of In the Morningland, or the law of the origin 
and transformation of Christianity, 1873, the most important 
chapter of which was reprinted by Thomas Scott, under the 
title, Christ and Osiris. He has also written Pilgrim Memories, 
or travel and discussion in the birth-countries of Christianity 
with the late H. T. Buckle, 1875. 

Glisson (Francis), English anatomist and physician, b. 


Eampisham, Dorsetshire, 1597. He took liis degree at Cam- 
bridge, and was there appointed Regius Professor of Physic, 
an oflfice he held forty years. He discovered Glisson's capsule 
in the liver, and was the first to attribute irritability to muscular 
fibre. In his Tractatiis de naturn substantia energetica, 1672, he 
anticipates the natural school in considering matter endowed 
with native energy sufficient to account for the operations of 
nature. Dr. Glisson was eulogised by Harvey, and Boerhaave 
called him " the most accurate of all anatomists that ever 
lived." Died in 1677. 

Godwin (Mary). See WoUstonecraft. 

Godwin (William), English historian, political Avriter and 
novelist, b. Wisbeach, Cambridgeshire, 3 March, 1756. The son 
of a Dissenting minister, he was designed for the same calling. 
He studied at Hoxton College, and came out, as he entered, a 
Tory and Calvinist ; but making the acquaintance of Holcroft, 
Paine, and the English Jacobins, his views developed from the 
Unitarianism of Priestley to the rejection of the supernatural. 
In '93 he published his republican work on Political Justice. In 
the following year he issued his powerful novel of Caleb 
William.^. He married Mary WoUstonecraft, '96; wrote, in 
addition to several novels and educational works. On Population, 
in answer to Mai thus, 1820; a Histonj of the Commonwealth, 
'24-28; Thoughts on Man, '31'; Lives of the Necromancers, '34. 
Some Freethought essays, which he had intended to form into 
a I ook entitled The Genius of Christianiiij Unveiled, were first 
published in '73. They comprise papers on such subjects as 
future retribution, the atonement, miracles, and character of 
Jesus, and the history and effects of the Christian religion. 
Died 7 April, 1836. 

Goethe ( Johann Wolfgang von), Germany's greatest poet, b. 
Frankfort-on-Main, 28 Aug. 1749. He records that early in his 
seventh year (1 Nov. 1758) the great Lisbon earthquake filled 
his mind with religious doubt. Before he was nine he could 
write several languages. Educated at home until sixteen, he 
then went to Leipsic University. At Strasburg he became 
acquainted with Herder, who directed his attention to Shakes- 
peare. He took the degree of doctor in 1771, and in the same 
year composed his drama " Goetz von Berlichingen." He went 


to Wetzlar, where he wrote Sorrows of Werther, 1774, which at 
once made him famous. He was invited to the court of the 
Duke of Saxe-Weimar and loaded with honors, becoming the 
centre of a galaxy of distinguished men. Here he brought 
out the works of Schiller and his own dramas, of which Faust 
is the greatest. His chief prose work is Wilhelm Master's 
ApprentkesTiip. His works are voluminous. He declared him- 
self "decidedly non-Christian," and said his objects of hate 
were " the cross and bugs." He was averse to abstractions 
and refused to recognise a Deity distinct from the world. In 
philosophy he followed Spinoza, and he disliked and dis- 
countenanced the popular creed. Writing to Lavater in 1772 
he said : '* You look upon the gospel as it stands as the 
divinest truth : but even a voice from heaven would not 
convince me that water burns and fire quenches, that a woman 
conceives without a man, and that a dead man can rise again. 
To you, nothing is more beautiful than the Gospel ; to me, a 
thousand written pages of ancient and modern inspired men 
are equally beautiful." Goethe was opposed to asceticism, and 
Pfleiderer admits "stood in opposition to Christianity not 
merely on points of theological form, but to a certain extent on 
points of substance too." Goethe devoted much attention to 
science, and he attempted to explain the metamorphosis of 
plants on evolutionary principles in 1790. Died 22 March, 

Goldstuecker (Theodor), Sanskrit scholar, of Jewish birth, 
but a Freethinker by conviction, b. Konigsberg 18 Jan. 1821 ; 
studied at Bonn under Schlegel and Lassen, and at Paris under 
Burnouf. Establishing himself at Berlin, he was engaged as 
tutor in the University and assisted Humboldt in the matter of 
Hindu philosophy in the Cosmos. A democrat in politics, he 
left Berlin at the reaction of '49 and came to England, where 
he assisted Professor Wilson in preparing his Sanskrit-EmjU h 
Dictionary, He contributed important articles on Indian litera- 
ture to the Westminster Recieic, the Header, the Athenxam and 
Chambers' Encyclipas^lia. Died in London, 6 March, 1872. 

Goldziher (Ignacz), Hungarian Orientalist, b. Stuhlweissen- 
burg, 1850. Is since 1876 Doctor of Semitic Philology in 
Buda-pesth ; is author of Mythology Am my the Hebrews, which 


lias been translated by Russell Marti neau, 77, and has written 
many studies on Semitic theology and literature. 

Gordon (Thomas), Scotch Deist and political reformer, was 
b. Kells, Kirkcudbright, about 1684, but settled early in London, 
where he supported himself as a teacher and writer. He first 
distinguished himself by two pamphlets in the Bangorian con- 
troversy^, which recommended him to Trenchard, to whom he 
became amanuensis, and with whom he published Cato^s Letters 
and a periodical entitled The Independent iVhig^ which he con- 
tinued some years after Trenchard's death, marrying that 
writer's widow. He wrote many pamphlets, and translated 
from Barbeyrac The Spirit of the EccleAaUics of All Agci. He 
also translated the histories of Tacitus and Sallust. He died 
28 July, 1750, leaving behind him posthumous works entitled 
.1 Cordial for Low Spirits and The Fillars of Priestcrcft and Or- 
thodoxy Shaken. 

Gorlaeus (David), a Dutch philosopher, b. at Utrecht, towards 
the end of the sixteenth century, has been accused of Atheism 
on account of his speculations in a work published after his 
death entitled Exercitatinnes Philosophic^, Leyden 1620. 

Goveaor GorvEA [Latin Goveanus] (Antonio), Portugese jurist 
and poet, b. 1505, studied in France and gained great reputa- 
tion by his legal writings. Calvin classes him with Dolet, 
Rabelais, and Des Periers. as an Atheist and mocker. He wrote 
elegant Latin poems. Died at Turin, 5 March, 1565. 

G-ratiolet (Louis-Pierre), French naturalist, b. Sainte Foy, 
6 July 1815, noted for his researches on the comparative 
anatomy of the brain. Died at Paris 15 Feb. 1865. 

Graves (Kersey), American, author of Ihe Biography of Satan 
1865, and The World's Sixteen Crucified Savio7\^, 1876. Works of 
some vogue, but little value. 

Gray (Asa), American naturalist, b. 18 Nov. 1810, Paris, 
Oneida Co., New York. Studied at Fairfield and became 
physician 1831. Wrote Elements of Botany, 1836, became 
Professor of Nat. Hist, at Harvard, and was the first to intro- 
duce Darwinism to America. Wrote an Examination of Darwin's 
Treatise 1861. Succeeded Agassiz as Governor of Smithsonian 
Institute, and worked on American Flora. Died at CambridgCr 
Mass., 30 Jan. 1888. 


Green (H. L.), American Freethinker, b. 18 Feb. 1828. Edits 
the Freethinker'' s Magazine published at Buffalo, New York. 

Greg (William Kathbone), English Writer, b. Manchester 
1809. Educated at Edinburgh university, he became attracted 
to economic studies and literary pursuits. He was one of the 
founders of the Manchester Statistical Society, a warm sup- 
porter of the Anti-Corn Law League, and author of one of its 
prize essays. In '40 he wrote on Efforts for the Extinction of 
the African Slave Trade. In '50 he published his Creed of 
Christendom, which has gone through eight editions, and in 
1872 his Enigmas of Life, of which there were thirteen editions 
in his life. He published also Essays on Political and Social 
Science, and was a regular contributor to the Pall Mall Gazette. 
His works exhibit a careful yet bold tliinker and close reasoner. 
Died at Wimbledon 15 Nov. 1881. 

Grenier (Pierre Jules), French Positivist, b. Beaumont, Peri- 
gord, 1838, author of a medical examination of the doctrine of 
free will, '68, which drew out letter from Mgr. Dupanloup, 
Bisliop of Orleans, imploring him to repudiate his impious 
doctrines. Also author of Aphorisms on the First Principles 
of Sociology, 1873. 

"Grile (Dod)," pen name of Ambrose Bierce, American 
humorist, who wrote on the San Francisco IS ncs- Letter. His 
Nuggets and Dust and Fiena's Delight, were blasphemous ; has 
also written in Fan, and published Cohwehs from an Empty 
Skidl, 1873. 

Grimm (Friedrich Melchior von). Baron. German philosophic 
writer in French, b. Ratisbon, 26 Dec. 1723. Going to France 
he became acquainted with D'Holbach and with Rousseau, who 
was at first his friend, but afterwards his enemy. He became 
secretary to the Duke of Orleans, and wrote in conjunction 
with Diderot and Raynal caustic literary bulletins containing 
criticisms on French literature and art. In 1776 he was envoy 
from the Duke of Saxe Gotha to the French Court, and after 
the French Revolution was appointed by Catherine of Russia 
her minister at Hamburg. Grimm. died at Gotha, 19 Dec 1807. 
He is chiefly known by his literary correspondence with 
Diderot published in seventeen vols. 1812 — 1813. 

Gringore (Pierre), French poet and dramatist, b about 1475, 


satirised the pope and clergy as well as tlie earlj reformers. 
Died about 1544. 

G-risebach (Eduard), German writer, b. Gottingen 9 Oct. 
1845. Studied law, but entered the service of the State and 
became Consul at Bucharest, Petersburg, Milan and Hayti. Has 
written many poems, of which the best known is The New Tan- 
Jiaiiser, first published anonymously in '69, and followed by 
Tanhaliser in Rome, '75. Has also translated Ki7i Ku Ki Kuan, 
Chinese novels. Is a follower of Schopenhauer, whose biblio- 
graphy he has compiled, 1888. 

Grote (George), the historian of Greece, b. near Becken- 
ham, Kent, 17 Nov. 1794. Descended from a Dutch family. 
Ke was educated for the employment of a banker and was put 
to business at the age of sixteen. He was however addicted 
to literary pursuits, and became a friend and disciple of James 
Mill and Jeremy Bentham. In 1820 he married a cultured 
lady, Harriet Lewin, and in '22 his Analysis of the Influence of 
Nntural Religion was published by Carlile, under the pen name 
of Philip Beauchamp. He also wrote in the Westminster Review. 
In '33 he was elected as Radical M.P. for the City of London 
and retained his seat till '41. He was chiefly known in Parlia- 
ment for his advocacy of the ballot. In '46 — '56 he published 
his famous History of Greece, which cost him the best years of 
his life; this was followed by Plato and the other Companions of 
Socrates. His review of J. S. Mill's Examination of Sir William 
Hamilton's Philosophy, '61, showed he retained his Freethought 
until the end of his life. He died 18 June '71, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. 

G-rote (Harriet) nee Lewin, wife of the above, b. 1792, shared 
in his opinions and wrote his life. Died 29 Dec 1878. 

Gruen (Karl) German author, b. 30 Sept. 1817, Liidenschied, 
Westphalia, studied at Bonn and Berlin. In '44 he came to 
Paris, was a friend to Proudhon and translated his PA/Zo^op^ of 
Misery, was arrested in '49 and condemned to exile, lived at 
Brussels till '62, when he was made professor at Frankfort. 
He became professor of English at the College of Colmar, estab- 
lished a Radical journal the Mannheim Evening News and he 
wrote Biograpical Studies of Schiller, '44, and Feuerbach, '71. 


A Culture History of the lQth-l7th Centuries^ and The Philosophy of 
the Present, '76. Died ut Vienna 17 February, 1887. 

Gruet (Jacques), Swiss Freethinker, tortured and put to 
death for blasphemy by order of Calvin at Geneva, 26 July, 
1547. After his death jmpers were found in his possession 
directed against religion. They were burnt by the common 
hangman, April, 1550. 

Gruyer (Louis Auguste Jean Francois-Philippe), Belgian 
philosopher, b. Brussels, 15 Nov. 1778. He wrote an 
Essay of Physical Philosophy, 1828, TaUettes Philosophiques, '42. 
Principles of Physical Philosophy, '45, etc He held the atomic 
doctrine, and that matter was eternal. Died Brussels 15 Oct. 

Guadet (Marguerite Elie), Girondin, b. Saint Emilion (Gi- 
ronde), 20 July, 17'58. He studied at Bordeaux, and became 
an advocate in 81. He threw himself enthusiastically into the 
Revolution, and was elected Deputy for the Gironde. His 
vehement attacks on the Jacobins contributed to the destruc- 
tion of his party, after which he took refuge, but was arrested 
and beheaded at Bordeaux, 15 June, 1794. 

Gubernatis (Angolo de), see De Gubernatis. 

Guepin (Ange), French physician, b. Pontivy, 30 Aug. 1805. 
He became M.D. in '28. After the revolution of July, '30, Dr. 
Guepin was made Professor at the School of Medicine at 
Nantes. He formed the first scientific and philosophical con- 
gress, held there in '33. In '48 he became Commissaire of the 
Republic at Nantes, and in '50 was deprived of his situation. 
In '54 he published iiis Philosophy of the Nineteenth Century. 
After the fall of the Empire, M. Guepin became Prefet of La 
Loire Inferieure, but had to resign from ill-health. Died at 
Nantes, 21 May, 1873, and was buried without any religious 

Gueroult (Adolphe), French author, b. Radepont (Eure), 
29 Jan. 1810. Early in life he became a follower of Saint 
Simon. He wrote to the Journal des Dehats, the RepuUique, 
Credit and Industrie, and founded VOpinion National, He was 
elected to the Legislature in '63, when he advocated the separa- 
tion of Church and State. Died at Vichy, 21 July, 1872. 


Guerra Junqueiro. Portuguese poet, b. 1850. His princi- 
pal work is a poem on Ihe Death of Don Jiian^ but he has also 
written The Death of Jehovah, an assault upon the Catholic 
faith from the standpoint of Pantheism. Portuguese critics 
speak highly of his poAvers. 

Guerrini (Olindo), Italian poet, b. Forli, 4 Oct. 1845. Edu- 
cated at Ravenna, Turin, and Bologna University ; he has 
written many fine poems under the name of Lorenzo Stecchetti. 
In the preface to IS ova Polemica he declares " Primo di tutto 
dice, non credo in Dio " (" First of all I say do not believe in 

Gueudeville (Nicolas), French writer, b. Rouen, 1654. He 
became a Benedictine monk, and was distinguished as a preacher, 
but the boldness of his opinions drew on him the punishment 
of his superiors. He escaped to Holland, and publicly abjured 
Catholicism. He taught literature and philosoph}^ at Rotter- 
dam, wrote the Dialogue of the Baron de la Hontan with an 
American Savage Amst. 1704, appended to the Travels of La 
Honton, 1724, edited by Gueudeville. This dialogue is a bitter 
criticism of Christian usages. He translated Erasmus's Praise 
of Folhj {nn), More's Utopia (1715), and C. Agrippa on the 
Uncertainty and Vanity of Sciences (1726J. Died at the 
Hague, 1720. 

Guichard (Victor), French writer, b. Paris, 15 Aug. 1803. 
He became Mayor of Sens, and was elected deputy for the 
Yonne department. He was exiled in '52, but again elected in 
'71. His principal work is ia L«6er/e f/e Penser, fn du Pouvoir 
SfArituel (1868). Died at Paris, Uth Nov. 1884. 

GuHd (E. E.), b. in Connecticut, 6 May, 1811. In '35 he 
became a Christian minister, but after numerous debates became 
turned Universalist. In '44 he published The Universalist Book of 
Reference, which went through several edittons. It was followed 
by Pro and Con, in which he gives the arguments for and 
against Christianity. 

Guirlando (Giulio) di Treviso. Italian heretic, put to death 
at Venice for anti-trinitarian heresy, 19 Oct. 1562. 

Gundling (Nicolaus Hieronymus), German scholar and Deistic 
philosopher, b. near Nuremberg, 25 Feb. 1671. He wrote a 


History of the Philosophy of Morals, 1706, and 'Ihc Way to Truth, 
1713. One of the first German eclectics, he took much from 
Hobbes and Locke, with whom he derived all ideas from 
experience. Died at Halle, 16 Dec. 1729. 

Gunning (William D.), American scientific professor, b. 
Bloomingburg, Ohio. Graduated at Oberlin and studied under 
Agassiz. He wrote Life History of our Planet, Chicago, 1876, 
and contributed to 2'he Open Court. Died Greely, Colorado, 
S March, 1888. 

Gunst (Dr. Frans Christiaan), Dutch writer and publisher, 
b Amsterdam, 19 Aug. 1823. He was intended for a Catholic 
clergyman; studied at Berne, where he was promoted '47. 
Eeturning to Holland he became bookseller and editor at 
Amsterdam. He was for many years secretary of the City 
Theatre. Giinst contributed to many periodicals, and became 
a friend of Junghuhn, with whom he started De Dageraad, the 
organ of the Dutch Freethinkers, which he edited from '55 to '67. 
He usually contributed under pseudonyms as " Mephistho " or 
{.*.). He was for many years President of the Independent 
Lodge of Freemasons, " Post Nubila Lux," and wrote on Aclon 
Hiram, the oldest legend of the Freemasons. He also wrote Wijwater 
voor Roomsch Katholieken (Holy Water for the Roman Catholics) ; 
De Bloedgetuiyen der Spaanische Im/uisitie (The Martyrs of ,the 
Spanish Inquisition, '63,) ; and Heidenen en Jezuieten, eene verge- 
lijking van hunne zedeleer (Pagans and Jesuits, a comparison of 
their morals, '67,). In his life and conversation he was afrater 
fjaudens. Died 29 Dec. 1886. 

Guyan (Marie Jean), French philosopher, b. 1854, was 
crowned at the age of 19 by the Institute of France for a 
monograph on Utilitarian morality. In the following year he 
had charge of a course of philosophy at the Condorcet lycee at 
Paris. Ill health, brought on by excess of work, obliged him 
to retire to Mentone, where he occupied himself with litera- 
ture. His principal works are La Morale d^ Epicure (the morality 
of Epicurus), in relation to present day doctrines, 1878, La 
Morale Anglaise Contemporaine (Contemporary English Ethics), 
'79, crowned by the Academy of Moral Sciences. Verses 
of a philosopher, '81. Esquisse dhine morale sans obligation ni 
sanction (Sketch of morality without obligation or sanction,) '84, 


and Vlrrcligion de VAvenir (the Irreligion of the Future) '87. 
M. Guyaii was a follower of M. Fouillee, but all his works bear 
the impress of profound thought and originality. A chief 
doctrine is the expansion of life. Died Mentone, 31 March, 1888 

Guyot (Yves), French writer and statesman, b. Dinan, 1843 
He wrote with Sigismond Lacroix a Stiuly of the Social Doctrines 
of Christianity, 73, and a work on morality in the Bihliothtque 
Mattrialistc. Elected on the Municipal Council of Paris 74-78, 
he has since been a deputy to the Chamber, and is now a 
member of the government. He has written the Principles of 
Social Economy, '84, and many works on that topic ; has edited 
Diderot's La Religicusc and the journals Droits de Vhomme and le 
Bien puhlic. 

Gwynne (George), Freethought writer in the Reasoner and 
National Reformer, under the pen-name of " Aliquis." His 
reply to J. H. Newman's Grammar of Assent shewed much 
acuteness. He served the cause both by pen and purse. Died 
25 Sept. 1873. 

GyHenborg (Gustaf Fredrik), Coimt. Swedish poet, b 6 Dec 
1731, was one of the first members of the Academy of Stock- 
holm and Chancellor of Upsala University. He published 
satires, fables, odes, etc., among which may be named The 
Passage of the Belt. His opinions were Deistic. Died 30 March, 

Haeckel (Ernst Heinrich Philipp August), German scientist, 
b. Potsdam, 16 Feb. 1834; studied medicine and science at 
WUrzburg, Berlin, and Vienna. In '59 he went to Italy and 
studied zoology at Naples, and two years later was made 
Professor of Zoology at Jena. Between G6 and '75 he travelled 
over Europe besides visiting Syria and Egypt, and later he 
visited India and Ceylon, writing an interesting account of his 
travels. He is the foremost German supporter of ©volution ; 
his Natural History of Creation, '68, having gone through many 
editions, and been translated into English '76, as have also his 
hoolution of Man, 2 vols. '79, and Pedigree of Man, '83. 
Besides numerous monographs and an able work on Cellular 
P.^ycholi>gy, Professor Haeckel has published important Popular 
Lectures on Evolution, '78, and on Ereidvm in Science and Teaching^ 
published with a prefatory note by Professor Huxley, '79. 


Hagen (Benjamin Olive), Socialist, b. 25 June, 1791. About 
the year 1811 his attention was attracted to the Socialists by 
the abuse they received. Led thus to inquire, he embraced the 
views of Eobert Owen, and was their chief upholder for many 
years in the town of Derby, where he lived to be upwards of 
seventy years of age. His wife also deserves mention as an 
able lady of Freethought views. 

Halley (Edmund), eminent English astronomer, known in 
his lifetime as " the Infidel Mathematician," b. Haggerston, 
London, 29 Oct. 1656 ; educated at Oxford. At twenty he had 
made observations of the j^lanets and of the spots on the sun. 
In Nov. '76 he went to St. Helena where he prepared his Catu- 
logue of Southern Stars, '79 He also found how to take the sun's 
parallax by means of the transits of Mercur^^ or Venus. In 
'78 he was elected a F.R.S. Two years later he made observa- 
tion on " Halley 's comet," and in '83 published his theory of 
the variation of the magnet. He became a friend of Sir Isaac 
Newton, whom he persuaded to publish his Principia. In '98 
he commanded a scientific expedition to the South Atlantic. In 
1713 he Avas made sec. of the Royal Society and in 1720 Astro- 
nomer-royal. He then undertook a task which required nineteen 
years to perform, viz: to observe the moon throughout an entire 
revolution of her nodes. He lived to finish this task. Died 
14 Jan. 1742. Halley was the first who conceived that fixed 
stars had a proper motion in space. Chalmers in his Bioyrophical 
Dictionary says. " It must be deeply regretted that he cannot 
be numbered with those illustrious characters who thought it 
not beneath them to be Christians." 

Hammon (W.), pseudonym of Turner William, q. v. 

Hamond or Hamont (Matthew), English heretic, by trade a 
ploughwright, of Hethersett, Norfolk, burnt at Norwich, May 
1579, for holding "that the New Testament and the Gospel of 
Christ were pure folly, a human invention, a mere fable." He 
had previously been set in the pillory and had both his ears 
cut oif . 

Hannotin (Emile), French Deist, b. Bar le Due in 1812, and 
some time editor of the Journal de la Meuse. Author of New 
Philosophical Iheohxjy, '46; Great Questions, '67; Ten Years of 
161 L 


Philosophical Studies, '72 ; and an Essay on Man, in which he 
seeks to explain life by sensibilitij. 

Hanson (Sir Richard Davies), Chief Justice of South 
Australia, b. London, 5 Dec. 1805. He practised as attorney 
for a short time in London, and Avrote for the Globe and 
Morning Chronicle. In 1830 he took part in the attempt to 
found a colony in South Australia. In 1851 he became Advo- 
cate-General of the colony, and subsequentl}- in 1861 Chief 
Justice. In 1869 he was knighted. He wrote on Laio in 
Nature 1865, Jhe Jesus of History 1869, and St. Paul 1875. 
Hanson wrote Letters to and from Rome A.D. 61, 62 and 63. 
Selected and translated hy C.V.S. 1873. Died at Adelaide 10 Mar. 

Hardwicke (Edward Arthur), M.D., eldest son of Junius 
Harwicke, F.R.C.S., of Rotherhara, Yorks. In '75 he qualified 
as a surveyor, and in '86 as a physician. For twelve years he 
was Surgeon Superintendent of the Government Emigration 
Service. He is an Agnostic of the school of Herbert Spencer, 
and has contributed to Freethought and scientific periodicals. 

Hardwicke (Herbert Junius), M.D., brother of above, b. 
Sheffield, 26 Jan. 1850. Studied at London, Edinburgh and 
Paris. In '78 he became a member of the Edinburgh College 
of Physicians. Next year he was the principal agent in 
establishing the Sheffield Public Hospital for Skin Diseases. Be- 
sides numerous medical works, Dr. Hardwicke set up a press of 
his own in order to print The Popular Faith Unveiled , the publishers 
requiring guarantee in consequence of the prosecution of Mr. 
Foote ('84r), and Ecolution and Creation ('87). He has contri- 
buted to the Agnostic Annual, and has recontl}^ written Rambles 
in Spain, Italy and JMorocco ('89). 

Harriot (Thomas), English mathematician, b. Oxford, 1560, 
accompanied Raleigh to Virginia and published an account of 
the expedition. He was noted for his skill in algebra, and A. 
Wood says " He was a Deist." Died 21 July 1621. 

Harrison (Frederic), M.A., English Positivist b. London 
18 Oct. 1831, educated at London and Oxford, when he was 1st 
class in classics. He was called to the bar in '58. He has 
since been appointed Professor of Jurisprudence and Inter- 
national Law. He has written many important articles in the 


higli-class reviews, and lias published The Meaning of Ilistory, 
Order and Progress, and on llie Choice of Books and Other Literary 
Pieces^ '86, and has translated vol. ii of Oomte's Positive Polity. 
He was one of the founders of the Positivist school, '70, and of 
Newton Hall in '81. A fine stylist, his addresses and magazine 
articles bear the stamp of a cultured man of letters. 

Hartmann (Karl Robert Eduard), German pantheistic pessi- 
mist philosopher, b. Berlin, 23 Feb. 1842. In '58 he entered 
the Prussian army, but an affection of the knee made him 
resign in '65. By the publication of his Philosophy of the Uncon- 
scious in '69, he became famous, though it was not translated 
into English until '84. He' has since written numerous works 
of which we name Self- Dissolution of Christiinity and The Reli- 
gion oj the Future, '75. The Crisis of Christianity in Modern 
Theology, '80, 7he Religious Consciousness of Mankind, '81, and 
Modern Problem:^, '86. Latterly Hartmann has turned his atten- 
tion to the philosophy of politics. 

Hartogh Heys Van Zouteveen (Dr. Herman), a learned Dutch 
writer, b. Delft 13 Feb. 1841. He studied law and natural philo- 
sophy at Leyden, and graduated doctor of law in "64 and doctor 
of natural philosophy in '66. In '66 he received a gold medal 
from the king of Holland for a treatise on the synthesis of 
organic bodies. Dr. Hartogh was some time professor of 
chemistry and natural histor}^ at the Hague, but lived at Delft, 
where he Avas made city councillor and in '69 and '70 travelled 
through Egypt and Nubia as correspondent of ffct Vaderland 
and was the guest of the Khedive. He translated into Dutch 
Darwin's Descent of Man and Expressions of the Etnotions, both 
Avith valuable annotations of his own. He has also translated 
and annotated some of the works of Ludwig Biichner and 
^' Cams Sterne," from the German, and works from the ^ 
French, besides writing several original essays on anthro- 
pology, natural history, geology, and allied sciences, contri- 
buting largely to the spread of Darwinian ideas in Holland. In 
^72 he visited the United States and the Pacific coast. Since 
''73 he has resided at Assen, of which he was named member of 
the city council, but could not take his seat because he refused 
the oath. He is a director of the Provincial Archaeological Museum 
at Assen, and a member of the Dutch Literary Society the Royal 


Institution of Netherlands, India, and other scientific associa- 
tions. For a long while he was a member of the Dutch 
Freethinkers' Society, De Dageraad, of which he became 
president. To the organ De Dageraad he contributed 
important works, such as Jewish Reports Concerning Jesus of 
Nazareth and the Origin of Religious Ideas, the last of which 
has been published separately. 

Haslam (Charles Jvmius), b. Widdington, Northumberland, 
24 April, 1811. He spent most of his life near Manchester, 
where he became a Socialist and published Letters to the Clergy 
of all Denominations J showing the errors, absurdities, and 
irrationalities of their doctrines, '»8. This work went through 
several editions, and the publishers were prosecuted for blas- 
phemy. He followed it by Letters to the Bishop of Exeter, con- 
taining materials for deciding the question whether or not the 
Bible is the word of God, '41, and a pamphlet Who are the Inf. 
dels? In '61 he removed to Benton, where he has since lived. 
In '85 he issued a pamphlet entitled The Suppression of War. 

Hassell (Richard), one of Carlile's shopmen, sentenced to 
two years imprisonment in Newgate for selling Paine's Age of 
Reason, 28 May, 1824. He died in October 1826. 

Hattem (Pontiaam van), Dutch writer, b. Bergen 1641. He 
was a follower of Spinoza, inclined to Pantheistic mysticism, 
and had several followers. Died 1706. 

Haureau (Jean Barthelemy), French historian, b. Paris 1812, 
At the age of twenty he showed his sympathy with the Revolu- 
tion by a work on The ^fountain. In turn journalist and 
librarian he has produced many important works, of which we 
name his Manual of the Clergy, '44, which drew on him attacks 
from the clericals, and his erudite Critical Examination of the 
Scholastic Philosophy, '50. 

Hauy (Valentine), French philanthrophist, b. Saint- Just 
13 Nov. 1745. He devottd much attention to enabling the 
blind to read and founded the institute for the young blind in 
1781. He was on e of the founders of Theophilantr opy. In 
1807 he went to Russia, where he stayed till 1817, devoting 
himself to the blind and to telegraphy. Died at Paris 
18 March, 1822. 


Havet (Ernest August Eugene), French scholar and critic, 
b. Paris, 11 April, 1813. In '40 he was appointed professor 
of Greek literature at the Normal School. In '55 he was made 
professor of Latin eloquence at the College de France. In '63 
an article on Renan's Vie de ^Tesus in the Revue des Deux Mondes 
excited much attention, and was afterwards published sepa- 
rately. His work on Christianity and its Origins^ 4 vols. 1872-84, 
is a masterpiece of rational criticism. 

Hawkesworth (John), English essayist and novelist, b. in 
London about 1715. Became contributor to the Gentleman'' s 
Magazine and editor of the Adventurer, In '61 he edited Swift's 
works with a life of that author. He compiled an account of 
the voyages of Byron, Wallis, Carteret, and Cook for govern- 
ment, for which he received £6,000 ; but the work was cen- 
sured as incidentally attacking the doctrine of Providence. 
His novel Ahnoran anil Hnmet was very popular. Died at 
Bromley, Kent, 17 Nov. 1773. 

Hawley (Henry), a Scotch major-general, who died in 1765, 
and by the terms of his will prohibited Christian burial. 

Hebert (Jacques Eene), French revolutionist, b. Alencon 
15 Nov. 1757, published the notorious Plre Duchesne, and with 
Chaumette instituted the Feasts of Reason. He was denounced 
by Saint Just, and guillotined 2 March 1794. His widow, who 
had been a nun, was executed a few days later. 

Hegel (Georg Wilhelm Friedrich), German metaphysician 
b. Stuttgart, 27 Aug. 1770. He studied theology at Tiibingen, 
but, becoming acquainted with Schelling, devoted his attention 
to philosophy. His Encyclopmdia of tie Philosophical Sciences 
made a deep impression in Germany, and two schools sprang 
up, one claiming it as a philosophical statement of Christianity, 
the other as Pantheism hostile to revelation. Hegel said 
students of philosophy must begin with Spinozism. He is 
said to have remarked that of all his many disciples only one 
understood him, and he understood him falsely. He was 
professor at Jena, Heidelberg, and Berlin, in which last city 
he died 14 Nov. 1831, and was buried beside Fichte. 

Heine (Heinrich), German poet and litterateur, b. of Jewish 
parents at Dusseldorf, 31 Dec. 1797. He studied law at Bonn, 


Berlin, iuid Gottingeii ; became acquainted with the philosophy 
of Spinoza and Hegel; graduated LL.D., and in June 1825 
renounced Judaism and was baptised. The change was only- 
formal. He satirised all forms of religious faith. His fine 
Pictures of Travel ^v'A8 received with favor and translated by 
himself into French. His other principal works are the Book 
of Songs, Wf^'ory of Recent Literature in Germany, The Romantic 
School, The Women of Shakespeare, Atta Troll and other poems. 
In 1835 he married a French lady, having settled in Paris, 
Avhere " the Voltaire of Grermany " became more French than 
German. About 1848 he became paralysed and lost his e^^esight, 
but he still employed himself in literary composition with the 
aid of an amanuensis. After an illness of eight years, mostly 
passed in extreme suffering on his •' mattress grave," he died 
17 Feb. 1856. Heine was the greatest and most influential 
German writer since Goethe. He called himself a Soldier of 
Freedom, and his far-flashing sword played havoc with the 
forces of reaction. 

Heinzen (Karl Peter) German-American poet, orator and 
politician, b. near Dusseldorf, 22 Feb. 1809. He studied 
medicine at Bonn, and travelled to Batavia, an account of 
which he published (Cologne 1842). A staunch democrat, in 
1845 he published at Darmstadt a work on the Prussian Bure- 
aucracy, for which he was prosecuted and had to seek shelter 
in Switzerland. At Zurich he edited the German Tribune and 
the Democrat. At the beginning of '48 he visited New York 
but returned to participate in the attempted German Revolution. 
Again " the regicide " had to fly and in August '50 returned 
to New York. He wrote on many papers and established the 
Pioneer (now Freidenktr), first in Louisville, then in Cincinnati^ 
then in New York, and from '59 in Boston. He wrote many 
works, including Letters on Atheism, which appeared in The 
Reasoner 1856, P>em^, German Revolution, Thr. Heroes of German 
Communism, The Ri'jhts of Women, Mankind the Criminal, Six 
Letters to a Pious Man (Boston 1869), Lessons of a Century, and 
What is Humanity ? (1877.) Died Boston 12 Nov. 1880. 

Hellwald (Friedrich von), German geographer, b. Padua 29 
March 1842, and in addition to many works on various countries 
has written an able Culture History, 1875. 


Helmholtz (Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von) Usrman 
scientist, b. Potsdam 31 Aug. 1821. Distinguished for his 
discoveries in acoustics, optics and electricity, he is of the 
foremost rank among natural philosophers in Europe. Among 
his works we mention The Comercation of Force (1847), and 
Popular Scientific Lectures (18G5-76.) Professor Helmholtz 
rejects the design hypothesis. 

Helvetius (Claude Adrien) French philosopher, b. Paris 18 
Jan. 1715. Descended from a line of celebrated physicians, he 
had a large fortune which he dispensed in works of benevolence. 
Attracted by reading Locke he resigned a lucrative situation 
as farmer-general to devote himself to philosophy. In August 
1758 he published a work On the Mind (De L'Esprit) which 
was condemned by Pope Clement XIII, 31 Jan. 1759, and 
burnt by the order of Parliament 6 Feb. 1759 for the hardihood 
of his materialistic opinions. Mme. Du Deffand said " he told 
everybody's secret." It Avas republished at Amsterdam and 
London. He also wrote a poem On Happiness and a work on 
Man his Faculties and Education. He visited England and 
Prussia and became an honored guest of Frederick the Great. 
Died 26 Dec. 1771. His wife, wee Anne Catherine De Ling- 
viLLE, b. 1719, after his death retired to Auteuil, where her 
house was the rendezvous of Oondillac, Turgot, d'Holbach, 
Morellet, Cabanis, Destutt de Trac}^, etc. This re-union of 
Freethinkers was known as the Societe d' Auteuil. Madame 
Helvetias died 12 August 1800. 

Henault, or Hesnault (Jean), French Epicurean poet of the 
17th century, son of a Paris baker, was a pupil of Gassendi, 
and went to Holland to see Spinoza. Bayle saj^s he professed 
Atheism, and had composed three different systems of the 
mortality of the soul. His most famous sonnet is on The 
Abortion. Died Paris, 1682. 

Henin de Cuvillers (Etienne Felix), Baron, French general 
and writer, b. Balloy, 27 April, 1755. He served as diploma- 
tist in England, Venice, and Constantinople. Employed in the 
army of Italy, he was wounded at Areola, 26 Sept. '96. He 
was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1811. He wrote 
much, particularly on magnetism. In the 8th vol. of his 
Archives du Magnet i.^me Animal, he suggests that the miracles of 

11 EN' 

Jesus were not supernatural, but wrought by means of mag- 
netism learnt in Egypt. In other writings, especially in 
reflections on the crimes committed in the name of religion, 
'22, he shows himself the enemy of fanaticism and intolerance. 
Died 2 August, 1841. 

Hennell (Charles Christian), English Freethinker, b. 9 March, 
1809, author of an able Inquiry concerning the Origin of Christianity^ 
first published in '38, a work which powerfully influenced 
*' George Eliot," and a translation of which was introduced to 
German readers by Dr. D. F. Strauss. It was Hennell who 
induced "George Eliot" to translate Strauss's Life of Jesus. He 
also wrote on Christian Theism. Hennell lived most of his time 
in Coventry. He was married at London in '39, and died 
2 Sept. 1850. 

Heranlt de SecheHes (Marie Jean), French revolutionist, b- 
of noble family, Paris, 1760. Brought upas a friend of Buffon 
and Mirabeau, he gained distinction as a lawj^er and orator 
before the Revolution. Elected to the Legislative Assembly 
in '91, he was made President of the Convention, 2 Xov. 92. 
He edited the document known as the Constitution of 1793, and 
was president and chief speaker at the national festival, 10 Aug. 
'93. He drew on himself the enmit}^ of Robespierre, and was 
executed with Danton and Camille Desmoulins, 5 April, 1794. 

Herbart (Johann Friedrich), b. Oldenburg 4 May 1776. In 
1805 he was made professor of philosophy at Gottingen, and in 
1808 became Kant's successor at Konigsberg and opposed his 
philosophy. Though religiously disposed, his philosophy has 
no room for the notion of a God. He was recalled to Gottingen, 
where he died 14 Aug. 1841. 

Herbert (Edward). Lord of Cherbury,- in Shropshire, 
b. Montgomery Castle, 1581. Educated at Oxford, after which 
he went on his travels. On his return he was made one of the 
king's counsellors, and soon after sent as ambassador to France 
to intercede for the Protestants. He served in the Nether- 
lands, and distinguished himself b3' romantic bravery. In 1625 
he was made a peer of Ireland, and in '31 an English peer. 
During the civil wars he espoused the side of Parliament. His 
principle work is entitled De Veritate, the object of which was 
to assert the sufiiciency of natural religion apart from revelation. 


He also wrote Lay Rdi(/>'on, his own Memoirs, a Histonj of Henry 
VIIL, etc. Died 20 Aug. 1648. 

Hertell (Thomas), judge of the Marine Court of New York, 
and for some years Member of the Legislature of his State. 
He wrote two or three small works criticising Christian Theo- 
logy, and exerted his influence in favour of State secularization. 

Hertzen or Gertsen (Aleksandr Ivanovich), Russian patriot, 
chief of the revolutionary party, b. Moscow, 25 March, 1812. 
He studied at Moscow University, where he obtained a high 
degree. In '34 he was arrested for Saint Simonian opinions 
and soon afterwards banished to Viatka, whence he was per- 
mitted to return in '37. He was expelled from Eussia in '42, 
visited Italy, joined the " Reds " at Paris in '48, took refuge at 
Geneva, and soon after came to England. In '57 he set up in 
London a Russian printing press for the publication of works 
prohibited in Russia, and his publications passed into that 
country in large numbers. Among his writings are Dilettantism 
in Science, '42 ; Letters on the Study of Nature, '45-46 : Who's to 
Blame? '57 ; Memoirs of the Empress Catherine, and My Exile, '55. 
In '57 Herzen started the magazine the Kololcol or Bell. Died 
at Paris, 21 Jan. 1870. His son, Alessandiio Herzen, b. 
Wladimar, 1839, followed his father's fortunes, learnt most of 
the European languages and settled at Florence, wheie he did 
much to popularise physiological science. He has translated 
MB^udsley 8 Physiology of Mi7id, and published a physiological 
analysis of human free will. 

Herwegh (Georg), German Radical and poet, b. Stuttgart, 
31 May, 1817. Intended for the Church, he left that business 
for Literature. His Gcdichte eines Lehendigen (Poems of a Living 
Man) aroused attention by their boldness. In '48 he raised a 
troop and invaded Baden, but failed, and took refuge in Swit- 
zerland and Paris. Died at Baden-Baden, 7 April, 1875. 

Hetherington (Henry), English upholder of a free press, 
b. Soho, London, 1792. He became a printer, and was one of the 
most energetic of working men engaged in the foundation of 
mechanics' institutes. He also founded the Metropolitan 
Political L^^nion in March, 1830, which was the germ both of 
trades' unionism and of the Chartist movement. He resisted 


the " taxes upon knowledge " by issuing unstamped Ihe Poor 
Man's Guardian, a weekly newb[.aii«3r for the people, established, 
contrary to " law," to try the power of " might " against 
"right," '31-35. For this he twice suffered sentences of six 
months' imprisonment. He afterwards published The Unstamped. 
and his persistency had much to do in removing the taxes. 
While in prison he wrote his Cheap Salvation in consequence of 
conversation with the chaplain of Clerkenwell Gaol. On 
Dec. 8, '40, he was tried for "blasphemous libel " for publishing 
Haslam's Letters to the Clergy^ and received four month's im- 
prisonment. Hetherington pui-lished -1 Few Hundred Bible 
Contradictions^ and other Freethought works. Much of his life 
was devoted to the propaganda of Cliartism. He died 24 Aug. 
1849, leaving, a will declaring himself an Atheist. 

Hetzer (Ludwig), anti-Trinitarian martyr, b. Bischopzell, 
Switzerland ; was an Anabaptist minister at Zurich. He 
openly denied the doctrine of the Trinity, and was condemned 
to death by the magistrates of Constance on a charge of 
blasphemy. The sentence was carried out 4 Feb. 1529. 

Heiisden (C. J. van), Dutch writer in De Dageraad. Has 
written several works, Thoughts on a Coming More Universal 
Doctrine, by a Believer, etc. 

Hibbert (Julian), Freethought philanthropist, b. 1801. 
During the imprisoment of Richard Carlile he was active in 
sustaining his publications. Learning that a distinguished 
political prisoner had received a gift of £1,000, he remarked 
that a Freethinking prisoner should not want equal friends, 
and gave Carlile a cheque for the same amount. Julian 
Hibbert spent nearly £1,000 in fitting up Carlile's shop in Fleet 
Street. He contributed " Theological Dialogues " to the 
Republican, and also contributed to the Poor Man's Guardian. 
Hibbert set up a private press and printed in uncial Greek the 
Orphic Hymns, '27, and also Phifarch and Theophrastns on Super- 
stition, to which he wrote a life cf Plutarch and appended valu- 
able essay's " on the supposed necessity of deceiving the 
vulgar " ; " various definitions of an important word " [God], 
and a catalogue of the principal modern works against Atheism. 
He also commenced a Dictionary of Anti-Superstitionists, and 


Chronological Tables of British Freethinkers. He wrote a short 
life of Holbach, published by James Watson, to whom, and to 
Henry Hetherington, he left £500 each. Died December 1834.. 

Hidenin (Sven Adolph), Swedish member of the "Andra 
Kammaren " [House of Commons], b. 1834. Studied at Upsala 
and became philosophical candidate, '61. Edited the Afton- 
Idndet, 74-76. Has written many radical works. 

Higgins (Godfrey), English archa3ologist, b. Skellow Grange, 
near Doncaster, 1771. Educated at Cambridge and studied for 
the bar, but never practised. Being the only son he inherited 
his father's property, married, and acted as magistrate, in 
which capacity he reformed the treatment of lunatics in York 
Asylum. His first work was entitled horse Sahhaticse^ 1813, a 
manual on the Sunday Question. In '29 he published An 
Apology for the Life and Character of Mohammed and Celtic 
Druids^ which occasioned some stir on account of the exposure 
of priestcraft. He died 9 Aug. 1833, leaving behind a work on 
the origin of religions, to the study of which he devoted ten 
hours daily for about twenty years. The work was published 
in two volumes in 1826, under the title of " Anacalypsis, an 
attempt to draw aside the veil of the Saitic Isis ; or an 
Inquiry into the Origin of Languages, Nations, and 

Hillebrand (Karl), cosmopolitan writer, b. 17 Sept. 1829, at 
Giessen. His father, Joseph Hillebrand, succeeded Hegel as 
professor at Heidelberg. Involved in the revolutionary move- 
ment in Germany, Karl was imprisoned in the fortress of 
Rastadt, whence he escaped to France. He taught at Stras- 
bourg and Paris, where he became secretary to Heine. On 
the poet's death he removed to Bordeaux, where he became a 
naturalised Frenchman. He became professor of letters at 
Douay. During the Franco-Prussian war he was correspon- 
dent to the Times, and was taken for a Prussian sp3". In 1871 
he settled at Florence, where he translated the poems of Car- 
ducci. Hillebrand w^as a contributor to the Fortnightly Review,. 
Nineteenth C entury, Revue des deux Mondcs, I^orth American Review , 
etc. His best known work is on France and the French in the 
second half of the nineteenth centur}'. Died at Florence,. 
18 Oct. 1884. 


Hins (Eugene^, Belgian writer, Dr. of Philosophy, Professor 
at Royal Athenseura, Charleroi, b. St. Troiid, 1842. As general 
secretary of the International, he edited L'hiternaiimiale, in 
which he laid stress on anti-religious teaching. He contributed 
to La Liberie, and was one of the prominent lecturers of the 
Societies Les SoUdaires, and La Lihre-pensee of Brussels. He has 
written Tm Russie dc voilee au moyen de sa litterature populaire 
1883, and other works. 

Hippel (Theodor Gottlieb von), German humoristic poet, 
b. Gerdauen, Prussia, 31 Jan. 1741. He studied theology, but 
resigned it for law, and became in 1780 burgomaster of Konigs- 
berg. His writings, which were published anonymously, betray 
his advanced opinions. Died Broraberg, 23 April, 1796. 

Hittell (John S.), American Freethinker, author of the 
Evidences against Christianiti/ (New York, 1857) : has also 
written .1 Plea for Pantheism, A New System of Phrenology, The 
Resources of California, a History of Sa7i Francisco, A Brief 
History of Culture CSew York, 1875), and St. Peter's Catechism 
(Geneva, 1883). 

Hoadley (George), American jurist, b. New Haven, Conn., 
31 July, 1836. He studied at Harvard, and in '47 was admitted 
to the bar, and in '51 was elected judge of the superior court 
of Cincinnati. He afterwards resigned his place and estab- 
lished a law firm. He was one of the counsel that successfully 
opposed compulsory Bible reading in the public schools. 

Hobbes (Thomas), English philosopher, b. Malmesbury, 
5 April, 1588. In 1608 he beame tutor to a son of the Earl of 
Devonshire, with whoir he made the tour of Europe. At 
Pisa in 1628 he made the acquaintance of Galileo. In 1642 he 
printed his work De Give. In 1650 appeared in English his 
work on Human Nature, and in the following year his famous 
Levi'ithan. At the Restoration he received a pension, but in 
1666 Parliament, in a Bill against Atheism and profaneness, 
passed a censure on his writings, which much alarmed him. 
The latter years of his life were spent at the seat of the Duke 
of Devonshire, Chats worth, where he died 4 Dec. 1679. 

Hodgson (William, M.D.), English Jacobin, translator of 
d'Holbach's System of Nature (1795). In 1794 he was confined 


in Newgate for two years for drinking to the success of the 
French Republic. In prison he wrote The Commonwealth of 

Hoelderlin ( Johann Christian Friedricli), German pantheistic 
poet, b. Laufen, 20 March, 1770. Entered as a theological 
student at Tiibingen, but never took to the business. He wrote 
Hyperion, a fine romance (1797-99), and Lyric Poems, admired 
for their depth of thought. Died Tiibingen, 7 June, 1843. 

Heijer (Benjamin Carl Henrik), Swedish philosopher, b. 
Great Skedvi, Delecarlia, 1 June, 1707. Was student atUpsala 
University '83, and teacher of philosophy '98. His promotion 
was hindered by his liberal opinions. By his personal influence 
and published treatises he contributed much to Swedish eman- 
cipation. In 1808 he became Professor of Philosophy at 
Upsala. Died 8 June, 1812. 

Holbach (Paul Heinrich Dietrich von) Baron, b. Heidelsheim 
Jan. 1723. Brought up at Paris where he spent most of his 
life. Rich and generous he was the patron of the Encyclo- 
paedists. Buffon, Diderot, d'Alembert, Helvetius, Rousseau, 
Grimm, Raynal, Marmontel, Condillac, and other authors often 
met at his table. Hume, Garrick, Franklin, and Priestley were 
also among his visitors. He translated from the German 
several works on chemistry and mineralogy, and from the 
English, Mark Akenside's Pleasures of the Imagination. He con- 
tributed many articles to the Encyclopedie, In 1765 he visited 
England, and from this time was untiring in his issue of Free- 
thought works, usually put out under pseudonyms. Thus he 
wrote and had published at Amsterdam Christianity Unveiled, 
attributed to Boulanger. The Spirit of the Clergy, translated, 
from the English of Trenchard and Gordon, was partly re- 
written by d'Holbach, 1767. His Sacred Contagion or Natural 
History of Superstition, was also wrongly attributed to Trenchard 
and Gordon. This work was condemned to be burnt by a 
decree of the French parliament, 8 Aug. 1770. D'Holbach also 
wrote and published T/ic ///sfor^ of David, 1768, The Critical 
History of Jesus CJirist, Letters to Eugenia, attributed to Freret, 
Por^aWe 2 /leoZo^ry, attributed to Bernier, an Essay on Prejudices, 
attributed to M. Du M [arsais]. Religious Cruelty, Hell Destroyed, 
and other works, said to be from the English. He also translated 


the Philosophical Letters of Toland, and Collins's Discourses on 
Prophecy, and attributed to the latter a work with the title 
The Spirit of Judaism. Tliese works were mostly conveyed to 
the printer, M. Re}^, at Amsterdam, by Naigeon, and the secret 
of their authorshij) was carefully preserved. Hence d'Holbach 
escaped persecution. In 1770 he published his principal work 
The System of Nature, or The Laics of the Physical and Moral 
World. This text-book of atheistic philosophy, in which 
d'Holbach was assisted by Diderot, professed to be the 
posthumous work of Mirabaud. It made a great sensation. 
Within two years he published a sort of summary under the 
title of Good Sense, attributed to the cure Meslier. In 1773 he 
wrote on Natural Politics and the Social System. His last im- 
portant work was Universal Morality; or the Duties of Man 
founded upon Nature. D'Holbach, whose personal good qualities 
were testified to by many, was depicted in Eousseau's Nourelle 
Heloise as the benevolent Atheist Wolmar. Died 21 Jan. 1789. 

Holcroft (Thomas), English author, b. 10 Dec. 1745, was 
successively a groom, shoemaker, schoolmaster, actor and 
author. His comedies "Duplicity," 1781, and "The Road to 
Ruin," 1792, were verj' successful. He translated the Post- 
humous Works of PYedericJc the Great, 1789. For his active 
sympathy with the French Republicans he was indicted for 
high treason with Hardy and Home Tooke in 1794, bui was 
discharged without a trial. Died 23 March, 1809. 

Holland (Frederic May), American author, b. Boston, 2 May, 
183(: graduated at Harvard in '49, and in '63 was ordained 
Unitarian minister at Rockford, 111. Becoming broader in his 
views, he resigned, and has since written in the 2ruthsecker, 
the Freethinkers' Magazine, etc. His principal work is entitled 
Ihe Rise of Litellcctual Liberty, 1885. 

Hollick (Dr. Frederick), Socialist, b. Birmingham, 22 Dec 
1813. He was educated at the Mechanics' Institute of that 
town, and became one of the Socialist lecturers under Robert 
Owen. He held a public discussion with J. Brindley at Liver- 
pool, in 1840, on " What is Christianity ? " On the failure of 
Owenism he went to America, where some of his works 
popularising medical science have had a large circulation. 


Hollis (John), English sceptic, b. 1757. Author of Sober 
and Serious Reasons for Scepticism, 1796 ; An Apology for Disbelief 
in Revealed Religion, 1799; and Free Thoughts, 1812. Died at 
High Wycombe, Bucks 20 Nov. 1824. Hollis, who came of an 
oppulent dissenting family, was distinguished by his love of 
truth, his zeal in the cause of freedom, and by his beneficence. 

Holmes (William Yamplew), one of Carlile's brave shopmen 
who came up from Leeds to uphold the right of free publication. 
He was sentenced to two years' imprisonment, 1 March, '22, 
for selling blasphemous and seditious libels in An Address to 
the Reformers of Great Britain, and when in prison was told that 
*' if hard labor was not expressed in his sentence, it was im- 
plied." On his release Holmes went to Sheffield and com- 
menced the open sale of all the prohibited publications. 

HolweH (John Zephaniah), noted as one of the survivors of 
the Black Hole of Calcutta, b. Dublin, 7 Sept. 1711. He prac- 
tised as a surgeon, went to Intiui as a clerk, defended a fort 
at Calcutta against Surajah Dov. iah, w^as imprisoned with one 
hundred and forty-five others in the " Black Hole," 20th June, 
1756, of which he published a Narrative. He succeeded Clive 
as governor of Bengal. On returning to England he published 
a dissertation directed against belief in a special providence, 
and advocating the application of church endowments to the 
exigencies of the State (Bath, 1786). Died 5 Nov. 1798. 

Holyoake (Austin), English Freethinker, b. Birmingham, 
27 Oct. 1826. His mental emancipation came from hearing the 
lectures of Robert Owen and Lis disciples. He took part in 
the agitation for the abolition of the newsftaper stamp — assist- 
ing when risk and danger had to be met — and he co-operated 
with his brother in the production of the Reasoner and other 
publications from '45 till '62. Soon after this he printed and 
■sub-edited the National Reformer, in which many of his Free- 
thought articles appeared. Among his pamphlets may be 
mentioned Heaven and Hell, Ludicrous Aspects of Christianity^ 
Ihovghts on Atheism, the Book <f Esther, and Daniel the Dreamer. 
He also composed a Secular Burial Service. Austin Holyoake 
took pride in the character of Freethought, and was ever 
zealous in promoting its welfare. His amiable spirit endeared 


him to all who Knew him. He died 10 April, 1874, leaving 
behind thoughts written on his deathbed, in which he repudi- 
ated all belief in theology. 

Holyoake (George Jacob), b. Birmingham, 13 April 1817, 
Became mathematical teacher of the Mechanics' Institution, 
Influenced by Combe and Owen he became a Freethinker, and 
in '40 a Socialist missionar^^ In '42, when Southwell was 
imprisoned for writing in the Oracle of Reason, Mr. Holyoake 
took charge of that journal, and wrote The Spirit of Bonner in 
the Disciples of Jesu!<. He was soon arrested for a speech at 
Cheltenham, having eaid, in answer to a question, that he 
would put the Deity on half-pay. Tried Aug. '42, he was 
sentenced to six months imprisonment, of which he gave a full 
account in his Last Trial hy Jury for Atheism in England. In 
Dec. '43 he edited with M. Q. Ryall the Movement, bearing the 
motto from Bentham, " Maximise morals, minimise religion. '^ 
The same policy was pursued in The Reasoner, which he edited 
from 1846 till 1861. Among his many pamphlets we must 
notice the Logic of Death, '50, which went through numerous 
editions, and was included in his most important Freethought 
work, Tim Irial of Theism. In '49 he published a brief memoir 
of R. Carlile. In '51 he first used the term " Secularist," and 
in Oct. '52 the first Secular Conference was held at Manchester 
Mr. Holyoake presiding. In Jan, '53 he held a six nights dis- 
cussion with the Ptuv. Brewin Grant, and again in Oct. '54. He 
purchased the business of James Watson, and issued many 
Freethought works, notably The Library of Reason — a series. 
The Cabinet of Reason, his own Secularism' The Philosophy of the 
People, etc. In '60 he was Secretary to the British Legion sent out 
to Garibaldi. Mr. Holyoake did much to remove the taxes 
\ipon knowledge, and has devoted much attention to Co-opera- 
tion, having written a history of the movement and contributed 
to most of its journals. 

Home (Henry), Scottish judge, was b. 1696. His legal 
ability was made known by his publication of Remarkalle 
Decisions of the Court of Session, 1728. In 1752 he was raised to 
the bench as Lord Kames. He published Essays on the 
Principles oj Morality and Natural Religion (1751), EUments 
of Criticism (1762), and Sketches of the History of Man, in 


which he proved himself in advance of his age. Died 27 Dec. 

Hon, Le (Henri). See Le Hon. 

Hooker (Sir Joseph Dalton), English naturalist, b. 1817. He 
studied medicine at Glasgow, graduating M.D '39. In '55 he 
became assistant-director of Kew Gardens, and from '65 — 85 
sole director. Eenowned as a botanist, he was the first 
eminent man of science to proclaim his adoption of Darwinism. 

Hope (Thomas), novelist and antiquarian, b. 1770. Famous 
for his anonymous Anastasiu^, or Memories of a Modern Greek, 
he also wrote an original work on The Origin and Prospects of Man 
'31. Died at London 3 Feb. 1831. 

Houten (Samuel van), Dutch Freethinker, b. Groningen. 
17 Feb. 1837 ; he studied law and became a lawyer in that city, 
In '69 he was chosen member of the Dutch Parliament. Has 
published many writiiigs on political economy. In '88 he 
wrote a book entitled Bas Causalitatrjesatz (The Law of 

Houston (George). Was the translator of d'Holbach's Ecce 
Homo, first published in Edinburgh in 1799, and sometimes 
ascribed to Joseph \yebb. A second edition was issued in 
1813. Houston was prosecuted and was imprisoned two years 
in Newgate, with a fine of £200. He afterwards went to New 
York, where he edited the Minerva (1822). In Jan. 1827, he 
started The Correspondence, which, we believe, was the. first 
weekl}^ Freethought journal published in America. It lasted 
till July 1828. He also republished Ecce Homo. Houston 
helped to establish in America a " Free Press Association " and 
a Society of Free Inquirers. 

Hovelacque (Abel), French scientist, b. Paris 14 Nov. 1843. 
He studied law and made part of the groupe of la Pensee 
Nouvelle, with Asseline, Letourneau, Lefevre, etc. He also 
studied anthropology under Brocaand published many articles 
in the Revue d^-inthropologie. He founded with Letourneau, 
Thulie, Asseline, etc. The " Bibliotheque des sciences con- 
temporains " and published therein La Linguistique. He also 
founded with the same the library of anthropological science 
and published in collaboration with G. Herve a ])rlcis of Anthro- 
pology and a study of the Negroes of Africa. He has also con- 
177 M 


tributed to the Dictionary of Anthropology. For the " Bib- 
liotheque Material iste " he wrote a work on Primitive man 
He has also published choice extracts from the works of 
Voltaire, Diderot and Eousseau, a grammar of the Zend 
language, and a work on the Avesta Zoroaster and Mazdaism. 
In '78 he was made a member of the municipal council of 
Paris, and in '81 was elected deputy to the chamber where he 
sits with the autonomist socialist group. 

Howdon (John), author of A Rational Investigation of the 
Principles of Natural Philosophy ^ Physical and Moral, printed at 
Haddington, 1840, in which he attacks belief in the Bible. 

Huber (Marie), Swiss Deist, b. of Protestant parents, Geneva, 
1694. In a work on the System of Theologians, 1731, she opposed 
the dogma of eternal punishment. In '38 published Letters on 
the Religion essential to Man. This was translated into English 
in the same year. Other works show English reading. She 
translated selections from the Spectator. Died at Lyons, 13 
June, 1753. 

Hudail (Abul). See Muhammad ibn Hudail (Al Allaf.) 
Huet (Coenraad Busken), Dutch writer, b. the Hague, 28 Dec. 
1826. He became mini«5terof the Walloon Church at Haarlem, but 
through his Freethought left the church in '63, and became 
editor of various newspapers, afterwards living in Paris. He 
wrote many works of literary value, and published Letters on 
the Bible, '57, etc. Died 1887. 

Hugo (Victor Marie), French poet and novelist, b. Besancon, 
26 Feb. 1802. Was first noted for his Odes, published in '21. 
His dramas, "Hernani," '30, and "Marion Delorme," '31, were 
highly successful. He was admitted into the French Academy 
in '41, and made a peer in '45. He gave his cordial adhesion 
to the Republic of '48, and was elected to the Assembly by the 
voters of Paris. He attacked Louis Napoleon, aud after the 
coup d'etat was proscribed. He first went to Brussels, where 
he published Nojjoleon the Little, a biting satire. He afterwards 
settled at Guernsey, where he remained until the fall of the 
Empire, producing 2 he Legend of the Ages, '59, Les Miserablts, 
'62, Toilers of the Sea, '69, and other works. After his return 
to Paris he produced a new series of the Legend of the Ages, 
The Pope, Religions and Religion, Torquemada, and other poems. 


He died 22 May, 1885, and it being decided he should have a 
national funeral, the Pantheon was secularised for that purpose, 
the cross being removed. Since his death a poem entitled 
The End of Satan has been published. 

Hugues (Olovis), French Socialist, poet, and deputy, b. Me- 
nerbes, 3 Nov. 1850. In youth he desired t^ become a priest, 
but under the influence of Hugo left the black business. In 71 
he became head of the Communist movement at Marseilles 
He was sentenced to three years' imprisonment. In '81 he 
was elected deputy, and sits on the extreme left. 

Humboldt (Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von), illustrious 
German naturalist and traveller, b. Berlin, 14 Sept. 1769. He 
studied under Heyne and Blumenbf^ch, travelled in Holland, 
France and England with George Forster, the naturalist, and 
became director-general of min^s. In 1799 he set out to ex- 
plore South America and Mexico, and in 1804 returned with 
rich collection of animals, plants and minerals. Humboldt 
became a resident of Paris, wher^i he enjo^^ed the friendship of 
Lalande, Delambre, Arago, and all the living distinguished 
French scientists. After numerous important contributions to 
scientific knowledge, at the age of seventy-four he composed 
his celebrated Cosmos, the first volume of which appeared in 
'45 and the fourth in '58. To Varnhagen von Ense he wrote 
in 1841 : "Bruno Bauer has found me pre-adamatically con- 
verted. Many years ago I wrote, ' Toutes les religions posi- 
tives offrent trois parties distinctes ; un traite de moeurs 
partout le me me et tres pur, un reve ge'ologique, et un mythe 
ou petit roman historique ; le dernier element obtient le plus 
d'importance.' " Later on he says that Strauss disposes of "the 
Christian myths." Humboldt was an unwearied student of 
science, paying no attention to religion, and opposed his 
brother in regard to his essay On the Province of the Historian, 
because he considered it to acknowledge the belief in the 
divine government of the world, which seemed to him as 
complete a delusion as the hypothesis o^ a principle of life. 
He died in Berlin, 6 May, 1859, in his ninetieth year. 

Humboldt (Karl Wilhelm von), Prussian statesman and 
philosopher, b. Potsdam, 22 June. 1767. He was educated by 
Campe. Went to Paris in 1789, and hailed the revolution with 


enthusiasm. In '92 he published Ideas on the Organisation of 
0ie State. He became a friend of Schiller and Groethe, and in 
1809 was Minister of Public Instruction. He took part in 
founding the University of Berlin. He represented Prussia at 
the Congress of Vienna. '14. He advocated a liberal constitu- 
tion, but finding the King averse, retired at the end of '19, 
and devoted himself to the study of comparative philology. 
He said there were three things he could not comprehend — 
orthodox piety, romantic love, and music. He died 8 April, 
1835. His works were collected and edited by his brother. 

Hume (David), philosopher and historian, b. Edinburgh, 
26 April, 1711. In 1735 he went to France to study, and there 
wrote his Treatise on Human Nature, published in 1739. This 
work then excited no interest friendly or hostile. Hume's 
f!)ssays Moral and Political appeared in 1742, and in 1752 his Inquiry 
Concerning the Principles of Morals which of all his writings he 
considered the best. In 1755 he published his Natural History 
of Religion, which was furiously attacked by Warburton in an 
anonymous tract. In 1754 he published the first volume of his 
History of England, yvhich he did not complete till 1761. He 
became secretary to the Earl of Hertford, ambassador at 
Paris, where he was cordially welcomed by the philosophers ► 
He returned in 1766, bringing Rousseau with him. Hume 
became Under Secretary of State in 1767, and in 1769 retired to 
Edinburgh, where he died 25 Aug. 1776. After his death his 
Dialogues on Natural Pieligion were published, and also some 
unpublished essays on Suicide, the Immortality of the Soul, 
etc. Hume's last days were singularly cheerful. His friend,, 
the famous Dr. Adam Smith, considered him " as approaching 
as nearly to the idea of a perfectly wise and virtuous man a& 
perhaps the nature of human frailty will permit." 

Himt (James), Ph.D., physiologist, b. 1833, was the founder 
of the Anthropological Society, of which he was the first 
president, '63. He was the author of the Negroes Place in 
Nature, a work on Stammering, etc. Died 28 Aug. 1869. 

Hunt (James Henry Leigh), poet, essayist and critic, 
b. Southgate, Middlesex, 19 Oct. 1784, was educated with Lamb 
and Coleridge at Christ's Hospital, London. He joined his 


brother John i-n editing first tlie Siuidtnj News, 1805, and then 
the Examiner, 1808. They were condemned to pay a fine, each 
of £500, and to be imprisoned for two years, 1812-14, for a 
satirical article, in which the prince regent was called an 
** Adonis of fifty." This imprisonment procured him the 
friendship of Shelley and Byron, with whom, after editing the 
Indicator he was associated in editing the Liberal. He wrote 
many choice books of poems and criticisms, and in his Religion 
of the Heart, '5-3, repudiates orthodoxy. Died 28 Aug. 1859. 

Hutten (Ulrich von), German poet and reformer, b. of noble 
family Steckelberg, Hesse Oassel, 22 April 1488. He was sent 
to Fulda to become a monk, but fled in 1504 to Erfurt, where 
he studied hninnnioni. After some wild adventures he went to 
Wittenberg in 1510, and Vienna 1512, and also studied at Pavia 
and Bologna. He returned to Germany in 1517 as a common 
soldier in the army of Maximilian. His great object was to 
free his country from sacerdotalism, and most of his writings 
are satires against the Pope, monks and clergy. Persecution 
drove him to Switzerland, but the Council of Zurich drove him 
him out of their territory and he died on the isle of Ufnau, 
Lake Ziirich, 29 Aug. 1523. 

Hutton (James), Scotch geologist and philosopher, b. at 
Edinburgh 3 June, 1736. He graduated as M.D. at Leyden in 
1749, and investigated the strata of the north of Scotland. 
He published a dissertation on Light, Heat, and Fire, and in his 
Ihcory of the World, 1795, attributes geological phenomena to 
the action of fire. He also wrote a work entitled An hwestiga- 
tion of the Principles of Knowledge, the opinions of which, says 
Chalmers, " abound in sceptical boldness and philosophical 
infidelity.'' Died 26 March 1797. 

Huxley (Thomas Henry), LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., b. Ealing, 
4 May, 1825. He studied medicine, and in '46 took M.R.C.S., 
and was appointed assistant naval surgeon. His cruises 
afforded opportunities for his studies of natural history. In 
'61 he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society, and in '54 was 
made Professor at the School of Mines. In '60 he lectured on 
** The Relation of Man to the Lower Animals," and afterwards 
published Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature (1863). In 
addition to numerous scientific works. Professor Huxley has 


written numerous forcible articles, addresses, etc , collected in 
Lay Sermons, 70 ; Critiques and Addresses^ 73 ; and American 
Addresses, 79. A vigorous writer, his Hume in the " English 
Men of Letters " series is a model of clear exposition. In his 
controversies with Mr. Gladstone, in his articles on the Evolu- 
tion of Theology^ and in his recent polemic with the Eev. Mr. 
Wace in the Nineteenth Century, Professor Huxley shows all his 
freshness, and proves himself as ready in demolishing theo- 
logical fictions as in demonstrating scientific facts. He states 
as his own life aims " The popularising of science and untiring 
opposition to that ecclesiastical spirit, that clericalism, which 
in England, as everywhere else, and to whatever denomination 
it may belong, is the deadly enemy of science." 

Hypatia, Pagan philosopher and martyr, b. Alexandria early 
in the second half of the fourth century. She became a dis- 
tinguished lecturer and head of the Neo-Platonic school 
(c. 400). The charms of her eloquence brought many disciples. 
By a Christian m.ob, incited by St. Cyril, she was in Lent 415 
torn from her chariot, stripped naked, cut with oyster-shells 
and finally burnt piecemeal. This true story of Christian per- 
secution has been disguised into a legend related of St. Catherine 
in the Roman breviary (Nov. 25). 

Ibn Bajjat. See Avenpace. 

Ibn Massara. See Massara. 

Ibn Rushd. See Averroes. 

Ibn Sabin. See Sabin. 

Ibn Sina. See Avicenna. 

Ibn Tofail. See Abu Bakr. 

Ibsen (Henrik), an eminent Norwegian dramatist and poet, 
b. Skien, 20 March, 1828. At first he studied medicine, but 
he turned his attention to literature. In '52, through the 
influence of Ole Bull, he became director of the theatre at 
Bergen, for which he wrote a great deal. From '57 to '63 he 
directed the theatre at Christiania. In the following year he 
went to Rome. The Storthing accorded him an annual pension 
for his services to literature. His dramas, Brand, (Peer Gynt), 
Kcjser og Galilxr (Csesar [Julian] and the Galilean), Nora, and 
Samfandets Stotler (the Pillars of Society), and Ghosts exhibit 


his unconA^entional spirit. Ibsen is an open nnbeliever in 
Christianity. He looks forward to social regeneration throngh 
liberty, individuality, and education without superstition. 

Hive (Jacob), English printer and letter founder, b. Bristol 
about 1710. He published a pretended translation of the Book 
of Jasher, 1751, and some other curious works. He was prose- 
cuted for blasphemy in Some Modest Remarks on the late Bishop 
Sherlock'' s Sermons, and sentenced to two years' imprisonment, 
15 June, 1756 — 10 June, 1758. He was confined in the Clerk- 
enwell House of Correction and published some pamphlets 
exposing the bad condition of the prison and suggesting means 
for its improvement. He died in 1768. 

Imray (I. W.), author, b. 1802. Wrote in Carlile's Repub- 
lican and Lion^ and published " Altamont," an atheistic drama, 
in 1828. 

IngersoH (Robert Green), American orator, b. Dresden, New 
York, 11 Aug. 1833. His father was a Congregationalist 
clergyman. He studied law, and opened an office in Shawnee- 
town, Hlinois. In '62 he became colonel of the 11th Illinois 
Cavalry, and served in the war, being taken prisoner. In '66 
he was appointed attorney-general for Illinois. At the 
National Republican Convention, '76, he proposed Blaine for 
President in a speech that attracted much attention. In '77 he 
refused the post of Minister to Germany. He has conducted 
many important cases, and defended C. B. Reynolds when 
tried for blasphemy in '86. Col. Ingersoll is the most popular 
speaker in America. Eloquence, humor, and pathos are alike 
at his command. He is well known by his books, pamphlets, 
and speeches directed against Christianity. He had published 
the Gods, Ghosts, Some Mistakes of Moses, and a collection of his 
Lectures, '83, and Prose Poems and Extracts, '84. Most of his 
lectures have been republished in England. We mention 
What must 1 do to he Saved? Hell, The Dying Creed, Myth and 
Miracle, Do I Blaspheme ? Real Blasphemy. In the pages of the 
North American Preview Col. Ingersoll has defended Freetbought 
against Judge Black, the Rev. H. Field, Mr. Gladstone, and 
Cardinal Manning. 

Inman (Thomas), B.A., physician and archreologist, b. 1820. 
Educated at London University, he settled at Liverpool, being 


connected with tlie well-known shipping family of that port. 
He is chiefly known by his work on Ancient Faiths Embodied in 
Ancient Naines, in which he deals with the evidences of phallic 
worship amongst Jews and other nations. It was first published 
in '69. A second edition appeared in '73. He also wrote 
Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Synibolism Exposed and 
Explained, '69, and a controversial Freethought work, entitled 
Ancient Faiths and Modern, published at New York '76. Dr. 
Inman was for some time President of the Liverpool Literary 
and Philosophical Society, and was physician to the Royal 
Infirmary of that city. His professional life was one of 
untiring industry. He wrote several medical works, including 
two volumes on the Preseervation and Restoration of Health. 
Died at Clifton, 3 May. 1876. 

Iron (Ralph), pseudonym of Olive Schreiner, q.v 

Isnard (Felix), French physician, b. Grasse 1829. Author 
of a work on Spiritualism and Materialism, 1879. 

Isnard (Maximin), Girondin revolutionist, b. Grasse 16 Feb. 
1751. He was made a member of the Assembl}^, in which he 
declared, " The Law, behold my God. I know no other." He 
voted for the death of the King, and was nominated president 
of the Convention. On the fall of the Girondins he made his 
escape, and reappeared after the fall of Robespierre. In 1796 
he was one of the Council of Ffve Hundred. Died 1830. 

Isoard (Eric Michel Antoine), French writer, b. Paris, 1826. 
Was naval officer in '48 but arrested as socialist in '49. In '70 
he was made sous-prefet of Cambrai and wrote Guerre aux 

Isoard Delisle (Jean Baptiste Claude), called also Delisle de 
Sales, French man of letters, b. Lyons 1743. When young he 
entered the Congregation of the Orator}'-, but left theology for 
literature. In 1769 he published the Philosophy of Nature, 
which in 1771 was discovered to be irreligious, and he was 
condemned to perpetual banishment. While in prison he was 
visited by many of the philosophers, and a subscription was 
opened for him, to which Voltaire gave five hundred francs. 
He went to the court of Frederick the Great, and subsequently 
published many works of little importance. Died at Paris 22 
Sept. 1816. 

J A 

Jacob (Andre Alexandre). See Erdan (A.) 

Jacobson (Au^^nstus), American, author of Why I do not 
Believe, Chicago 1881, and 2 he Bible Inquirer. 

" Jacobus (Dom) " Pseudonym of Potvin (Charles) q.v. 

Jacoby (Leopold) German author of The Idea of Development. 
2 vols. Berlin 1874-76. 

Jacolliot (Louis), French orientalist, b. Saint Etienne, 1806. 
Brought up to the law, in '43 he was made judge at Pon- 
dichery. He first aroused attention by his work. The BiUe in 
India, '70. He also has written on Genesis of Humanity, '76. Ihe 
Religious Legislators, Moses, Mnia and Muhammad, '80, and The 
Natural and Social History of Humanity, '8i, and several works 
of travel. 

Jantet (Charles and Hector), two doctors of Lyons, b. the 
first in 1826, the second in '28, have published together able 
Apergus Phdosophiques on Renan's Life of Jesus, '64, and 
Doctrine Medicale Matcrialiste, 1866. 

Jaucourt (Louis de). Chevalier, French scholar and member 
of the Royal Society of London and of the academies of 
Berlin and Stockholm, b. Paris 27 Sept. 1704. He studied at 
Geneva, Cambridge, and Leyden, furnished the Encyclopedie 
with many articles, and conducted the Bihliothtque Raisonnee. 
Died at Compiegne, 3 Feb. 1779. 

Jefferies (Richard), English writer, b- 1848, famous for his 
descriptions of nature in The Gamekeeper at Home, Wild Life in 
a Southern Country, etc. In his autobiographical Story of My 
Heart (1883) Mr. Jefferies shows himself a thorough Free- 
thinker. Died Goring-on-Thames, 14 Aug. 1887. 

Jefferson (Thomas), American statesman, b. Shad well, 
Virginia, 2 April 1743. He studied law and was admitted to 
the bar in 1767. He became a member of the House of Bur- 
gesses, 1769-75. In 1774 he published his Summary Vieirs of 
the Rights of British-Americans. He drafted and reported to 
Congress the " Declaration of Independence " which was 
unanimously adopted, 4 July 1766. He was Governor of 
Yirginia from 1719 to 1781, and originated a system of 
'education in the State. He was Ambassador to Paris from 
1785-89, secretary of state from 1789-93, vice-president 1791- 
1801 and third president of the United States 1801-9. In '19 he 


founded the University of Virginia, of which he was rector til! 
his death, 4 July 1826. Dr. J. Thomas in his Dictionary of 
Biof/raphy says " In religion he was what is denominated a 
freethinker." He spoke in old age of " the hocus-pocus phanton 
of God, which like another Cerberus had one body and three 
heads." See his life by J. Parton. 

Johnson (Richard Mentor), Colonel, American soldier and 
statesman, b. Bryant's Station, Kentucky, 17 Oct. 1781. Was 
educated at Lexington, studied law, and practiced with success. 
Became member of the Kentucky Legislature in 1805, and 
raised a regiment of cavalry '12. Fought with distinction 
against British and Indians. AVas member of Congress from 
1807-19, and from '29-37 ; a United States Senator from '19-29, 
and Vice-President of the United States, '37-40. Is remembered 
by his report against the suspension of Sunday mails and 
his speeches in favor of rights of conscience. Died at Frank- 
fort, Kentucky, 19 Nov. 1850. 

Johnson (Samuel), American author, b. Salem, Massachusetts^ 
10 Oct. 1822. He was educated at Harvard, and became pastor 
of a " Free Church " at Lynn in '53. He never attached him- 
self to any denomination, although in some points his views 
were like those of the Unitarians and Universal ists. About 
"46 he published, in conjunction with S. Longfellow, brother 
of the poet. Hymns of the Spirit, Oriental Religions in relation to 
Universal Religion^ of which the volume on India appeared in 
'72, China '77, and Persia '84. Died Andover, 19 Feb. 1882. 

Jones (Ernest Charles), barrister a«d political orator, b. 
Berlin, 25 Jan. I8l9. His father was in the service of the King of 
Hanover, who became his godfather. Called to the bar in '44 
in the following year he joined the Chartist movement, editing 
the People's Raper, Notes to the People^ and other Chartist period- 
icals. In '48 he was tried for making a seditious speech, and 
condemned to two years' imprisonment, during which he wrote 
Bddagon Church and other poems. He stood for Halifax in '47, 
and Nottingham in '53 and '57, without success. He wa& 
much esteemed by the working classes in Manchester, where 
he died 26 Jan. 1869. 

Jones (John Gale), Political orator, b. 1771. At the time- 
of the French Revolution he became a leading member of the 


London Corresponding Society. Arrested at Birmingham for 
sedition, he obtained a verdict of acquittal. He was subse- 
quently committed to Newgate in Feb. 1810, for impugning the 
proceedings of the House of Commons, and there remained 
till his liberation was eifected by the prorogation of Parlia- 
ment, June 21. On 26 Dec. '11 he was again convicted for 
"a seditious and blasphemous libel." He was a resolute 
advocate of the rights of free publication during the trials of 
Carlile and his shopmen. Died Somers Town, 4 April, 1838. 

Jones (Lloyd), Socialist, b. of Catholic parents at Brandon, co. 
Cork, Ireland, in March, 1811. In '27 he came over to Manches- 
ter, and in '32 joined the followers of Robert Owen. He became 
" a social missionary," and had numerous debates with minis- 
ters, notably one on ^' The Influence of Christianity" with 
J. Barker, then a Methodist, at Manchester, in '39. Lloyd 
Jones was an active supporter of co-operation and trades- 
unionism, and frequently acted as arbitrator in disputes 
between masters and men. He contributed to the New Moral 
World, Spirit of the Age, Glasgow Sentinel, Leeds Express, North 
British Daily Mail, Newcastle Chronicle, and Co-operative News. 
Died at Stockwell, 22 May, 1886, leaving behind a Life of 
Bohert Owen. 

Joseph IL, Emperor of Germany, son of Francis I. and Maria 
Theresa, b. Vienna 13 March 1741. In 1764 he was elected 
king of the Romans, and in the following year succeeded to the 
throne of Germany. He wrought many reforms, suppressed 
the Jesuits 1773, travelled in France as Count Falkenstein, saw 
d'Alembert but did not visit Voltaire. He abolished serfdom^ 
allowed liberty of conscience, suppressed several convents^ 
regulated others, abridged the power of the pope and the clergy, 
and mitigated the condition of the Jews. Carlyle says " a mighty 
reformer he had been, the greatest of his day. Austria gazed 
on him, its admiration not unmixed with terror. He rushed 
incessantly about, hardy as a Charles Twelfth ; slept on his- 
bearskin on the floor of any inn or hut ; — flew at the throat of 
every absurdity, however broad and based or dangerously 
armed. * Disappear I say.' A most prompt, severe, and yet 
beneficent and charitable kind of man. Immensely ambitious, 
that must be said withal. A great admirer of Friedrich ; bent 


to imitate him with profit. ' Very clever indeed ' says 
Friedrich, ' but has the fault ' (a terribly grave one !) of 
generally taking the second step without having taken the 
first.' " Died Vienna 20 Feb. 1790. 

Jouy (Victor Joseph Etienxe de), French author b. Jouy 
near Versailles 1764. He served as soldier in India and after- 
wards in the wars of the Republic. A disciple of Voltaire to 
whom he erected a temple, he was a prolific writer, his plays 
being much esteemed in his own day. Died 4 Sept. 1846. 

Julianus (Flavins Claudius), Roman Emperor, b. Constanti- 
nople 17 Nov. 331. In the massacre of his family by the sons 
of Constantino he escaped. He was educated in the tenets of 
Christianity but returned to an eclectic Paganism. In 354 he 
was declared Caesar. He made successful campaigns against 
the Germans who had overrun Gaul and in 361 was made 
Emperor. He proclaimed liberty of conscience and sought to 
uproot the Christian superstition by his writings, of which 
only fragments remain. As Emperor he exhibited great talent 
tact, industry, and skill. He was one of the most gifted 
and learned of the Roman Emperors, and his short reign (^Dec. 
361 — 26 June, 363), comprehended the plans of a life-long ad- 
ministration. .He died while seeking to repel a Persian invasion, 
and his death was followed by the triumph of Christianity and 
the long night of the dark ages. 

Junghuhn (Franz Wilhelm), traveller and naturalist, b. 
Mansfeld, Prussia 29 Oct 1812. His father was a barber and 
surgeon. Franz studied at Halle and Berlin. He distinguished 
himself by love for botany and geology. In a duel with another 
student he killed him and was sentenced to imprisonment at 
Ehrenbreitster for 20 years. There he simulated madness and 
was removed to the asylum at Coblentz, whence he escaped to 
Algiers. In '34 he joined the Dutch Army in the Malay Archi- 
pelago. He travelled through the island of Java making a 
botanical and geological survey. In '54 he published his Llcht 
■en Schaduwhulden vit de hinnenlanden van Java (Light and Shadow 
pictures from the interior of Java), which contains his ideas of 
'God, religion and science, together with sketches of nature and 
of the manners of the inhabitants. This book aroused much 
indignation from the pious, but also much agreement among 


freethinkers, and led to tlie establishment of De Dageraad (The 
Daybreak,) the organ of the Dutch Freethinkers Union. Jung- 
huhn afterwards returned to Java and diod 21 April, '64 at 
Leraberg, Preanges, Regentsch. His Light and Shadow pictures 
have been several times reprinted. 

Kalisch (Moritz Marcus), Ph.D., b. of Jewish parents in 
Pomerania, 16 May, 1828. Educated at the University of 
Berlin, where he studied under Vatke and others. Early in 
'49 he came to England as a political refugee, and found em- 
ployment as tutor to the Rothschild family. His critical Com- 
mentary on the Pentateuch commenced with a volume on Exodus,, 
'55, Genesis '58, Leviticus in two vols, in '67 and '72 respec- 
tively. His rational criticism anticipated the school of Well- 
hausen. He published Bible Studies on Balaam and Jonah '77, and 
discussions on philosophy and religion in a very able and 
learned work entitled Path and Goal. '80. Kalisch also contri- 
buted to Scott's series of Freethought tracts. Died at Baslow, 
Derbyshire, 23 Aug. 1885. 
Karnes (Lord). See Home (Henry). 

Kant (Immanuel), German critical philosopher, b. Konigs- 
berg, 22 April, 1724. He became professor of mathematics in 
1770. In 1781 he published his great work, The Critick of 
Pare Reason, which denied all knowledge of the " Thing itself," 
and overthrew the dogmatism of earlier metaphysics. In 1792 
the philosopher fell under the royal censorship for his Religion 
within the Limits of Pure Reason. Kant effected a complete 
revolution in philosophy, and his immediate influence is not yet 
exhausted. Died at Konigsberg, 12 Feb. 1804. 

Kapila. One of the earliest Hindu thinkers. His system 
is known as the Atheistic philosophy. It is expounded in the 
Sankhya Karika, an important relic of bold rationalistic Indian 
thought. His aphorisms have been translated by J. R. Ballan- 
Karneades. See Carneades. 

Keeler (Bronson C.) American author of an able Short His^ 
tory of the Bible, being a popular account of the formation and 
development of the canon, published at Chicago 1881. 

Keim (Karl Theodor), German rationalist, b. Stuttgart, 17 
Dec. 1825. Was educated at Tiibingen, and became professor 


of theology at Zurich. Is cliiefly known by his History of 
Jems of Nazara ('67—72). He also wrote a striking work on 
Primitive Christianity (78), and endeavored to reproduce the 
lost work of Celsus. His rationalism hindered hm promotion, 
and he was an invalid most of his days. Died at Giessen, 
where he was professor, 17 Nov. 1878. 

Keith (George), Lord Marshall, Scotch soldier, b. Kincardine 
1685, was appointed by Queen Anne captain of Guard. His 
property being confiscated for aiding the Pretender, he went to 
the Continent, and like his brother, was in high favor with 
Frederick the Great. Died Berlin, 25 May, 1778. 

Keith (James Francis Edward), eminent military commander, 
\). Inverugie, Scotland, 11 June, 696. Joined the army of the 
Pretender and was wounded at Sheriff muir, 1715. He after- 
wards served with distinction in Spain and in Russia, where 
he rose to high favor under the Empress Elizabeth. In 1647 
he took service with Frederick the Great as field-marshal, and 
became Governor of Berlin. Carlyle calls him " a very clear- 
€yed, sound observer of men and things. Frederick, the more 
he knows him, likes him the better." From their corres- 
pondence it is evident Keith shared the sceptical opinions of 
Frederick. After brilliant exploits in the seven years' war at 
Prague, Rossbach, and Olmutz, Marshal Keith fell in the battle 
of Hochkirch, 14 Oct. 1758. 

Kenrick (William), LL.D., English author, b. near Watford, 
Herts, about 1720. In 1751 he published, at Dublin, under 
the pen-name of Ontologos, an essay to prove that the soul is 
not immortal. His first poetic production was a volume of 
Epistles, Philosophical and J/oraZ (1759), addressed to Lorenzo ; 
an avowed defence of scepticism. In 1775 he commenced the 
London Review, and the following year attacked Soame Jenynss 
work on Christianity. He translated some of the works of 
Buffon, Rousseau, and Voltaire. Died 10 June 1779. 

Kerr (Michael Crawford) American statesman, b. Titusville, 
Western Pennsylvania. 15 March 1871. He was member of 
the Indiana Legislature '56, and elected to Congress in 74 
and endeavoured to revise the tariff in the direction of free- 
trade. Died Rockbridge, Virginia, 19 Aug. 1876, a confirmed 
Freethinker and Materialist. 


Ket, Kett, or Knight (Francis), of Norfolk, a relative of 
the rebellious tanner. He was of Windham and was an M.A. 
He was prosecuted for heresy and burnt in the castle ditch, 
Norwich, 14 Jan. 1588. Stowe says he was burnt for "divers 
detestable opinions against Christ our Saviour." 

Khayyam (Omar) or Umar Khaiyam, Persian astronomer, 
poet, b. Naishapur Khorassan, iu the second half of the eleventh 
century, and was distinguished by his reformation of the calen- 
dar as well as by his verses (RubiyatJ, which E. Fitzgerald 
has so finely rendered in English. He alarmed his contempo- 
raries and made himself obnoxious to the Sufis. Died about 
1123. Omar laughed at the prophets and priests, and told men 
to be happy instead of worrying themselves about God and the 
Hereafter. He makes his soul say, " I myself am Heaven and 

KieUand (Alexander Lange), Norwegian novelist, b. Sta- 
vanger, 18 Feb. 1849. He studied law at Christiania, but never 
practised. His stories. Workpeople, Skipper Worse, Poison, and 
Snoiv exhibit his bold opinions. 

Kleanthes. See Cleanthes. 

Klinger (Friedrich Maximilian von), German writer, b. 
Frankfort, 19 Feb. 1753. Went to Russia in 1780, and became 
reader to the Grand Duke Paul. Published poems, dramas, 
and romances, exhibiting the revolt of nature against conven- 
tionality. Goethe called him "a true apostle of the Gospel of 
nature." Died at Petersburg, 25 Feb. 1831. 

Kneeland (Abner), American writer, b. Gardner, Mass., 
7 April, 1774, became a Baptist and afterwards a Universalist 
minister. He invented a new system ol orthography, published 
a translation of the New Testament, 1823, r/ie Deist (2 Vols.), 
'22, edited the Olive Branch and the Christian Inquirer. He wrote 
The Fourth Epistle of Peter, '29, and a Revitw of the Evidences of 
Christianity, being a series of lectures delivered in New York in 
'2.9. In that year he removed to Boston, and in April '31 
commenced the Boston Investigator, the oldest Freethought 
journal. In '33 he was indicted and tried for blasphemy for 
Baying that he '* did not believe in the God which Universalists 
did." He was sentenced 21 Jan. '34, to two months' imprison- 


ment and a fine of five hundred dollars. The verdict was 
confirmed in the Courts of Appeal in '36, and he received two 
months' imprisonment. Kneeland was a Pantheist. He took 
Frances Wright as an associate editor, and soon after left the 
Boston Investigator in the hands of P. Mendum and Seaver, and 
retired to a farm at Salubria, where he died 27 August, 1844. 
His edition, with notes, of Voltaire's Philosophical Dictionary^ 
was published in two volumes in 1852. 

Knoblauch (Karl von), German author, b. Dillenburg, 3 Nov- 
1757. He was a friend of Mauvillon and published several 
works directed against supernaturalism and superstition. Died 
at Bernburg, 6 Sept. 1794. 

Knowlton (Charles) Dr., American physician and author, b. 
Templeton, Mass., 10 May, 1800. He published the Fruits of 
Philosophy, for which he was imprisoned in '32. He was a 
frequent correspondent of the Boston Investigator^ and held a 
discussion on the Bible and Christianity with the Rev. Mr. 
Thacher of Harley. About '29 he published The Elements of 
Modern Materialism. Died in Winchester, Mass., 20 Feb. 1850. 

Knutzen (Matthias), b. Oldensworth, in Holstein, 1645. He 
early lost his parents, and was brought to an uncle at Konigs- 
berg, where he studied philosophy. He took to the adventurous 
life of a wandering scholar and propagated his principles in 
many places. In 1674 he preached Atheism publicly at .Jena, 
in Germany, and had followers who were called " Gewissener," 
from their acknowledging no other authority but conscience. 
It is said there were seven hundred in Jena alone. What 
became of him and them is unknown. A letter dated from 
Rome gives his principles. He denied the existence of either 
God or Devil, deemed churches and priests useless, and held 
that there is no life beyond the present, for which conscience 
is a sufficient guide, taking the place of the Bible, which con- 
tains great contradictions. He also wrote two dialogues. 

Koerbagh (Adriaan), Dutch martyr, b. Amsterdam, 1632 or 
1633. He became a doctor of law and medicine. In 1668 he 
published A Flower Garden of all Loveliness^ a dictionary of 
definitions in which he gave bold explanations. The work was 
rigidly suppressed, and the writer fled to Culenborg. There 
he translated a book De Trinitate, and began a work entitled 


A Light Shining in Dark Places, to illuminate the chief things 
of theology and religion by Vrederijk Waarmond, inquisitor of 
truth. Betrayed for a sum of money, Koerbagh was tried 
for blasphemy, heavily fined and sentenced to be imprisoned 
for ten years, to be followed by ten years banishment. He 
died in prison, Oct. 1669. 

Kolb (Georg Friedrich), German statistician and author, b. 
Spires 14 Sept. 1808, author of an able History of Culture, 1869-70. 
Died at Munich 15 May. 1884. 

Koornhert (Theodore). See Coornhert (Dirk Volkertszoon.) 

Korn (Selig), learned German Orientalist of Jewish birth, 
b. Prague, 26 April, 1804. A convert to Freethought, under 
the name of " F. Nork," he wrote many works on mythology 
which may still be consulted with profit. A list is given in 
Fuerst's BiUiotheca Judaica, We mention Christmas and Easter 
Explained hy Oriental Sun Worship, Leipsic, '36 ; Brahmins and 
Rabbins, Weissen, '36 ; The Prophet Elijah as a Sun Myth, '37 ; 
The Gods of the Syrians, '42 ; Biblical Mythology of the Old and 
New Testament, 2 vols. Stuttgart, '42— '43. Died at Teplitz, 
Bohemia, 16 Oct. 1850. 

Krause (Ernst H. Ludwig), German scientific writer, b. 
Zielenzig 22 Nov. 1839. He studied science and contributed 
to the Vossische Zeitumj and Gartenlaube. In '63 he published, 
under the pen-name of " Cams Sterne," a work on The Natural 
History of Ghosts, and in '76 a work on Growth and Decay, a 
history of evolution. In '77 he established with Ha^ckel, Dr. 
Otto Caspari,and Professor Gustav Jaeger, the monthly magazine 
Kosmos, devoted to the spread of Darwinism. This he conducted 
till '82. In Kosmos appeared the germ of his little book ou 
Erasmus Darwin, "79, to which Charles Darwin wrote a 
preliminary notice. As " Cams Sterne " he has also written 
essays entitled Prattle from Paradise, The Crown of Creation, '84, 
and an illustrated work in parts on Ancient and Modern Ideas of 
the World, '87, etc 

Krekel (Arnold), American judge, b. Langenfield, Prussia 

14 March, 1815. Went with parents to America in '32 and 

settled in Missouri. In '42 he was elected Justice of the 

Peace and afterwards county attorney. In '52 he was elected 

193 N 


to the Missouri State Legislature. He served in the civil war 
being elected colonel, was president of the constitutional 
convention of '65 and signed the ordinance of eman- 
cipation by which the slaves of Missouri were set free. He 
was appointed judge by President Lincoln 9 March, '65. A 
pronounced Agnostic, when he realized he was about to die he 
requested his wife not to wear mourning, saying that death 
was as natural as birth. Died at Kansas 14 July, 1888. 

Krekel (Mattie H. Hulett), b. of f reethinking parents, Elkhart 
Indiana 13 April, 1840. Educated :.t Eockford, Illinois, in her 
16th year became a teacher. Married Judge Krekel, after 
whose death, she devoted her sendees to the Freethought 

Kropotkin (Petr Aleksyeevich) Prince. Eussian anarchist, b. 
Moscow 9 Dec 1842. After studying at the Eoyal College of 
Pages he went to Siberia for five years to pursue geological 
researches. In '71 he went to Belgium and Switzerland and 
joined the International. Arrested in Eussia, he was con- 
demned to three years imprisonment, escaped '76 and came to 
England. In '79 he founded at Geneva, Le Rerolte was expelled. 
Accused in France in '83 of complicity in the outrage at Lyons, 
he was condemned to five years imprisonment, but was released 
in '86, since which he has lived in England. A brother who 
translated Herbert Spencer's "Biology" into Eussian, died in 
Siberia in the autumn of 1886. 

Laas (Ernst) German writer, b. Furstenwalde, 16 June, 1837. 
He has written three volumes on Idealism and Positivism, 1879- 
'84, and also on Kaiifs Place in the History of the Covjlict between 
Faith and Science, Berlin, 1882. He was professor of philosophy 
at Strassburg, where he died 25 July, 1885. 

Labanca (Baldassarre), professor of moral philosophy in the 
University of Pisa, b. Agnone, 1829. He took part in the 
national movement of '48, and in '51 was imprisoned and after- 
wards expelled from Naples. He has written on progress in 
philosophy and also a study on primitive Christianity, dedicated 
to Giordano Bruno, the martyr of Freethought, '86. 

Lachatre (Maurice), French writer, b. Issoudun 1814, edits 
a "Library of Progress," in which has appeared his Ovfa 
History of the Inquisition, and History of the Popes, '83. 


Lacroix (Sigismund), the pen name of Sigismiincl Julien 
Adolph Krzyzaxowski, b. Warsaw 26 May, 1815. His father 
was a refugee. He wrote with Yves Guyot The Social Doctrines 
of Christianity. In '74 he was elected a municipal councillor of 
Paris. In '77 he was sentenced to three months' imprison- 
ment for calling Jesus " enfant, adulterin '^' in Le Radical. In 
Feb. '81 he was elected president of the municipal council, and 
in '83 deputy to the French parliament. 

Laffitte (Pierre), French Positivist philosopher, b. 21 Feb. 
1823 atBeguey (Gironde), became a disciple of Comte and one 
of his executors. He was professor of mathematics, but since 
the death of his master has given a weekly course of instruc- 
tion in the former appartment of Comte. M. Laffitte has 
published discourses on The General History of Ilumaniit/ '59 
and The Great Types of Humanity, '75-6. In '78 he founded 
La Revue Occidentale. 

Lagrange (Joseph Louis), Count, eminent mathematician, 
b. Turin, 25 Jan. 1736. He published in 1788 his Analytical 
Mechanics, which is considered one of the masterpieces of the 
human intellect. He became a friend of D'Alembert, Diderot, 
Condorcet. and Delambre. He said lie believed it impossible 
to prove there was a God. Died 10 April 1813. 

La Hontan (Jean), early French traveller in Casiada,b. 1666. 
In his account of Diologacs with an American Savage, 1704 which 
was translated into English, he states objections to religion. 
Died in Hanover, 1715. 

Lainez (Alexandre), French poet, b. Chimay, Hainault, 1650, 
of the same family with the general of the Jesuits. He lived 
a wandering Bohemian life and went to Holland to see Bayle. 
Died at Paris 18 April, 1710. 

Laing (Samuel), politician and writer, b. Edinburgh 1812, 
the son of S. Laing of Orkney. Educated at Cambridge, where 
he took his degree '32 ; called to the bar '42 ; became secretary 
of the railway department of the Board of Trade ; returned as 
Liberal M.P. for Kirkwair52 ; helped repeal duty on adver- 
tisements in newspapers. In '60 he became finance minister 
for India. His Modern Science and Modern Thought, '85, is a 
plain exposition of the incompatibility of the old and new 


view of tlie universe. In the Modern Zoroastrian, '87, lie gives 
the philosophy of polarity, in which, however, he was antici- 
pated by Mr. Crozier, who in turn was anticipated by Emerson. 
In '88 he entered into a friendly correspondence with Mr. 
Gladstone on the subject of Agnosticism his portion of which 
has been published. 

Lakanal (Joseph), French educator, b. Serres, 14 July, 1762* 
Studied for priesthood, but gave up that career. He entered 
with ardor into the Eevolution, was a member of the Conven- 
tion 1792-5, and there protected the interests of science. At 
the restoration in 1814 he retired to America, and was 
welcomed by Jefferson and became president of the University 
of Louisana. He.returned to France after the Eevolution of '30, 
and died in Paris 14 Feb. 1845. 

Lalande (Joseph Jerome le Franc ais de), distinguished 
French astronomer, b. Bourg en Bresse, 11 July 1732. Edu- 
cated by the Jesuits, he was made a member of the 
Academy of Sciences in his 20th year. In 1762 he became 
Professor- of Astronomy at the College of France. In 1764 he 
published his Treatise of Astronomy^ to which Dupuis subjoined 
a memoir, which formed the basis of his Origin of all Religions, 
the idea of which he had taken from Lalande, In Aug 1793 
Lalande hazarded his own life to save Dupont de Nemours, and 
some priests whom he concealed in the observatory of Mazarin 
college. It was upon Lalande's observations that the Eepublican 
calender was drawn up. At Lalande's instigation Sylvain 
Marechal published his Dictionary of Atheists, to which the 
astronomer contributed supplements after Marechal's death. 
Lalande professed himself prouder of being an Atheist than of 
being an astronomer. His Bihliographie Astro nomique is called 
b}^ Prof, de Morgan '* a perfect model of scientific biblio- 
graphy." It was said that never did a young man address 
himself to Lalande without receiving proof of his generosity. 
He died at Paris 4 April, 1807. 

Lamarck (Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet) French 
naturalist, b. Picardy 1 Aug. 1714, educated for the Church, 
but entered the army in 1761, and fought with distinction. 
Having been disabled, he went to Paris, studied Botany, and 
published French Flora in 1788, which opened to him the 


Academy of Sciences, He became assistant at the Museum 
of Natural History, and in 1809 propounded, in his Zoological 
Philosophy, a theory of transmutation of species His Natural 
History of Invertebrate Animals (l8lo — 22) was justly celebrated. 
He became blind several years before his death, 18 Dec. 1829. 

LamboreUe (Louis). Belgian author of books on The Good 
Old Times, Brussells, 1874 ; The Apostles and Martyrs of Liberty 
of Conscience, Antwerp, 1882, and other anti-clerical works. 
LamboreUe lost a post under government through his anti- 
clerical views, and is one of the council of the Belgian Free- 
thought party. 

Lamettrie (Julian Offray de). French physician and 
philosopher, b. St. Malo, 25 Dec. 1709. Destined for the 
Church, he was educated under the Jesuits at Caen. He, 
however, became a physician, studying under Boerhaave, at 
Ley den. Returning to France, he became surgeon to the 
French Guard, and served at the battles of Fontenoy and 
Dettingen. Falling ill, he noticed that his faculties fluctuated 
with his physical state, and drew therefrom materialistic con- 
clusions. The boldness with which he made his ideas known 
lost him his place, and he took refuge in Holland. Here he 
published The Natural History of the Soul, under the pretence of 
its being a translation from the English of Oharp [Sharp], 
1745. This was fellowed by Man a Machine (1748), a work 
which was publicly burnt at Leyden, and orders given for 
the author's arrest. It was translated into English, and 
reached a second edition (London, 1750). It was often attri- 
buted to D'Argens. Lamettrie held that the senses are the 
only avenues to knowledge, and that it is absurd to assume a 
god to explain motion. Only under Atheism will religious 
strife cease. Lamettrie found an asylum with Frederick the 
Great, to whom he became physician and reader (Feb. 1748). 
Here he published Philosophical Refections on the Origin of 
Animals (1750), translated Seneca on Happiness, etc. He died 
11 Nov. 1751, and desired by his will to be buried in the 
garden of Lord Tyrconnel. The great king thought so well of 
him that he composed his funeral eulogy. 

La Mothe Le Vayer (Francois de). French sceptical philo- 
sopher, b. Paris, 1588, was patronised by Louis XIV., and was 

preceptor to the Duke of Anjon. Published The Virtue of 
Pagans and Dialogues after the Manner of the Ancients, in which 
he gave scope to his scepticism. Two editions of his collected 
works appeared, but neither of these contains The Dialogues of 
Orasius Tuhero (Frankfort 1606, probably a false date). Died 

Lancelin (Pierre F.), French materialist, b. about 1770. 
Became a constructive engineer in the French navy, wrote an 
able Introduction to the Analysis of Science, 3 vols. 1801-3, and a 
pl\ysico-mathematical theory of the organisation of worlds, 1805. 
Died Paris, 1809. 

Land (Jan Pieter Xicolaus), Dutch writer, b. Delft, 23 April, 
1834. Has written critical studies on Spinoza, and brought 
out an edition of the philosopher's works in conjunction with 
J. van Vloten. 

Landesmann (Heinrich). See Lorm. 

Landor (Walter Savage), English poet, b. Ipsley Court, 
Warwickshire, 30 Jan. 1775. He was educated at Rugby and 
Oxford, and, inheriting a fortune, could indulge his tastes as an 
author. He published a volume of poems in 1795, and Gehir in 
1798. An ardent Republican, he served as a volunteer colonel 
in the Spanish Army against Napoleon from 1808 to 1814, 
besides devoting a considerable sum of money to the Spanish 
cause. He became a resident of Florence about 1816. His 
reputation chiefly rests on his great Imaginary Conversations, 
in which many bold ideas are presented in beautiful language. 
Landor was unquestionably the greatest English writer of his 
age. While nominally a Christian, he has scattered many 
Freethought sentiments over his various works. Died at 
Florence, 17 Sept. 1864. 

Lanessan (Jean Louis de), French naturalist, b. at Saint 
Andre de Cubzac (Gironde), 13 July, 1843. At 19 he became 
a naval physician, and M.D. in '68. He was elected in '79 as 
Radical member of the Muncipal Council of Paris, and re- 
elected in '81. In August of the same year he was elected 
Deputy for the Department of the Seine. He founded Le Revcil, 
edited the Marseillaise, and started the International Biological 
Library, to which he contributed a study on the doctrine of 
Darwin. He has written a standard work on botany, and has 


written vol. iii. of the " Materialists' Library," on the Evolution 
of Matter. 

Lanfrey (Pierre), French author and senator, b. Chambery* 
26 Oct. 1828, became known by a book on The Church and the 
Philosophers of the Eighteenth Century, '55, and celebrated by his 
History of Napoleon I. '67-75. M. Lanfrey also wrote The 
Political History of the Popes, a work placed on the Index. 
Died at Pan, 15 Nov. 1877. 

Lang (Andrew), man of letters, b. Selkirk, 31 March, 1844. 
Educated at St. Andrews and Oxford. Mr. Lang made his 
name by his translation of the Odyssey with Mr. Butcher, and 
by his graceful poems and ballads. He has written In the 
Wrong Paradise, and many other pleasant sketches. More 
serious work is shown in Custom and Myth, '84, and Myth, 
Ritual and Religion, '87. A disciple of B. B. Tylor, Mr. Lang 
successfully upholds the evolutionary view of mythology. 

Lang (Heinrich), German Rationalist, b. 14 Nov. 1826. 
Studied theology under Baur at Tiibingen, and became teacher 
at Ziirich, where he died, 13 Jan. 1876. 

Lange (Friedrich Albert), German philosopher and writer, 
b. Wald, near Solix, 28 Sept. 1828. He studied at Bonn, and 
became teacher in the gymnasium of Cologne, '52. In '53 he 
returned to Bonn as teacher of philosophy, and there enjoyed 
the friendship of Ueberweg. He became proprietor and editor 
of the democratic Landhote, and filled various municipal offices. 
In '70 he was called to the chair of philosophy at Ziirich, but 
resigned in '72 and accepted a similar post at Marburg, where 
he died 21 Nov. 1875. His fame rests on his important History 
of Materialism, which has been translated into English. 

Langsdorf (Karl Christian), German Deist, b. 18 May, 1757, 
author of God and Nature, a work on the immortality of the 
soul, and some mathematical books. Died Heidelberg, 10 June, 

Lankester (Edwin Ray), F.R.S., LL.D., English scientist, b. 
London, 15 May, 1847, and educated at St. Paul's School and 
Oxford. Has published many scientific memoirs, revised the 
translation of Haeckel's history of Creation, and has done 
much to forward evolutionary ideas. In 1876 he exposed the 


spiritist medium Slade, and procured his conviction.^ He is 
Professor of Zoology and Natural History in the University of 

La Place (Pierre Simon). One of the greatest astronomers, 
b. Beaumont-en- Auge, 23 March, 1749. His father was a poor 
peasant. Through the influence of D'Alembert, La Place 
became professor of mathematics in the military school, 1768. 
By his extraordinary abilities he became in 1785 member of 
the Academy of Science, which he enriched with many 
memoirs. In 1796 he published his Exposition of the System of 
the Universe^ a popularisation of his greater work on Celestial 
Mechanics, 1799-1825. Among his sayings were, "What we 
know is but little, what we know not is immense." ^' There is 
no need for the hypothesis of a God." Died Paris, 5 March, 

Larevelliere-Lepaux (Louis Marie pe), French politician, 
b. Montaigu 25 Aug. 1753. Attached from youth to the ideas 
of Eousseau, he was elected with Volne}' to represent Angers 
in the national assembly. He was a moderate Eepublican, 
defended the proscribed Girondins, was doomed himself but 
escaped by concealment, and distinguished himself by seeking 
to replace Catholicism with theophilanthropy or natural 
religion. He wrote Reflections on Worship and the National Fetes. 
He became President of the Directory, and after the 18 Bru- 
maire retired, refusing to swear fealty to the empire though 
offered a pension by Napoleon. Died Paris, 27 March, 1824. 

Larousse (Pierre Athanase), French lexicographer, b. of 
poor parents, 23 Oct. 1817, at Toucy, Yonne, where he became 
teacher. He edited many school books and founded the Grand 
Dictionnaire Universel du XlXe. Siecle, 1864-77. This is a 
collection of dictionaries, and may be called the Bncyclopedie 
of this century. Most of M. Larousse's colleagues were also 
Freethinkers. Died at Paris, 3 Jan. 1875. 

Larra (Mariano Jose de), distinguished Spanish author, b. 
Madrid, 4 March, 1809. He went with his family to France 
and completed his education. He returned to Spain in '22. 
At eighteen he published a collection of poems, which was 
followed by El Duende Satirico (The Satirical Goblin). In '31 


appeared his Pohrecito Hablador (Poor Gossip), a paper in which 
he unmercifully satirised the public affairs and men of Spain, 
It was suppressed after its fourteenth number. He edited in 
the following year the Revista Espanola, signing his articles- 
*' Figaro." He travelled through Europe, and on his return to 
Madrid edited El Miindo. Larra wrote also some dramas and 
translated Lamennais' Paroles dhin Croyant. Being disappointed 
in love he shot himself, 13 April, 1837. Ch. de Mazade, after 
speaking of Larra's scepticism, adds, " Larra could see too 
deep to possess any faith whatever. All the truths of thi& 
world, he was wont to say, can be wrapped in a cigarette 
paper ! " 

Larroque (Patrice), French philosopher, b. Beaume, 27 
March, 1801. He became a teacher and was inspector of the 
academy of Toulouse, 1830-36, and rector of the academies of 
Cahors, Limoges, and Lyons, 1836-49. In the latter year he 
was denounced for his opposition to clerical ideas and lost his 
place. Among his numerous works we mention De lEsclavage 
chez les Nations CTiretiennes, '57, in which he proves that Chris- 
tianity did not abolish slavery. This was followed by an 
Critical Examnation of the Christian Religion, '59, and a work on 
Religious Renovation, '59, which proposes a moral system 
founded upon pure deism. Both were for a while prohibited 
in France. M. Larroque also wrote on Religion and Politics, '78. 
Died at Paris, 15 June, 1879. 

LassaUe (Ferdinand Johann Gottlieb), founder of German 
Social Democratic party, b. of Jewish parents, 11 April, 1825, 
in Breslau, studied philosophy and law at Breslau and Berlin, 
He became a follower of Hegel and Feuerbach. Heine, at 
Paris, '46, Avas charmed with him. Humboldt called him 
"Wunderkind." In 1858 he published a profound work on the 
philosophy of Heraclitus. For planning an insurrection against 
th-e Prussian Government he was arrested, but won his 
acquittal. Died through a duel, 31 Aug. 1864. 

Lastarria (Jose Yictorino), Chilian statesman and Positivist, 
b. Rancagua, 1812. From youth he applied himself to teaching 
and journalism, and in '38 was appointed teacher of civil law 
and literature in the National Institute. He has founded 
several journals and literary societies. From '43 he has been 


at diiferent times deputy to the legislature and secretary to 
the republic of Chili. He has also served as minister to Peru 
and Brazil. In '73 he founded the Santiago Academy of 
Sr^ience and Literature; has written many works, and his 
Lecciones de Politicia Positiva has been translated into French by 
E. de Riviere and others, 1879. 

Lau (Theodor Ludwig), German philosopher, b. at Konigs- 
berg, 15 June 1670, studied at Konigsberg and Halle, and about 
1695 travelled through Holland, England, and France. In 
1717 he published in Latin, at Frankfort, Philosophical Medita- 
tions on God, ike World, and Man, which excited an outcry for its 
materialistic tendency and was supressed. He was a follower 
of Spinoza, and held several official positions from which he was 
deposed on account of his presumed atheism. Died at Altona, 
8 Feb. 1740. 

Laurent (Francois), Belgian jurisconsult, b. Luxembourg, 
8 Jul}^, 1810. Studied law and became an advocate. In '35 he 
was made Professor of Civil Law in the University of Ghent, 
a post he held, despite clerical protests, till his retirement in 
'80. A voluminous author on civil and international law, his 
principal work is entitled Studies in the History of Humanity. He 
was a strong advocate of the separation of Church and State, 
upon which he wrote, 1858-60. He also wrote Letters on the 
Jesuits, '65. Died in 1887. 

Law (Harriet), English lecturess, who for many years 
occupied the secular platform, and engaged in numerous 
debates. She edited the Secular Chronicle, 1876-1879. 

Lawrence (James), Knight of Malta, b. Fairfield, Jamaica, 
1773, of good Lancashire family. Educated at Eton and 
Gottingen ; became acquainted with Schillerand Goethe at Stutt- 
gartt and Weimar, was detained with English prisoners at Ver- 
dun. In 1807 he published his 'IheEnipireof theNairs,or theRights 
of Women, a free-love romance which he wrote in German, 
French, and English. He also wrote in French and English, 
a curious booklet The Children of God, London, 1853. He 
addressed a poem on Tolerance to Mr. Owen, on the occasion 
of his denouncing the religions of the world. It appears in 
The Etonian Out of Bounds. Died at London 26 Sept. 1841. 


Lawrence (Sir AVilliam), surgeon, b. Cirencester, 1783. 
Admitted M.R.C.S., 1805, in '13 he was chosen, F.R.S., and 
two years later was named Professor of Anatomy and Surgery 
at the Royal College of Surgeons. While he held that chair he 
delivered his Lectures on Man, which on their publication in 
1819 roused a storm of bigotr3\ In his early manhood. 
Lawrence was an earnest advocate of radical reform ; but not- 
withstanding his early unpopularity, he acquired a lucrative 
practice. Died London, 5 July, 1867. 

Layton (Henry), educated at Oxford, and studied at Gray's 
Inn, being called to the bar. He wrote anonymously obser- 
vations on Dr. Bentley's Confutation of u%theism (1693), and a 
Search After Souls, and Spiritual Observations in Man (1700). 

Leblais (Alphonse), French professor of mathematics, b. 
Mans, 1820. Author of a study in Positivist philosophy 
entitled Materialism and Spiritualism (1865), to which Littre 
contributed a preface. 
Le Bovier de Fontenelle. See Fontenelle. 
Lecky (AYilliam Edward Hartpole), historian, b. near Dublin, 
26 March, 1838. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin. His 
works, which are characterised by great boldness and origi- 
nality of thought, are A History of the Rise and Spirit of 
Rationalism in Europe ('65), A History of European Morals from 
Augustus to Charkmayne ('69), and A History of England in tie 
Eighteenth Century (1878-87). 
Leclerc (Georges Louis). See Buff on. 
Leclerc de Septchenes (N.), b. at Paris. Became secretary 
to Louis XVI., translated the first three vols, of Gibbon, and 
wrote an essay on the religion of the ancient Greeks (1787). 
A friend of Lalande, he prepared an edition of Freret, 
published after his death. Died at Plombieres, 9 June, 1788. 

Leconte de Lisle (Charles Marie Rene), French poet, b. Isle 
of Bourbon, 23 Oct. 1818. After 1 ravelling in India, returned 
to Paris, and took part in the revolution of '48, but has since 
devoted himself mainly to poetry, though he has Avritten also .1 
Republican Catechism and A Popular History of Christianity ('71). 
One of his finest poems is Kaln. On being elevated to the seat 
of Victor Hugo at the Academy in '87, he gave umbrage to 


Jews and Catholics by incidentally speaking of Moses as " the 
chief of a horde of ferocious nomads." 

Lecount (Peter), lieutenant in the French navy. He was 
engaged in the battle of Xavarino. Came to England as a 
mathematician in the construction of the London and Birming- 
ham Railway, of which he wrote a history (1839). He wrote 
a curious book in three volumes entitled -I Few Hundred Bible 
Contradictions; A Hunt After the Devil and other Old Matters, 
by John P. Y., M.D. ; published by H. Hetherington ('43). 
The author's name occurs on p. 144, vol i., as " the Rev. Peter 

Leenhof (FredericK van), b. Middelburg (Zealand), Aug» 
1647. Became a minister of Zwolle, where he published a 
work entitled Heaven on Earth (1703), which subjected him to 
accusations of Atheism. It was translated into German in 

Lefevre (Andre), French writer, b. Provins, 9 Nov. 1834 
He became, at the age of twenty-three, one of the editors of 
the Marjasin Pittoresqm. He Avrote much in La Libre Pensee and 
La Pensee Nouvelle; has translated Z^wc^^e^mxin verse ('76), and 
written Religions and Mijthologies Compared (^TI) ; contributed 
a sketchy History ofPhtlosophy to the Library of Contemporary 
Science ('78); has written Man Across the Ages (S^) and the 
Renaissance of Materialism ('81). He has also edited the Lettres 
Persanes of Montesquieu, some Dialogues of Voltaire, and 
Diderot's La Religieuse ('86). 

Lefort (Cesar), disciple of Comte. Has published a work 
on the method of modern science (Paris, 1864). 

Lefrancais de Lalande. See Lalande. 

Legate (Bartholomew), Antitrinitarian native of Essex, h 
about 1572, was thrown into prison on a charge of heresy,. 
1611. King James had many personal interviews with him. 
On one occasion the king asked him if he did not pray to Jesus 
Christ. He replied that he had done so in the days of his 
ignorance, but not for the last seven years. " Away, base 
fellow I " said His Majesty-, " It shall never be said that one 
stayeth in my presence who hath never prayed to the Savior 
for seven years together." He was burnt at Saiithfield by the 


King's wrif, De Iloretico Comhurendo, 18 March, 1612, being oi\e 
of the last persons so punished in England. 

Leguay de PremontvaL See Premontval. 

Le Hon (Henri) Belgian scientist, b. Ville-Pomraeroeiil 
(Hainault) 1809, was captain in the Belgian army, professor at 
the military school of Brussels, and Chevalier of the Order of 
Leopold. Author of V Homme Fussile en Europe, "QQ. Translated 
Professor Omboni's exposition of Darwinism. Died at San 
Rcmo, 1872. 

Leidy (Joseph), M.D., American naturalist, b. Philadelphia, 
9 Sept. 1823. He became professor of biology at the University 
of Philadelphia, and is eminent for his contributions to Ameri- 
can palceontology. 

Leigh (Henry Stone), English author of a Deistic work on the 
Religions of the World, 1869. 

Leland (Theron C), American journalist, b. 9 April, 1821. 
He edited with Wakeman the journal Man. Died 2 June, 

Lemaire (Charles), member of the Academical Society of 
Saint Quentin, author of an atheistic philosophical work, in 
two vols., entitled Initiation to the Philosophy of Lihertij, 
Paris, 1842. 

Lemonnier (Camille), Belgian writer, b. Ixel les Bruxelles, 
1845, author of stories and works on Hysteria, Death, etc., in 
which he evinces his freethought sentiments. 

Lenau (Nicolaus), i.e. Nicolaus Franz Niembsch von 
Strehlenau, Hungarian poet, b. Czatad, 15 Aug. 1802. His 
poems, written in German, are pessimistic, and his constitutional 
melancholy deepened into insanity. Died Ober-Dcibling, near 
Vienna, 22 Aug. 1850. 

Lennstrand (Viktor B.), Swedish writer and orator, b. Gelle, 
30 Jan. 1861. Educated at Upsala University. Founded the 
Swedish Utilitarian Society, March '88, and in May was 
sentenced to a fine of 250 crowns for denial of the Christian 
religion. On the 29th Nov. he was imprisoned for three 
months for the same offence. Has written several pamphlets 
and has incurred several fresh prosecutions. In company with 


A. Liiidkvist he Las founded the Fritanharen as the organ of 
Swedish freethought. 

Leontium, Athenian Hetasra, disciple and mistress of 
Epicurus (q.v.) She acquired distinction as a philosopher, 
and wrote a treatise against Theophrastus, which is praised by 
Cicero as written in a skilful and elegant manner. 

Leopardi (Giacomo), count, Italian pessimist poet, b. 
Recanati (Ancona), 29 June, 1798. In 1818 he won a high 
place among poets by his lines addressed To Italy. His Canti^ 
'31, are distinguished by eloquence and pathos. Mobile his prose 
essays, Opcrette Morali, '27, are esteenued the finest models of 
Italian prose of this centur}^ Leopardi's short life was one 
long disease, but it was full of work of the highest character. 
As a poet, philologist, and philosopher, he is among the greatest 
of modern Italians. Died at Xaples, 14 July, 1837. 

Lequinio (Joseph Marie), French writer and Conventionnel, 
b. Sarzeau, 1740. Elected Mayor of Rennes, 1790, and Deputy 
from Morbihar to the Legislative Assembly. He then professed 
Atheism. He voted the death of Louis XVI. " regretting that 
the safety of the state did not permit his being condemned to 
penal servitude for life." In 1792 he published Prejudices 
DestroyeJ, signed " Citizen of the World," in which he con- 
sidered religion as a political chain. He took part in the Feasts 
of Reason, and wrote Philosophy of the People, 1796. Died 1813. 

Lermina (Jules Hippolyte), French writer, b. 27 March, 1839. 
Founded the Corsair sliuI Satan, and has published an illustrated 
biographical dictionary of contemporary France, 1884-5. 

Lermontov (Mikhail Yur'evich), Russian poet and novelist, 
b. Moscow, 3 Oct. 1814. Said to have come of a Scotch family, 
he studied at Moscow LTniversity, from which he was expelled. 
In '32 he entered the Military Academy at St. Petersburg, and 
afterwards joined the Hussars. In '37 some verses on the 
death of Pushkin occasioned his being sent to the Caucasus, 
which he describes in a work translated into English, '53. His 
poems are much admired. The Demon, exhibiting Satan in love, 
has been translated into English, and so has his romance 
entitled A Hero of Our limes. He fell in a duel in the Caucasus, 
15 July, 1840. 


Leroux (Pierre), Frerion Socialist and philosophic writer, b. 
Bercy, near Paris, 6 April, 1797. At tirst a mason, then a 
typographer, he invented an early composing machine which 
he called the pianotype. In 1824 he became editor of the 
Globe. Becoming a Saint Simonian, he made this paper the 
organ of the sect. He started with Reynaud L" Encyclopedie 
Nouvelle, and afterwards with L. Viardot and Mme. George 
Sand the Revue Lndependante ('41), which became noted for its 
pungent attacks on Catholicism, His principal work is De 
CHiimanite ('40). In June '48 M. Leroux was elected to the 
Assembly. After the coup d'etat he returned to London and 
Jersey. Died at Paris, 12 April, 1871. 

Leroy (Charles Georges), lieutenant ranger of the park 
of Versailles, b, 1723, one of the writers on the lilncychpedie 
He defended the work of Helvetius on the Mind against Vol- 
taire, and wrote Philosophical Letters on the Intdligence and Per- 
fectihilitu of Animals {IIQS), a work translated into English in 
1870. Died at Paris 1789. 

Lespinasse (Adolf Frederik Henri de). Dutch writer, b. 
Delft, 14 May, 1819. Studied medicine, and established him- 
self first at Deventer and afterwards at Zwartsluis, Vaassen, 
and Hasselt. In the Bagcraad he wrote many ir.ceresting 
studies under the pen-name of " Titus," and translated the work 
of Dtipuis into Dutch. In 1870 he emigrated to America and 
became director of a large farm in Iowa. Died in Orange City 
(Iowa) 1881, 

L'Espinasse (Julie Jeanne Eleonore de). French beauty and 
wit, b. Lyons, 9 Nov. 17.32. She became the i)rotege of Madame 
du Deffand, and gained the favor of D'Alembert. Her letters 
are models of sensibility and spirit. Died Paris, 23 May, 1776. 

Lessing (Gotthold Ephraim). German critic and dramatic 
poet, b. Kamenz, 22 Jan. 1729. He studied at Leipsic, and at 
Berlin became acquainted with Voltaire and Mendelssohn. 
Made librarian at Wolfenbiittel he published Fragments of an 
Unknown (1777), really the Vindication of Rational Worshippers 
of God, by Reimarus, in which it was contended that Christian 
evidences are so clad in superstition as to be unworthy credence. 
Among his writings were 2he Freethinker and Nathan the Wise, his 


noblest play, in which he enforces lessons of toleration and 
charity to all faiths. The effect of his writings was decidedly 
sceptical. Heine calls Lessing, after Luther, the greatest 
Oerman emancipator. Died at Brunswick 15 Feb. 1781. 

Lessona (Michele). Italian naturalist, b. 20 Sept., 1823 ; 
lias translated some of the works of Darwin. 

Leucippus. Greek founder of the atomic philosophy. 

L'Estrange (Thomas), writer, b. 17 Jan. 1822. With a view 
to entering the Church he graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
26 Feb. '44, but became an attorney. Having read 
F. A. Paley's Introduction to the Iliad, he became convinced 
that the " cooking " process there described, has been under- 
gone by all sacred books now extant. He wrote for Thomas 
Scott's series valuable tracts on Our First CenUirij, Primitive 
Church History, Ircuosus, Order, The Eucharist. He also edited 
Hume's Dialogues on Natural Religion, and wrote The First Ten 
Alleged Persecutions. 

Levallois (Jules), French writer, b. Rouen 18 May, 1829. 
In '55 he became secretary to Sainte Beuve. Wrote Deisme et 
Christianisme, 1866. 

Lewes (George Henry), English man of letters, b. in London, 
18 April, 1817, he became a journalist and dramatic critic. In 
1845-6 appeared his Biographical History of Philosophy, which 
showed higher power. This has been republished as History 
of Philosophy Jrom T hales to Conite. Lewes was one of the 
first to introduce English readers to Comte in his account of 
Comte's Philosophy of the Sciences, '47. In '49 he became one of 
the founders of the Leader, for which he wrote till '54. In 
that year he began his association with " George Eliot " {q.v.). 
His Life of Goethe appealed in '55, and from this time he began 
to give his attention to scientific, especially biological, studies. 
In '64 he published an important essay on Aristotle. On the 
foundation of the Fortnightly Review, '65, Lewes was appointed 
editor. His last M^ork, Problems of Life and Mind, 5 vols. 
'74-79, was never completed owing to his death, 28 Nov. 1878. 
He bequeathed his books to Dr. Williams's library. 

Lichtenberg (Georg Christoph), German satirical writer and 
scientist, b. Ober-Ramstadt, 1 July, 1742; a friend of G. Forster, 


he left man}^ thoughts showing his advanced opinions. Died 
Gottingen, 21 Feb. 1799. 

Lick (James), American philanthropist, b. Fredericksburg, 
Pa., 25 Aug. 1796. In 1847 he settled in California and made 
a large fortune by investing in real estate. He was a Materia- 
list and bequeathed large sums to the Lick Observator}', Mount 
Hamilton, and for other philanthropic purposes. Died San 
Francisco, 1 Oct. 1876. 

Lilja (Nicolai), Swedish writer, b. Eostanga, 18 Oct. 1808. 
Studied at Lund and became parish clerk in the Lund diocese. 
He wrote on Man; his Life and Destiny. Died Lund 1870. 

Lincoln (Abraham), sixteenth President of the United 
States, b. Kentucky, 12 Feb. 1809. An uncompromising oppo- 
nent of slavery, his election (Nov. '60) led to the civil war and 
the emancipation of slaves. Ward H. Lamon, who knew him 
well, says he " read Volney and Paine and then wrote a deli- 
berate and labored essay, wherein he reached conclusions 
similar to theirs. Tlie essay was burnt, but he never denied 
or regretted its composition." Mrs. Lincoln said, " Mr. Lincoln 
had no hope and no faith in the usual acceptance of those 
words." Assassinated 14 April, 1865, he expired the following 

Lindet (Robert [Thomas), " apostate " French bishop, b. 
Bernay, 1743. Was elected to the States-General by the clergy 
of his district. Ho embraced Republican principles, and in 
March, 1791, was made Bishop of L'Eure. In Nov. 1792 he 
publicly married. On 7 Nov. 1793, renounced his bishopric, 
He proposed that civil festivals should take the place of 
religious ones. He became member of the Comeil des Ancicns. 
Died Bernay, 10 Aug. 1823, and was buried without religious 

Lindh (Theodor Anders), b. Borgo (Finland), 13 Jan. 1833. 
Studied at Helsingfors Universit}^, '51-57; became lawyer in 
'71, and is now a member of the Muncipal Council of Borgo. 
He has written many poems in Swedish, and also translated 
from the English poets, and has published Freethought essays, 
which have brought him into controversy with the clergy. 

Lindkvist (Alfred), Swedish writer, b. Gefle, 21 Oct. 1860, 
209 o 


of pious parents. At the University of Upsala lie studied 
European literature, and became acquainted with the works of 
Mill, Darwin, and Spencer. He has published two volumes of 
poems. Snow Drops and April Days, and lost a stipend at the 
University by translating from the Danish a rationalistic life of 
Jesus entitled The Reformer from Galilee. Mr. Lindkvist has 
visited Paris, and collaborated on a Stockholm daily paper. In 
'88 he joined his friend Lennstrand in propagating Freethought, 
and in Nov. received a month's imprisonment for having trans- 
lated one of J. Symes's anti-Christian pamphlets. He now 
€dits Fritankaren in conjunction with Mr. Lennstrand. 

Lindner (Ernst Otto Timotheus), German physician, b. 
Breslau, 28 Nov. 1820. A friend of Schopenhauer, whose 
philosophy he maintained in several works on music. He 
•edited the Vossische Zeitung from 'G3. Died at Berlin, 7 Aug. 1867. 
Liniere (Francois Payot de), French satiric poet, b. Paris, 
1628 ; known as the Atheist of Senlis. Boileau says the only 
act of piety he ever did was drinking holy water because his 
mistress dipped her finger in it. Wrote many songs and smart 
epigrams, and is said to have undertaken a criticism of the 
New Testament. Died at Paris in 1704 

Linton (Eliza, nee Lyxx) novelist and journalist, daughter 
-of vicar of Crosthwaite, Cumberland, b. Keswick, 1822. Has 
contributed largely to the leading Radical journals, and has 
written numerous works of fiction, of which we must mention 
Under which Lord? and The Rebel of the Family. In '72 she 
published 2he True History of Joshua Davidson, Christian and 
Communist, and in '85 the Autobiography of Christopher Kirk- 
land. She has also written on the woman question, and con- 
tributed largely to periodical literature. 

Linton (AVilliam James), poet, engraver, and author, b. at 
London, 1812. A Chartist in early life, he was intimately 
associated with the chief political refugees. He contributed 
to the democratic press, and also, we believe, to the Oracle of 
Reason. He wrote the Reasoner tract on '• The Worth of Chris- 
tianity." He was one of the founders of the Leader, has edited 
the Trnthseeker, the National and the English Republic, and has 
imhWshed Famine a Masq'ie, a Life of Paine, and a memoir of 


James Watson and some volumes of poems. In '67 he went to 
Ameri<:a, but has recently returned. 

Liscow (Christian Ludwig), one of the greatest German 
satirists, b. Wittenberg, 29 April, 1701. He studied law in 
Jena, and became acquainted with Hagedorn in Hamburg. In 
1745 he was Councillor of War at Dresden. This post he 
abandoned, occupying himself with literature until his death, 
30 Oct. 1760. Liscow's principal satires are Ihe Uselessness of 
Good Works for our Salvation and The Excellence and Utility of 
Bad Writers. He has been called the German Swift, and Iiis 
works show him to have been an outspoken'Freethinker. 

Lisle (Lionel), author of The Two Tests :lihe Supernatural 
Claims of Christianity Tried l>y Iwo of its own^\Rules (London, 

Liszinski (Oasimir), Polish martyr of noble birth. Denounced 
as an Atheist in 1688 by the Bishop of Wilna and Posnovia, 
he was decapitated and burnt at Grodno 30 March, 1689. His 
ashes were placed in a cannon and scattered abroad. Among 
the statements in Liszinski's papers was that man was the 
creator of God, whom he had formed out of nothing. 

Littre (Maximilian Paul Emile), French philologist and 
philosopher, b. Paris, 1 Feb. 1801. He studied medicine, 
literature and most of the'sciences. An advanced Republican, 
he was one of the editors of the National. His jedition of the 
works of Hippocrates (1839-61) proved the thoroughness of 
his learning. He embraced the doctrines of Comte, and in '45 
published a lucid analysis of the Positive Philosophy. He 
translated the Life of Jesus, by Strauss, and Avrote the Literary 
History of France. His Dictionary of the French Language, in 
which he applied the historical method to philology, is one of 
the most colossal works ever performed by one man. He wrote 
on Comte and Positive Philosophy, Comte and Mill, etc., but refused 
to follow Comte in his later vagaries. From '67 till his death 
he conducted La Philosophie Positive. Littre also wrote Science 
from the Standpoint of Philosophy , '73 ; Literature and History, '75 ; 
Fragments of Positive Philosophy and Contemporary Sociology, '76. 
He was proposed for the Academy in '63, but was bitterly 
opposed by Bishop Dupanloup, and was elected in '71. In the 
same year he was elected to the National Assembly, and in '75 


was chosen senator. Under the Empire he twice refused the 
Legion of Honor. After a long life of incessant labor, he died 
at Paris, 2 June 1881. 

Lloyd (John William), American poet and writer, b. of 
Welsh-English stock at Westfield, New Jersey, 4 June, 1857. 
Is mostly self-educated. After serving apprenticeship as a 
carpenter, became assistant to Dr. Trail. Brought up as an 
orthodox Christian he became an Agnostic and Anarchist, and 
has written muoh in Liberty and Lucifer. 

Lohmann (Hartwic), a native of Holstein, who in 1616 
occupied a good position in Flensburg. He was accused of 
Atheism. In 1635 he practised medicine at Copenhagen. He 
wrote a work called the Mirror of Faith. Died 1642. 

Lollard (Walter), heretic and martyr, b. England, towards 
end of thirteenth century, began to preach in Germany in 
1315. He rejected the sacraments and ceremonies of the 
Church. It is said he chose twelve apostles to propagate his 
doctrines and that he had mau}^ followers. Arrested at 
Cologne in 1322, he was burnt to death, dying with great 

Loman (Abraham Dirk), Dutch rationalist, b. The Hague 
16 Sep. 1823. He holds the entire New Testament to be un- 
historical, and the Pauline Epistles to belong to the second 
century, and has written many critical works. 

Lombroso (Cesare). Italian writer and scientist, b. Nov, 
1836, has been a soldier and military physician. Introduced 
Darwinism to Italy. Has written several works, mostly in 
relation to the physiology of criminals. 

Longet (Francois Achille), French physiologist, b. St. Ger- 
main-en-Laye, 1811, -^whlishQdi ^.Treatise on Physiology in 3 vols, 
and several medical works. Died Bordeaux, 20 April, 1871. 

Longiano (Sebastiano). See Fausto. 

Longue (Louis Pierre de), French Deist, writer in the ser- 
vice of the house of Conti ; wrote Les Princesses de Malabares, 
Adrianople, 1734, in which he satirised religion. It was con- 
demned to be burnt 31 Dec. 1734, and a new edition published 
in Holland with the imprint Tranquebar, 1735. 

Lorand (Georges), Belgian journalist, b. Namur, 1851, studied 


law at Bologna (Italy) and soon became an active propagator 
of Atheistic doctrines among the youth of the University and 
in workmen associations. He edits La Rejorme at' Brussels > 
the ablest daily exponent of Freethought aud Democratic doc- 
trines in Belgium. He has lately headed an association for 
the suppression of the standing army. 

" Lorm (Hieronymus)," the pen name of Heinrich Landes 
MANN. German pessimistic poet, b. Nikolsberg, 9 Aug. 1821. 
In addition to many philosophical poems, he has written essays 
entitled Nature and Spirit, Vienna, '84. 

Lozano (Fernando), Spanish writer in Las Dominicales dal 
Libre Pensamiento, where he uses the signature "Demolilo." 
He has written Batttes of Freethought, Possessed by the Devil, 2 he 
Church and Galeote, etc. 

Lubbock (Sir John), banker, arch^ologist, scientist and 
statesman, b. in London, 30 April, 1834. Educated at Eton, 
he was taken into his father's bank at the age of fourteen, and 
became a partner in '56. By his archjeological works he has 
most distinguished himself. He has written Prehistoric Times 
as Illustrated by Ancient Remains, and the Manners and Custom.^' of 
Modern Savages ('65). and The Origin of Civdisaiinn and the 
Primitive Condition of Man ('70). 

Lucretius Carus (Titus). Eoman philosophical poet, b. 
about B.C. 99. Little is known of his life, but his name is 
immortalised by his atheistic work, De Reruni Natura, in six 
books, which is the finest didactic poem in any language. 
Lucretius has been said to have believed in one god, Epicurus, 
whose system he expounds. Full of animation, dignity, and 
sublimity, he invests philosophy with the grace of genius. Is 
Baid to have died by his own hand B.C. 55. 

Luetzelberger (Ernst Karl Julius), German controversialist 
b. Ditterswind, 19 Oct. 1802. He was a friend of the Feuer-» 
bachs. He wrote on The Church Tradition of the Apostle John. 
He also wrote a work on Jesus, translated in Ewerbeck's 
Qu^est ce que la Religion. In '56 he was appointed town librarian 
at Nuremberg. 

Limn (Edwin), Owenite lecturer. Published pamphlets On 
Prayer, its Folly, Inutility, etc. 1839, and Divine Revelation 
Examined, 1841. 


Luys (Jules Bernard), Frencli alienist, b. Paris, 1828. Is 
physician at I'Hopital de la Charito, Paris, and author of a work 
on Ihe Brain and it!^ Functions in the "International Scientific 

Lyell ("Sir Charles), geologist, b. Kinnordy, Forfarshire, 
14 Nov. 1797. Was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, and 
devoted himself to geology. In 1830-33 appeared his great 
work. The Principles of Geology, which went through numerous 
editions. His last important work was Geological Evidences of 
the Antiquity of Man, in which he accepts the Darwinian theory. 
Died 22 Feb. 1875. 

Maccall (William), writer, b. Largs. Scotland, 1812. Edu- 
cated at Glasgow, he found his way to the Unitarian Church 
which he left as insufficiently broad. He wrote Elements of 
Individualism ('47), translated Spinoza's Treatise on Politics ('54), 
wrote to the Critic as " Atticus," contributed to the National 
Reformer, Secular Revieiv, etc., published Foreign Biographies 
('73), and translated Dr. Letourneau's Biology and other works. 
Maccall was an idealistic Pantheist of strong individual 
character. Died at Bexley, 19 Nov. 1888. 

Macchi (Mauro), Italian writer, b. Milan, 1 July, 1818. 
Became professor of rhetoric at the age of twenty-four, when, 
becoming obnoxious to the Austrians by the liberty of his 
opinions, he was deprived of his position. He betook himself 
to radical journalism, founded I Italia, a Republican journal, 
for which he was exiled. He was associated with Ausonio 
Franchi and Luigi Stefanoni in the Lihero Pensiero and the 
Libero Pensatore, and founded an Italian Association of Fiee- 
thinkers. In '61 he was elected deputy to Parliament for 
Cremona, and in '79 was elevated to the Senate. Died at 
Eome, 2^ Dec. 1880. One of his principal works is on the 
Council of Ten. 

Macdonald (Eugene Montague), editor of the New York 
Truthseeker, b. Chelsea, Maine, 4 Feb. 1855. He learned the 
printer's trade in New York, where he became foreman to 
D. M. Bennett, and contributed to the paper, which he has 
conducted since Mr. Bennett's death. 

Macdonald (Greorge), brother of the preceding. Wrote on 


the 'Iruthseeker, and now conducts Frecthought, of San Fran- 
cisco, in company with S. P. Putnam. George Macdonald is a 
genuine humorist and a sound Freethinker. 

lilcDonnell (William), American novelist, b 15 Sept. 1824. 
Author of The Heathens of the Heath and Exeter Hall, '73, both 
Freethought romances. 

Mackay (Robert William), author of The Progress of the 
Intellect, 1850, Sketch of the Rise and Progress of Christianity , '53, 
and Tlte 2'uhingen School, '63. 

Mackey (Sampson Arnold), astronomer and shoemaker, of 
Norwich, who is said to have constructed an orrery out of 
leather. He wrote The Mtithological Astronomy of the Ancients,, 
Norwich, 1822-24, Pious Frauds, '26, A Lecture on Astronomy 
and Geology, edited by W. D. SauU, '32, Urania's Key to the 
Revelation, '33, and The Age of Mental Emancipation ^ '36-39. 
Mackey also wrote the Sphinxiad, a rare book. Died 1846. 

Mackintosh (Thomas Simmons), author of The Electrical 
7 heory of the Universe, ISiS, Siiu\ An Inquiry into the Nature of 
Jtesponsibility. Died 1850. 

MacSweeney (Myles), mythologist, b. at Enniskillen 1814. 
He came to London, and hearing Robert Taylor at the Rotunda 
in 1830, adopted his views. He held that Jesus never 
existed, and wrote in the National Reformer, Secular Chronicle, 
and other papers. He published a pamphlet on Moses and 
Bacchus in 1874. Died Jan. 1881. 

Madach (Imre), Hungarian patriot and poet, b. 21 Jan. 
1823, at Sztregova, studied at the University of Buda Pesth, 
and afterwards lived at Oseszlova. He was in '52 incarcerated 
for a 3''ear for having given asylum at his castle to a political 
refugee. He became in '61 delegate at Pesth. In this year he 
published his fine poem ^4:; Ember Tragtdioja (The Human 
Tragedy), in which mankind is personified as Adam, with 
Lucifer in his company. Many Freethought views occur in 
this poem. Died 5 Oct. 1864. His works were published in 
3 vols., 1880. 
Maier (Lodewyk). See Meyer. 

Maillet (Benoit de). French author, b. Saint Michiel, 12 
April, 1656. He was successively consul in Egypt and at 


Leghorn; and died at Marseilles, 30 Jan. 1738. After his death 
was published " Telliamed " (the anagram of his name), in 
which he maintained that all land was originally covered with 
water and that every species of animal, man included, owes its 
origin to the sea. 

"Miinlaender " (Philipp), pseudonym of Philipp Batz, 
German pessimist, author of a profound work entitled the 
Philosophy of Redemption, the first part of which was published 
in 1876. It was said that " Mainliinder" committed suicide 
in that year, but the second part of his work has come out 
1882-86. He holds that Polytheism gives place to Monotheism 
and Pantheism, and these again to Atheism. " God is dead^ 
and his death was the life of the world." 

Malherbe (Frangois de). French poet, b. Caen, 1555. He 
served in the civil wars of the League, and enjoyed the patron- 
age of Henry lA". He was called the prince of poets and the 
poet of princes. Many stories are told illustrating his sceptical 
raillery. When told upon his death-bed of paradise and hell 
he said he had lived like others and would go where others 
went. Died Paris, 16 Oct. 1628. 

MaHet (Mme. Josephine). French authoress of a work on 
The Bible, its origin, errors and contradictions (1882). 

Malon (Benoit). French Socialist, b. near St. Etienne, 1841. 
One of the founders of the international ; he has written a work 
on that organisation, its history and principles (Lyons, 1872). 
He is editor on L'Intransigeant, conducted the Revue Socialiste, 
and has written on the religion and morality of the Socialists 
and other works. 

Malvezin (Pierre). French journalist, b. Junhac, 26 June 
1841. Author of Za 5/6Ze Farce (Brussels, 1879.) This work 
was conden-ned and suppressed, 1880, and the author sentenced 
to three month's imprisonment. He conducts the review 
La Fraternite. 

MandeviUe (Bernhard), b. Dort. 1670. He studied medicine, 
was made a doctor in Holland, and emigrated to London. In 
1705 he published a poetical satire. The GrumUing Hive, or 
Knaves Turned Honest. In 1709, he published The Virgin 
Unmnsked, and in 1723, Free Thoughts on Religion the Church and 


National Happiness. In the same year appeared his Fables of 
■the Bees or Private Vices, Public Benefits. This work was pre- 
sented by the grand jury of Middlesex, 1723 and 1728. It was 
attacked by Law, Berkeley, and others. Mandeville replied to 
Berkeley in -1 Letter to Dion, occasioned by a book called 
Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher, 1732. He also wrote An 
Inquirij of Honor, and Usefulness of Christianity in War, 173L 
Died, London, 19 Jan. 1733. 

Mantegazza (Paolo), Italian anthropologist, b. Monza,31 Oct. 
1831. Studied medicine at Milan, Pisa, and Paria, and 
travelled considerably through Europe, and produced at Paris 
in 1854 his first book Ihe Physiology of Pleasure. He has also 
written on the physiology of pain, spontaneous generation > 
anthropological works on Ecstacy, Love and other topics, and 
a fine romance II Dio Ignoto, the unknown god (1876). Man- 
tegazza is one of the most popular and able of Italian writers. 

Manzoni (Romeo), Dr. Italian physician, b. Arogno, 1847, 
studied philosophy at Milan, and graduated at Naples. He has 
written on the doctrine of love of Bruno and Schopenhauer 
A Life of Jesus, 2i\&o 11 Prete, a work translated into German 
with the title Religion as a Pathological Phenomenon, etc. 

Marchena (Jose), Spanish writer, b. Utrera, Andalusia, 
1768. Brought up for the church, reading the writings of the 
Trench philosophers brought on him the Inquisitioii. He fled 
to France where he became a friend of Brissot and the 
Oirondins. He wrote a pronounced Essoi de Theologie, 1797, 
and translated into Spanish Moliere's Tartu fc, and some works 
of Voltaire. He translated Dupins' Origine de tons les Cnltes, 
became secretary to Murat, and died 10 Jan. 1821. 

Marechal (Pierre Sylvain), French author, b. Paris, 15 Aug. 
1750; was brought up to the Bar, which he quitted for the 
pursuit of literature. He was librarian to the Mazarin College, 
but lost his place by his Book Escaped from the Deluge, Psalms, 
by S. Ar. Lamech (anagram), 1784. This was a parody of the 
etyle of the prophets. In 1781 he wrote Le Noiweau Lucrect^ 
In 1788 appeared his Almanack of Honest People, in which the 
iiame of Jesus Christ was found beside that of Epicurus. The 
work was denounced to Parliament, burnt at the hands of the 


hangman, and Marechal imprisoned for four months. He 
welcomed the Revolution, and published a republican almanack^ 
1793. In 1797 and 1798 he published his Code of a Society of 
Men witho%Lt God, and Free Thoughts on the Priests. In 1799 
appeared his most learned work, Travels of Pythagoras in Egypt,. 
Chaldea, India, Rome, Carthage, Gaul, etc. 6 vols. Into this 
fiction Marechal puts a host of bold philosophical, political, 
and social doctrines. In 1800 he published his famous 
Dictionary of Atheists, which the Government prohibited and 
interdicted journals from noticing. In the following year 
appeared his For and Against the Bible. Died at Montrouge, 
18 Jan. 1803. His beneficence is highly spoken of by Lalande, 

Maret (Henry), French journalist and deputy, b. Santerre^ 
4 March, 1838. He ably combatted against the Empire, and 
edits Le Radical; w^as elected deputy in '81. 

Marguerite, of Valois, Queen of Navarre, sister to Francis I. 
b. at Angouleme, 11 April, 1492. Deserves place for her pro- 
tection to religious reformers. Died 21 Dec. 1549. 

Marguetel de Saint Denis. See Saint Evremond (0.) 

Mario (Alberto), Italian patriot, b. 3 June, 1825. He edited 
the Tribune and Free Italy, became aide-de-camp to Garibaldi 
and married Jessie White, an English lady. In '60 he wrote a 
polemic against the papacy entitled Slavery and Thought. Died 
2 June, 1883. 

Marlow (Christopher), English poet and dramatist, b. Canter- 
bury, 8 Feb. 1564. Educated at Benet College, Cambridge^ 
where he took his degree in 1587. He devoted himself to 
dramatic writing and according to some became an actor. He 
was killed in a brawl at Deptford, 1 June, 1593, in time tO' 
escape being tried on an information laid against him for 
Atheism and blasphemy. The audacity of his genius is dis- 
played in Jamburlaine and Dr. FauUus. Of the latter, Goethe 
said " How greatly is it all planned." Swinburne says " He i& 
the greatest discoverer, the most daring and inspired pioneer 
in all our poetic literature." 

Marr (Wilhelm), German socialist, author of Religious 
Excursions^ 1876, and several anti-Semitic tracts. 

Marsais (Cesar Chesneau du). See Du Marsais. 


Marselli (Niccola), Italian writer, b. Naples, 5 Nov. 1832. 
Author of advanced works on the Science of History, Nature 
and Cwilisation, the Origin of Humanity, the Great Races of 
Huwianity^ etc. 

Marston (Philip Boiirke), English poet, b. London, 13 Aug. 
1850. He became blind in childhood, and devoted to poetry. 
A friend of D. G. Rossetti, Swinburne, and Thomson, his poems 
are sad and sincere. Died 14 Feb. 1887, and was buried in 
accordance with his own wishes in unconsecrated ground at 
Highgate, and without religious service. 

Marsy (Francois Marie de), b. Paris, 1714, educated as a 
Jesuit. He brought out an analysis of Bayle, 1755, for which 
he was confined in the Bastile. Died 16 Dec. 1763. 

Marten (Henry), regicide, b. Oxford, 1602. Educated 
at Oxford, where he proceeded B.A., 1619. He was elected to 
Parliament in 1640, and expelled for his republican sentiments 
in 1643. He resumed his seat 6 Jan. 1646, took part in the civil 
war, sat as one of King Charles's judges, and became one of 
-the Council of State. He proposed the repeal of the statute of 
banishment against the Jews, and when it was sought to expel 
all profane persons, proposed to add the words " and all fools." 
Tried for regicide 10 Oct. 1660, he was kept in Chepstow 
Castle till his death, Sep. 1680. Carlyle calls him "sworn foe 
of Cant in all its figures ; an indomitable little Pagan if no 

Martin (Emma), English writer and lecturess, b. Bristol, 
1812. Brought up as a Baptist, she, for a time, edited the 
Bristol Magazine. She wrote the Exiles of Piedmont and 
translated from the Italian the Maxims of Guicciardini. The 
trials of Holyoake and Southwell for blasphemy led her to 
inquire and embrace the Freethought cause. While Holyoake 
and Paterson were in gaol, Mrs. Martin went about committing 
the "crime" for which they were imprisoned. In '43 she 
published Baptism A Pagan Rite. This was followed by Tracts 
for the People on the Bible no Revelation, Religion Superseded, 
Prayer, God's Gifts and Men's Duties, a conversation on the 
being of God, etc. She also lectured and wrote on the Punishment 
of Death, to which she was earnestly opposed. Died Oct. 185U 


Martin (Bon Louis Henri), French historian, b. St. Quentin. 
20 Feb. 1810. He was sent to Paris to study law, but aban- 
■doned it for history. His History of France, in nineteen 
vols. (1838 — 53), is a monumental work of erudition, A con- 
iirmed Republican, he warmly opposed the Second Empire and 
after its fall became member of the National Assembly, '71. 
and senator, '76. He was elected member of the Academy* 
'78. In addition to his historical works he contributed to le 
Siecle, la. Liberie de penser, and V Encydopedie Nouvclle, etc. Died 
14 Dec. 1883. 

Martin (Louis), author of Les Evangiles Sans Dieu (called by 
^'^ictor Hugo cette-nohle page}, Paris, 1887, describes himself as 
an Atheist Socialist. 

Martin (Louis Auguste). French writer, b. Paris, 25 April, 
1811, editor of the Morale Independante and member of the 
Institute of Geneva. For his True and Fahe Catholics ('58), he 
was fined three thousand francs and imprisoned for six months 
Be published the Annuaire Fhilosophique. Several of his works 
are phiced on the Roman Index. Died Paris, 6 April, 1875. 

Martinaud (M.), an ex-abbe who refused ordination, and 
wrote Letters of a young priest, who is an Atheist and 
Materialist, to his bishop, Paris, 1868, in which he says, "Religion 
is the infancy of peoples. Atheism their maturity." 

Martineau (Harriet), b. Norwich 12 June, 1803, descended 
from a Huguenot family. Brought up as a Unitarian, she 
began writing Devotional Exercises for Young Persons, and, 
taking to literature as a means of living, distinguished herself 
by popularisations of political economy. The Letters on the 
Lows of Man's Nature and Development, which passed between 
her and H. G. Atkinson, appeared in '51, and disclosed her 
-advance to the Positivist school of Thought. In '53 she issued 
a condensed account of Comte's philosophy. She wrote a 
History of England during the Thirty Years' Peace, and numerous 
other works. Died at Ambleside 27 June, 1876. Her Auto- 
hiography, published after her death, shows the full extent of 
her unbelief. 

Masquerier (Lewis), American land reformer of Huguenot 
-descent, b. 1 March, 1802. Wrote The Sataniad, established 


Greenpoint Gazette, and contributed to the Boston Investigator. 
Died 7 Jan. 1888. 

Massenet (Jules Emile Frederic), French musical composer^ 
b. Montard, 12 May, 1842. Has written a daring and popular 
oratorio on Marie Magdeleine, and an opera, Herodiade. 

Massey (Gerald), poet and archaeologist, b. of poor parents 
at Tring, in Herts, 29 May, 1828. At eight years of age he 
was sent to a factor}^ to earn a miserable pittance. At the age 
of fifteen he came to London as an errand boy, read all that 
came in his way, and became a Freethinker and political 
reformei'. Inspired by the men of '48, he started The Spirit of 
Freedom, '49. It cost him five situations in eleven months. In 
'53 his Ballad of Babe Christahel, icith other Lyrical Poems at 
once gave him position as a poet of fine taste and sensibility. 
Mr. Massey devoted himself to the study of Egyptology, the 
result of which is seen in his Book of Beqinnimjs and Natural 
Genesis, '81-83, in which he shows the mythical nature of Chris- 
tianity. Mr. Mfipspv has also lectured widely on such subjects 
as Why Don'<- G^d Kill the Devil ? The Historical Jesus and 
the Mythical Christ, The Devil of Darkness in the Light of 
Evolution, The Coming Religion, etc. His poems are being 
re-published under the title My Lyrical Life. 

Massey (James). See Tyssot. (S.) 

Massol (Marie Alexandre), French writer, b.Beziers, 18 
March, 1805. He studied under Raspail, went to Paris in 
'30 and became a Saint Simonian. In '48 he wrote on 
Lamennais' La Kefoi me, and on the Voix dii Penple with his 
friend Proudhon, to whom he became executor. In '65 he 
established La Morale Independante with the object of showing 
morality had nothing to do with theology. Died at Paris 
20 April, 1875. 

Maubert de Gouvest (Jean Henri), French writer, b. Rouen,. 
20 Nov. 1721. Brought up as a monk, he fled and took service 
in the Saxon army. He was thrown into prison by the King 
of Poland, but the Papal nuncio procured his release on con- 
dition of retaking his habit. This he did and went to Rome 
to be relieved of his vows. Failing this he went to Switzer- 
land and England, where he was well received by Lord 

31 All 

Bolingbroke. He published Lettrcs Iroquoises, Irocopolis, 1752, 
and other anonymous works. At Frankfort in 1764 he was 
arrested as a fugitive monk and vagabond, and was imprisoned 
eleven months.' Died at Altona, 21 Xov. 1767. 

Maudsley (Henry), M.D., b. near Giggleswick, Yorkshire, 
5 Feb. 1835. Educated at London University, where he gra- 
duated MD. in 1857. Taking mental pathology as his 
speciality, he soon reached eminence in his profession. From 
'69-'79 he was professor of medical jurisprudence at University 
College, London His works on The Physiology and Pathology of 
the Mind ('67), Body and Mind ('70), Responsibility in Mental 
Di.^ea^e (73), and Body and Will ('83) have attracted much 
attention. His Natural Lairs and Supernatural Seemings ('80) is 
a powerful exposure of the essence of all superstition. 

JVEauviUon (Jakob von), b. Leipzig, 8 March, 1743. Though 
feeble in body, he had a penchant for the arni}^, and joined 
the engineer corps of Hanover, and afterwards became lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the service of the Duke of Brunswick. A 
friend and admirer of Mirabeau, he defended the French Revo- 
lution in Germany. He wrote anonymously Paradoxes Moraux 
(Amsterdam, 1768) and The Only True System of the Christian 
Religion (Berlin, 1787), at first composed under the title of False 
Reasmings of the Christian Religion. Died in Brunswick, 11 Jan. 

Mazzini (Giuseppe), Italian patriot, b. Genoa, 28 June 1808. 
In '26 he graduated LL.D., in the Universit}'^ of Genoa, and 
plunged into politics, becoming the leader of Young Italy, with 
the object of uniting the nation. Condemned to death in '33, 
he went to Switzerland and was expelled, then came to 
England in '37. In '48 he returned, and in March '49 was 
made triumvir of Eome with Saffi and Armellini. Compelled, 
after a desperate resistance, to retire, he returned to London. 
He wrote in the WeAminster Preview and other periodicals and 
and his works are numerous though mostly of a political 
character. They are distinguished by highmindedness, lore of 
toleration and eloquence. Carlyle called Mazzini " a man of 
genius and virtue, a man of sterling veracity, humanity and noble- 
ness of mind." Died at Pisa 10 March, 1872. He was a Deist. 


Meissner (Alfred), German poet, b. Teplitz, 15 Oct, 1822. 
Has written Ziska, an epic poem, The Son of Atta Trolly 
Recollections of Heine, Qic. Died Teplitz, 20 May, 1885. 

Meister (Jacques Henri), Swiss writer, b. Biickeburg, 6 Ang. 
1744. Intended for a religious career, he went to France, and 
became acquainted with D'Holbach and Diderot, of whom he 
wrote a short li^e, and was secretary to Grimm. He wrote the 
Origin of Religious Principles, 1762, and Natural Morality, 1787. 

Menard (Louis), French author and painter, b.. Paris, 1822. 
In '48-49 he wrote Prologue of a Revolution, for which he was 
obliged to leave France. Has Avritten on Morality before the 
Philosophers, '60, Studies on the Origin of Christianity, '67, and 
Freethinkers^ Religious Catechism, '75. 

Mendoza (Diego Hurtado de), famous and learned Spanish 
author, b. of distinguished famil}'^, Granada, 1503. Intended 
for the church, he studied Latin, Greek, Arabic, and Hebrew, 
but on leaving the university he joined the army. At school 
he wrote his well known comic novel, Lazarillo de Tonnes, 
•which was condemned by the Inquisition. Sent on an embassy 
to Pope Paul III., the latter was greatly shocked at his 
audacity and vehemence of speech. His chief work is his 
Histoj-y of the Moorish Wars, \vhich remained unprinted thirty 
years, through the intolerant policy of Philip II. Mendoza's 
•satires and burlesques were also prohibited by the Inquisition. 
He commented Aristotle and translated his Mechanics. Died 
at Valladolid, April, 1575. 

Mendum (Josiah P.), publisher and proprietor of the Boston 
Invest/gator, b. Kennebunk, Maine, 7 July, 1811. He became a 
printer, and in 1833 became acquainted with Abner Kneeland 
and after his imprisonment engaged to print the Investigator, 
and when Kneeland left Boston for the West to recruit his 
health, ^he carried on the paper together with Mr. Horace 
Seaver. Mr. Mendum was one of the founders of the Paine 
Memorial Hall, Boston, and a chief support of Freethought in 
hat city. 

Mentelle (Edme), French geographer and historian, b. Paris, 
11 Oct. 1730. Studied at the College de Beauvais under 
<Jrevier. His Precis de VHistoire des Hthreux (1798), and Precis 


lie VHii<toire Univcrsclle are thoroughly anti-Christian. He doubted 
if Jesus ever existed. He was a member of the Institute and 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Died at Paris, 28 Dec. 1815. 

Mercier (L. A.), author of La Libre Pensee, Brussels, 1879. 

Meredith (Evan Powell), Welsh writer, author of The 
Prophet of Nazareth (1864), an able work exposing the prophe- 
cies of Jesus, and Amphilogia, a reply in to the Bishop of 
Landaff and the Eev. J. F. Francklin, '67. 

Meredith (George), philosophical poet and novelist, b, 
Hampshire, 1828, and educated partly on the Continent. In- 
tended for the law, he adopted literature in preference. He 
first appeared as a poet with Poems ('51). Of his powerful 
novels we mention the Ordeal of Richard Feveril ('59), Emilia 
in England ('64), now Sandra Bclloni, with Yittoria ('66) for a. 
sequel. Rhoda Fleming^ Beauchamp's Career ('76), The Egoist 
('79), The Tragic Comedians {'81) and Diana of the Crosswoys 
("'85). Deep thought and fine grace characterise his writings. 
As a poet Mr. Meredith is not popular, but his volumes of 
verse are marked by the highest qualities, and give him a place 
apart from the throng of contemporary singers. 

Merimee (Prosper), learned French writer, b. Paris, 28 S'^pt. 
1808, author of numerous essays and romances. Was made 
Inspector General of Historic Monuments and was admitted to 
the Academy in '44. In his anonymous brochure on H(enri) 
B(eyle), Eleutheropolis (Brussels), '64, there is an open pro- 
fession of Atheism. Died at Cannes, 23 Sept. 1870. 

Merritt (Henry), English painter and writer, b. Oxford, 
8 June, 1822. On coming to London he lived with Mr. Holy- 
oake, and contributed to the Reasoner, using the signature 
" Christopher." He wrote on Birt and Pictures and Rohtrt Dally 
andhis World of Troubles, etc. Died in London, 10 July, 1877. 

Meslier or Mellier (Jean), cure of Etrepigny, Champagne, 
b. Mazerny, Rethelois, 15 June, 1664. Died in 1729. After his 
death a will was discovered of which he had made three copies, 
in which he repudiated Christianity and requested to be buried 
in his own garden. His property he left to his parishoners. 
Voltaire published it under the title of Extract from the senti- 
ments of Jean Meslier. To Meslier has been attributed the 


work entitled Le Bon Sens, written b}^ Baron D'Holbach. Le 
Testament de Jean MesUer has been published in three volumes 
at Amsterdam, 1864, preceded by a study by Rudolf Charles 
(R. 0. d'Ablaing van Giessenburg). It calls in question all the 
dogmas of Christianity. Anacharsis Clootz proposed to the 
National Convention to erect a statue to this " honest priest." 

Metchnikov (Leon), Russian writer in French ; author of 
a work on Japan and of able articles, notably one on Christian 
Communion in the Revue Internationale des Sciences Biolofjiques , 
tome 12. 

Metrodorus of Lampsacus. Greek philosopher, b. 330 b.c, 
a disciple and intimate friend of Epicurus. He wrote 
numerous works, the titles of which are preserved by Diogenes 
Laertius. Died B.C. 277. 

Mettrie, see La Mettrie 

Meunier (Amedee Victor), French writer, b. Paris, 2 May, 
1817. Has done much to popularise science by his Scientific 
Essays, 1851-58, the Ancestors of Adorn, '75, etc. 

Meyer (Lodewijk), a Dutch physician, a friend and follower 
of Spinoza, who published Exercitatio Paradoxa on the philoso- 
phical interpretation of scripture, Eleutheropoli (Amst.), 1666. 
This has been wrongly attributed to Spinoza. It was translated 
into Dutch in 1667. He is also credited with Lucii Autistic 
Constantes, de jure ecclesiasticorum. Alethopoli (Amst.), 1665. 
This work is also attributed to another writer, viz. P. de la 

Mialhe (Hippolyte), French writer, b. Roquecourbe (Tarn) 
1834. From '60-62 he was with the French army of occupa- 
tion at Rome. He has organised federations of Freethinkers 
in France, edited V Union des Libres-Ptnscurs, and has written 
Mtnioircs d'un libre Penseur (Nevers, 1888). 

Michelet (Jules), French historian, b. Paris, 21 Aug. 1798. 
Became a Professor of History in 1821. Has written a History 
of France and of the French Revolution; The Jesuits, with his 
friend Quinet, '43 ; The Priest, Woman and the Family, '44 ; The 
Sorceress, dealing with witchcraft in the Middle Ages, '62 ; The 
Bible of Humanity^ '64. His lectures were interdicted by the 
Government of Louis Phillippe, and after the com/? d'etat he was 
225 p 


deprived of his chair. All Michelet's works glow with 
eloquence and imagination. He never forgot that he was a 
republican and Freethinker of the nineteenth century. Died 
at Hyeres, 9 Feb. 1874. 

Michelet (Karl Lud wig), German philosopher of French family , 
b. Berlin, 4 Dec. 1801. In '29 he became Professor of Philo- 
sophy. A disciple of Hegel, he edited his master's works, '32. 
His principle work is A System of Pkilsophy as an Exact Science^ 
'76-81, He has also written on the relation of Herbert Spencer 
to German philosophy. 

Middleton (Conyers), Freethinking clergyman, b. York 
1683. His Letters from Rome, 1729, showed how much Eoman 
Christianity had borrowed from Paganism, and his Free Inquiry 
into the Miraculous Powers supposed to have subsisted in the Christian 
Church, 1749, was a severe blow to hitherto received " Christian 
Evidences." He also wrote a classic Life of Cicero. Died 
at Hildersham near Cambridge, 28 July, 1750. 

Mignardi (G.), Italian writer, who in 1884 published 
Mennrie di un Nuovo Credente (Memoirs of a New Believer). 

MileUi (Domenico), Italian poet, b. Catanzaro, Feb. 1841. 
His family intended to make him a priest, but he turned out a 
rank Pagan, as may be seen in his Odi Pagane, '79, Canzonieri, 
*84, and other works. 

Mill (James), philosopher and historian, b. Northwater- 
bridge, Montrose, 6 April. 1773. Studied at Edinburgh, and dis- 
tinguished himself by his attainments in Greek and moral philo- 
sophy. He was licensed as preacher in the Scotch Church, but 
removed to London in 1800, and became editor of the Literary 
Revieiv, and contributed to the reviews. He published, '17-'19, 
his History of British India. He contributed many articles to 
the fifth edition of the Encyclopasdia Britannica. A friend of 
Bentham, he wrote largely in the Westminster Revieio, and did 
much to forward the views of Philosophic Radicalism. His 
Analysis of the Human Mind, '39, is a profound work. In 
religion he was a complete sceptic. Reading Bishop Butler's 
Analogy made him an Atheist. Died 23 June, 1836. 

Mill (John Stuart), eminent English writer, son of the pre- 
ceding, b. London, 20 May, 1806. Educated by his father 


without religion, lie became clerk in the East India House, 
and early in life contributed to the Westminster and Edinhurgh 
Beviews. Of the first he became joint editor in '35. His System 
of Logic, '43, first made him generally known. This was fol- 
lowed hy hm Principles of Political Economy. In '59 appeared 
his small but valuable treatise On Liberty, in which he defends 
the unrestricted free discussion of religion. Among subse- 
quent works were Utilitarianism, '63; Auguste Comte and 
Positivism, '67 ; Examination of Sir William Hamilton s Philosophy 
'65 ; Dissertations and Discussio7is, '59-'75 ; and the Suhjection of 
Women, '69. In '65 he was elected to Parliament for Weet- 
minster, but lost his seat in '68. In '67 he was chosen 
Eector of St. Andrews, and delivered the students an able 
address. Prof. Bain says " in everything characteristic of the 
creed of Christendom he was a thorough-going negationist. 
He admitted neither its truth nor its utility." Died at Avignon, 
8 May, 1873, leaving behind his interesting Autobiography and 
three essays on " Nature," " Theism," and " Religion.'' 

Mille (Con Stan tin), Roumanian writor, b. at Bucharest, 
educated at Paris. He lectured at Jassy and Bucharest on the 
History of Philosophy, from a Materialistic point of view. 
He was also active with Codreano, and after the latter's death 
('77), in spreading Socialism. Mille contributes to the Rivista 
Sociala and the Viitorul, edited by C. Pilitis. 

Milliere (Jean Baptiste), Socialist, b. of poor parents, 
Lamarche (Cote d'Or), 13 Dec. 1817. He became an advocate, 
and founded the Proletaire at Clermont Ferrand. For writing 
Revolutionary Stwlies he was, after the coup d'etat, banished to 
Algeria until the amnesty of '59. In '69 Milliere started, with 
Rochefort, the Marseillaise, of Avhich he became one of the prin- 
cipal directors. At the election for the National Assembly he 
was elected for Paris by 73,000 votes. Although he took no 
part in the Commune, but sought to act as an intermediary, he 
was arrested and summarily shot near the Pantheon, Paris 
26 May. 1871. He died crying " Vive VHumanite.'' 

Mirabaud (Jean Baptiste de), French writer, b. Paris, 1675. 
He translated Tasso and Ariosto, and became perpetual secre- 
tary to the French Academy. He wrote Opinions of the Ancients 
on the Jews, a Critical Examination of the New lestament, (pub- 


lished under the name of Freret), llie World: its Origin and 
Antiquity^ 1751, Sentiments of a Philosopher on the Nature of the Soid 
inserted in the collection entitled Nouvelle libertes de Penser, 
Amst. (Paris) 1743. The Si/stem of Nature, attributed to Mira- 
baud, was written by d'Holbach. Mirabaud died 24 June, 1 760. 

Mirabeau (Honore Gabriel Eiquetti Comte de), French 
statesman and orator, b. at the Chateau de Bignon (Loiret) 
9 March, 1749. He inherited a passionate nature, a frank 
strong will, generous temper, and a mind of prodigious activity. 
He entered the army in 1767, but by an amorous intrigue pro- 
voked the ire of his father, by whom he was more than once 
imprisoned. In 1776 he went to Amsterdam and employed 
himself in literary work. In 1783 appeared anonymously his 
Erotika Bihlion^ dealing with the obscenity of the Bible. In 
1786 he was sent to Berlin, where he met Frederick and col- 
lected materials for his work on The Prussian Monarchy . He 
returned to the opening of the States G-eneral and soon 
became leader of the Revolution, being in Jan. 1791 chosen Presi- 
dent of the National Assembly. He advocated the abolition of 
the double aristocracy of Lords and bishops, the spoliation of 
the Church and the National Guard. Carlyle calls him " far 
the strongest, best practical intellect of that time." He died 
2 April, 1791, Among his last words were, " Envelop me with 
perfumes and crown me with flowers that I may pass away 
into everlasting sleep." 

Miranda (Don Francisco). South American patriot and 
general, b. Caracas 1750, aided the Americans in their "War of 
Independence, tried to free Guatimalaus from the Spanish, 
allied himself to the Girondins and became second in command 
in the army of Dumouriez. He was a friend of Thomas Paine. 
In 1806 — 11 he was engaged seeking to free Peru from the 
Spaniards, by whom he was made prisoner, and died in a dun- 
geon at Cadiz, 16 Jan. 1816. It was said General Miranda 
made a sceptic of James Mill. 

Miron. See Morin (Andre Saturnin.) 

Mitchell (J. Barr), Dr., anonymous author of Dates and Data 
(1876) and Chi^est OS ; a Religious Epithet (1880). Dr. Mitchell 
has also written in the National Reformer, using his initials 


Mitchell (Logan), author of Lectures published as T^he 
■Christian Mythology Unveiled. This work was also issued under 
the title Superstition Besieged. It is said that Mitchell com- 
mitted suicide iu Nov. 1841. He left by his will a sum of 
£500 to any bookseller who had the courage to publish his 
iDOok. It was first published by B. Cousens, and was repub- 
lished in '81. 

Mittermaier (Karl Josef Anton von), German jurisconsult, 
b. Munich, 5 Aug. 1787. Studied law and medicine at Land- 
shut, where he became professor. His works on Law gained 
him a high reputation. He obtained a chair at the Heidelberg 
University. In 1831 he represented Baden in Parliament. He 
advocated the unity of Germany and took an active part in the 
Radical movement of '48. His writings are all in the direction 
■of freedom. Died 28 Aug. 1867. 

Mittie (Stanilas), in 1789 proposed the taking of church 
bells to make money and cannon, and during the revolution 
distinguished himself by other anti-clerical suggestions. 
Died 1816. 

Mocenicus (Philippus), Archbishop of Nicosia, Cyprus, a 
Venetian philosopher, whose heretical Contemplations were 
printed at Geneva, 1588, with the Peripatetic Question of CoesaL 
jiinus and the books of Telesio on The Nature of Things in the 
volume entitled Tractationum Philosophic arum. 

Moleschott (Jacob), scientific Materialist, b. of Dutch 
parents at Herzogenbusch, 9 Aug. 1822 ; studied at Heidelburg 
where he graduated M.D. Became Professor of Physiology at 
Zurich and afterwards at Turin. Becoming a naturalised 
Italian he was in '76 made a senator, and in '78 Professor of 
Physiology at the University of Rome. He has written Circu- 
lation of Life, Light and Life, Physiological Sketches, and other 
medical and scientific works. Lange calls him " the father of 
the modern Materialistic movement." 

Molesworth (Sir William), statesman and man of letters, 
the eighth baronet of his family, b. Cornwall, 23 May, 1810. 
In '32 he was returned M.P. for East Cornwall, and from '37-41 
;sat for Leeds. In '53 he was First CommissiO'ner of Public 
Works, and in '55 was Secretary for the Colonies. He was for 


some time proprietor and conductor of the Westminster Review, 
in which he wrote many articles. A noble edition of Hobbea 
was produced at his expense, '39-45, and he contributed to the 
support of Auguste Comte. Died 22 Oct. 1855. 

Mommsen (Theodor), historian, b. Garding (Schleswig), 30 
Nov. 1817. Studied at Kiel, and travelled from '44 to 47. He 
became Professor of Law of Leipsic, Ziirich and Berlin. Is 
best known by his History of Rome, '53-85, a work of great 
research and suggestiveness in which he expresses the opinion 
that it is doubtful if the world was improved by Christianity. 

Monboddo (Lord). See Burnett (James). 

Monge (Gaspard), French scientist, b. at Beaume, 10 May 

1746. Taught physics and mathematics at the military school 
of Mezieres, became a member of the Academy of Sciences in 
1780, and through the influence of Condorcet was made Mini- 
ster of the Marine in 1792. He was one of the founders of 
the Polytechnic School. Xapoleon made him a senator, created 
him Count of Pelusuin, and gave him an estate for his many 
services to the French nation. On the return of the Bourbons 
he was deprived of all his emoluments. Died 28 July, 1818. 
Marechal and Lalande insert his name in their list of Atheists. 

Mongez (Antoine), French archjeologist, b. Lyons, 30 June 

1747. Distinguished by his studies, he became a member of 
the Academy of Inscriptions and of the Institute, before which 
he said "he had the honor to be an Atheist.' He was one of 
the most ardent members of the Convention, and wrote many 
memoirs. Died at Paris, 30 July, 1835. 

Monroe (J. R.), Dr., editor and proprietor of the Iroru 
chid Age, b- Monmouth, co. New Jersey, about 1825. In '^50 
he went to Rochford, where he had a good practice as a doctor. 
In '55 he started the Rochfonl Herald, and in July, '57, the 
Sf-ymoar Times. During the Civil War he was appointed sur- 
geon to the 150th regiment, and after some hard service his 
own health broke down. In '75 Dr. Monroe published his 
dramas and poems in a volume. From this time his paper 
became more Freethought and less political. In April, '82, he 
removed to Indianopolis, Indiana, and changed the name to 
The Age, afterwards Monroe's Ironclad Age. Dr. Monroe is a 
clever writer and a modest man, with a remarkable fund of 


natural humor. Among his publications are poems on The 
Origin of Man, etc., Genesis Revised, and Holy Bible Stoi'ies. 

Montaigne (Michel de), French philosophic essayist, b. at 
the family castle in Perigord, 28 Feb. 1533. He studied law 
and became a judge at Bordeaux about 1554. In 1580 he pro- 
duced his famous " Essays," which indicate a sprightly humor 
allied to a most independent spirit. The Essays, Hallam says, 
make in several respects an epoch in literature. Emerson 
says, " Montaigne is the frankest and honestest of all writers." 
Montaigne took as his motto : Que scais je ? [What know I ?] 
and said that all religious opinions are the result of custom. 
Buckle says, " Under the guise of a mere man of the world, 
expressing natural thoughts in common language, Montaigne 
concealed a spirit of lofty and audacious inquiry." Montaigne 
seems to have been the first man in Europe who doubted the 
sense and justice of burning people for a difference of opinion. 
His denunciation of the conduct of the Christians in America 
does him infinite honor. Died 13 Sept. 1592. 

Monteil (Charles Francois Louis Edgar), French journalist, 
b. Vire, 26 Jan. 1845. Fought against the Empire, writing in 
Le Rapptl. During the Commune he was secretary to Deles- 
cluze. For his Histoire (Vnn Frere Ignorant in, 74, he was 
prosecuted by the Christian Brothers, and condemned to one 
year's imprisonment, 2,000 francs fine, and 10,000 francs 
damages. In '77 he wrote a Freethinker's Catechism, pub- 
lished at Antwerp, and in '79 an edition of La Republique 
Fran<;aise. In '80 he was made a member of the Municipal 
Council of Paris, and re-elected in '84. In '83 he was made 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. He has compiled an excellent 
secular Manual of Instruction for schools. 

Montesquieu (Charles de Secondat), Baron, eminent 
French Avriter, b. near Bordeaux, 18 Jan. 1689. His first 
literary performance was entitled Persian Letters, 1721. In 
1728 he was admitted a member of the Frencn Academy, 
though opposed by Cardinal Fleury on the ground that his 
writings were dangerous to religion. His chief work is the 
Spii it of Laws, 1748. This work was one of the first-fruits of 
the positive spirit in history and jurisprudence. The chapters 
on Slavery are written in a vein of masterly irony, which 


Voltaire pronoun(?ed to be worthy of Moliere. Died 10 Feb. 

Montgomery (Edmund), Dr. philosopher, b. of Scotch 
parents, Edinburgh 1835. In youth he lived at Frankfort, 
where he saw Schopenhauer, and afterwards attended at 
Heidelburg the lectures of Moleschott and Kuno Fischer. 
He became a friend of Feuerbach. He wrote in German and 
published at Munich in '71, The Kantian 'llieory of Knowledge 
refuted from the Empirical Standpoint. In '67 he published a 
small book On the Formation of so-called Cells in Animal 
Bodies, In '71 he went to Texas and prosecuted his scientific 
studies on life. He has written in the Popular Science Monthly, 
The Index, and The Open Court and Mind. Dr. Montgomery 
holds not only that there is no evidence of a God, but that 
there is evidence to the contrary. 

Montgolfier (Michel Joseph), aeronaut, b. Aug. 1740. He 
was the first to ascend in an air balloon, 5 June 1783. A friend 
of Delambre and La Lalande, he was on the testimony of this 
last an atheist. Died 26 June 1810. 

Mook (Friedrich) German writer, b. Bergzabern, 29 Sept 
1844, studied philosophy and theology at Tiibingen, but gave 
up the latter to study medicine. He lived as a writer at 
Heidelberg and became lecturer to a free congregation at 
Niirenburg, and wrote a popular Life of Jesus, published at 
Zurich, '72-3. He travelled abroad and was drowned in the 
river Jordan, 13 Dec. 1880. His brother Kurt, b. 12 Feb. 1847, 
is a physician who has published some poems. 

Moor (Edmund), Major in the East Indian Company, author 
of the Hiada Pantheon, 1810 and Oriental Fragments, '34. 
Died 1840. 

Moreau (Hegesippe), French poet, b. Paris 9, April 1810. 
A radical and freethinker, he fought in the barricades in '30. 
Wrote songs and satires of considerable merit, and a prose 
work entitled The Miseltoe and the Oak. His life, which was 
a continual struggle with misery, terminated in a hospital, 
20 Dec. 1838. His works have been collected, with an intro- 
duction by Sainte-Beuve. 

Moreau (Jacques Joseph), Dr. of Tours, b. Montresor, 1804. 


He became a distinguished alienist of the materialist scliool, 
and wrote on Moral Faculties from a medical point of view, '36, 
and many physiological works. 

Morelly, French socialist of the eighteenth century, b. 
Vitry-le-Francais, author of a work called Code de la Nature, 
sometimes attributed to Diderot. It was published in 1755-' 
and urges that man should find circumstances in which 
depravity is minimised. 

Morgan (Thomas), Welsh Deist, known by the title of his book 
as 2 he Moral Philosopher, 1737. Was a Presbyterian, but was de- 
posed for Arianism about 1723, and practised medicine at Bristol. 
He edited Radicati's Dissertation on Death, 1731. His Moral 
Philosopher seeks to substitute morality for religion. He calls 
Moses " a more fabulous romantic writer than Homer or Ovid," 
and attacks the evidence of miracles and prophecy. This was 
supplemented by A Farther Vindication of Moral Truth and 
Reason, 1739, Miid Superstition and Tyranny Inconsistent with 
Theocracy, 1740. He replied to his opponents over the signa- 
ture " Philalethes." His last work was on Physico-Theology, 
1741. Lechler calls Morgan " the modern Marcion." Died at 
London, 14 Jan. 1743. 

Morgan (Sir Thomas Charles), M.D., b. 1783. Educated at 
Cambridge. In 1811 he was made a baronet, and married Miss 
Sidney Owensen. A warm friend of civil and religious liberty 
and a sceptic, he is author of Sketches of the Philosophy of Life, 
'18, and the Philosophy of Morals, '19, The Examiner says, 
*' He was never at a loss for a witty or wise passage from 
Rabelais or Bayle." Died 28 Aug. 1843. 

Morin (Andro Suturnin), French writer, b. Chatres, 28 Nov. 
1807. Brought up to the law, and became an advocate. In 
'30 he wrote defending the revolution against the restoration. 
In '48 he was made sous-prefet of Nogent. During the Empire 
he combated vigorously for Republicanism and Freethought, 
writing under the signature " Miron," in the Rationaliste of 
Geneva, the Lil/re Penste of Paris, the Libero-pensiero of Milan, 
and other papers, He was intimately associated with Ausonio 
Franchi, Trezza, Stefanoni, and the Italian Freethinkers. His 
principal work is an Examination of Clwistianity , in three 
volumes, '62. His Jesus Reduced to his True Value has gone 


through several editions. His EsmI de Critique Religieuse, '85, 
is an able work. M. Morin was one of the founders of the 
Bibliothnpie Democratique , to which he contributed several 
anti-clerical volumes, the one on Confession being translated 
into English by Dr. J. R. Beard. In 76 he was elected on the 
Municipal Council of Paris, where he brought forward the 
question of establishing a crematorium. Died at Paris, 5 July, 
1888, and Avas cremated at Milan. 

Morison (James Augustus Cotter), English Positivist and 
man of letters, b. London, 1831. Graduated at Lincoln Coll. 
Oxford, M.A., '59. In '63 he published the Life and limes of 
Saint Bernard. He was one of the founders of the Fortnightbj 
Review, in which he wrote, as well as in the Athenwrni. He con- 
tributed monographs on Gibbon and Macaulay to Morley's " Men 
of Letters " Series. In '86 he published his striking work The 
Service of Man, an Essay towards the Religion of the Future, 
which shows that the benefits of Christianity have been much 
exaggerated and its evils palpable. All his writings are 
earnest and thoughtful. He collected books and studied to 
write a History of France, which would have been a noble con- 
tribution to literature; but the possession of a competence 
seems to have Aveakened his industry, and he never did justice 
to his powers. Even the Service of Man was postponed until 
he was no longer able to complete it as he intended. Morison 
was a brilliant talker, and the centre of a wide circle of friends. 
George Meredith dedicated to him a volume of poems. Died at 
Hampstead, 26 Feb. 1888. 

Morley (John), English writer and statesman, b. Blackburn, 
24 Dec. 1838, educated at Oxford. Among his fellow students 
was J. C. Morison. He contributed to T/te Leader and the 
Saturday Review, edited the Morning Star, and the Fortnightly 
Review, "67-82, in which appeared the germs of most of his 
works, such as On Compromise, Voltaire, 72 ; Rousseau, '73 ; 
Diderot and the Encyclopsedists '78. During his editorship 
important Freethought papers appeared in that feview. From 
May, '80 till Aug. '83 he edited the Pall Mall Gazette. Upon 
the death of Ashton Dilke, M.P., he was elected to Parliament 
for Newcastle, and in Feb. 86 was appointed by Mr. Gladstone 
Chief Secretary for Ireland. 


Morselli (Enrico Agostino), Italian doctor and scientist, b. 
Modena, 1852. Has written many anthropological works, 
notably one on Suicide in the International Scientific Series, 
and a study on " The Religion of Mazzini." He edits the 
Rivista di Filosojia Scientijico, and has translated Herbert 
Spencer on the past and future of religion. 

Mortillet (Louis Laurent Gabriel de), French scientist, b. 
Meylan (Isere), 29 Aug. 1821, and was educated by Jesuits. 
Condemned in '49 for his political writings he took refuge in 
Switzerland. He has done much to promote prehistoric studies 
in France. Has written Materials to sei^e for the positive and 
philosopliical history of mart, '64. Tlie Sign of the Cross before 
Christianity, '66, Contribution to the History of Superstition, and 
Prehistoric Antiquity of Man, '82. He contributed to the /tfi'we 
Irdependante, Pensee Nouvelle, etc. M. de Mortillet is curator 
of the Museum of St. Germain and was elected Deputy in 1885. 

Moss (Arthur B.), lecturer and writer, b. 8 May, 1855. Has 
written numerous pamphlets, a number of which are collected 
in Waves of Freethought, '85. Others are Nature and the 
Godi, Man and the Lower Animals, 2 wo Revelations, etc. Mr. Moss 
has been a contributor to the Secular Chronicle, Secular Review 
Freethinker, Iruthseeker, and other journals, and has had a 
written debate on " Was Jesus God or Man." A School Board 
officer, he was for a time prohibited from lecturing on Sunday. 
A collection of his Lectures and Essays has been published, 1889. 

Mothe Le Vayer. See La Mothe Le Vayer. 

Mott (Lucre tia), American reformer, wee Coffin, b. Nantucket, 
3 Jan. 1793. She was a Quakeress, but on the division of the 
Society in 1827 went with the part}^ who preferred conscience 
to revelation. A strong opponent of slavery, she took an 
active part in the abolitionist movement. She was delegated 
to the World's Anti-slavery Convention in London in 1840, but 
excluded on account of her sex. A friend of Mrs. Rose and 
Mrs. Stanton. Took an active part in Women's Rights conven- 
tions. Died at Philadelphia, 11 Nov. 1880. 

Muhammad ibn al Hudail al Basri, philosopher of Asia 
Minor, founder of the Muhammadan Freethiuking sect of 
Mutazilah, b. about 757. Died about 849. 

Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Tar khan (Abu Nasi.) 

;See Alpharabius. 

Muhammad Ibu Yahya Ibu Bajjat. See Avempace. 

Muhammad Jalal ed din. See Akbar. 

Muller (Dr. H. C.) Dutch writer, b. 31 Oct. 1855. Has con- 
tributed good articles to fh Dageraad (the Daybreak), and is 
now teacher of modern Greek at the University of Amsterdam. 

Murger (Henri), French author, b. Paris, 1822, contributed 
to the Recne des Devx Mondes, tales poems and dramas. In his 
poem Le Testament in " Winter Nights " he says in answer to 
the inquiring priest "Reponds lui que j'ai lu Voltaire." His 
most popular work is entitled Scenes of Bohemian Life. Died 
Paris, 28 Jan. 1861. 

Musset (Louis Charles Alfred de), French poet, b. Paris, 1 1 
Nov. 1810. Before the age of twenty he became one of the 
leaders of the Romantic school. His prose romance. Confession 
■d^iin Enfant du Si<de^ '36, exhibits his intellectual develop- 
ment and pessimistic moods. Among his finest Avorks are four 
poems entitled Nuits, He contributed to the Revue des Deux 
Mondes, and was admitted into the Academy in '52. Died at 
Paris 1 May, 1857. 

Naber (Samuel Adriaan), learned Dutch writer, b. Graven- 
hage, 16 July, 1828. Studied at Leyden and became rector of 
the Haarlem gymnasium, and head teacher at the Amsterdam 
Athenaeum. He has edited a journal of literature, and is joint 
author with Dr. 'A. Pierson of Verisimilia (1886), a Latin work 
showing the fragmentary and disjointed character of the 
Epistles attributed to Paul. 

Nachtigal (Gnstav.), Dr., German traveller, b. Eichstadt, 23 
Feb. 1834. He studied medicine, went to Algiers and Tunis, 
became private physician to the Bey of Tunis, explored North 
Africa, and wrote an account thereof, Sahara und Sudan. He 
became German Consul General at Tunis, and died 20 April, 

Naigeou (Jacques Andre), French atheist, b. Dijon 1728 

At first an art student, he became a disciple and imitator of 

Diderot. He became capyist to and collaborator with Holbach 

and conveyed his works to Amsterdam to be printed. He 



contributed to the Encyclopedie, notably the articles ame and 
UNiTAiiiES and composed the Militaire Philosoplie, or difficulties 
on religion proposed to Father Malebranche, 1768. This was 
his first work, the Ij-st chapter being written by Holbach. He 
took some share in several of the works of that writer, notably 
in the Theoloqie Portative. He published the Recueil Philoso- 
phi(/ue,2 vols., Londres (Amst.), 1770 ; edited Holbach's Essay on 
Prejudices and his Morale Universelle, He also edited the 
works of Diderot, the essays of Montaigne and a translation of 
Toland's philosophical letters. His principal work is the 
Dictionary of Ancient and Modern VhiXo^o^hy in t\\Q Encyclopedie 
Methodique (Paris 1791-94.) He addressed the National 
Assembly on Liberty of Opinion, 1790, and asked them to with- 
hold the name of God and religion from their declaration of the 
rights of man. Naigeon was of estimable character. Died 
at Paris, 28 Feb. 1810. 

Naquet (Joseph Alfred). French materialist, b. Carpentras^ 
6 Oct. 1834, became MD. in '59. In '67 he received fifteen 
months imprisonment for belonging to a secret society. He 
founded, with M. Regnard, the Revue Encyclopedique , which was 
suppressed at once for containing an attack on theism. In 
'69 he issued a work on Religion, Property, and Family^ which 
was seized and the author condemned to four months imprison- 
ment, a fine of five hundred francs, and the perpetual interdict 
of civil rights. He represented Yaucluse in the National 
Assembly, where he has voted with the extreme left. He was 
re-elected in '81. The new law of divorce in France has been 
passed chiefly through M. Naquet's energetic advocacy. In 
'83 he was elected to the Senate, and of late has distinguished 
himself by his advocacy of General Boulanger. 

Nascimento (Francisco Manuel do). Portugese poet, b. 
Lisbon, 23 Dec, 1734. He entered the Church, but having 
translated Moliere's Tartuffe, was accused of heresy (1778), and 
had to fly for his life from the Inquisition. He wrote many 
poems and satires under the name of *' Filinto Elysio." Died 
2S Feb. 1819. 

Navez (Napoleon), Belgian Freethinker, president of La 
Libre Pensee, of Antwerp, and active member of the Council of 
the International Federation of Freethinkers. 


Nelson (Gustave), a writer in the New York Truthseeker, 
conjectured to be the author of Bible Myths and their Parallels 
in other Religions, a large and learned work, showing how much 
of Christianity has been taken from Paganism. 

Newcomb (Simon), LL.D., American astronomer, b. Wallace, 
(Nova Scotia), 12 March, 1835. Went to the United States in 
'53, and was appointed coraputor on the Nautical Almanack. 
In '77 he became senior professor of mathematics in the U. S. 
nav}'. He has been associated with the equipment of the Lick 
observatory, and has written many works on mathematics and 
astronomy, as well as Principles of Political Economy, 1885. 

Newman (Francis William) brother of Cardinal Newman, 
b. London 1805. Educated at Oxford, he was elected to a 
fellowship at Balliol College '26, but resigned in '30, being 
unable conscientiously to comply with the regulations of the 
Test Act then in force. He then went to Bagdad with the 
object of assisting in a Christian mission, but his further 
studies convinced him he could not conscientiously undertake 
the work. He returned to England and became classical 
teacher in Bristol College, and subsequently Latin Professor 
at London University. In The Soul: its Sorrows and Aspirations, 
'49, he states his Theistic position, and in Phases of Faith, '50, 
he explains how he came to give up Christianity. He has also 
written A History of the Hebrew Monarchy, '47, Theism: Doctrinal 
and Practical, '58, and a number of Scott's tracts on the Defec- 
tive Morality of the New Testament, the Historical Deprava- 
tion of Christianity, the Religious Weakness of Protestantism, 
«tc. Also Religion not History, '77 ; What is Christianity without 
Christ? '81; Christianity in its Cradle, '84; and Life after 
Death, '86. 

Neymann (Clara), German American Freethought lecturess, 
friend and colleague of Frau Hedwig Henrich Wilhelmi. 

Nicholson (William), English writer on chemistry and 
natural philosophy, b. London 1753. He went to India at an 
early age, and upon returning settled at London as a Mathe- 
matical teacher. He published useful introductions to 
chemistry and natural philosophy. Conducted the British 
Encyclopedia, and the Journal of Natural Philosophy. He 
also wrote ^he Doubts of the Infdels, submitted to the Bench of 


Bishops by a weak Christian, 1781, a work republished by 
Carlile and also by Watson. He died in poor circumstances 21 
May, 1815. 

Nicolai (Ohristoph Friedrich), Grerman writer, b. Berlin, 18 
March, 1733. A friend of Lessing, and Moses Mendelssohn ; 
he was noted for founding " The Universal German Library."' 
He wrote anecdotes of Friedrich II., and many other works. 
Died at Berlin, 8 Jan. 1811. 

Nietzsche (Friedrich Wilhelra), German writer, b. Lntzen, 
15 Oct. 1844, author of sketches of Strauss, Schopenhauer, and 
Wagner, and of MorgennitTic , and other philosophical works. 
Died 1889. 

Nieuwenhuis (Ferdinand Jakob Domela), Dutch publicist, 
b. Utrecht, 3 May, 1848. At first a minister of the Lutheran 
church, on Nov. 25, '77, he told his congregation that he had 
ceased to believe in Christianitj^, and as an honest man resigned. 
He then contributed ioDe Banicr (Banner) de Dageraad (Dawn) 
and de Vragen des Tijds (questions of th-e time.) On 1st March, 
'79 he started a Socialist paper Recht voor Allen, now an import- 
ant daily organ of Socialism and Freethought. His principle 
writings are— With Jesus, For or against Socialism, The Religious 
Oath Question, The Religion of Reason, The Religion of Humanitg. 
On Jan. 19, '87, he was sentenced to one years' solitary confine- 
ment for an article he had not written, and was harshly treated 
till upon pressure of public opinion, he was liberated 30 
Aug. 1887. He is now member of the Dutch Parliament. 

Noeldeke (Theodor), German Orientalist, b. Harburg, 
2 March, 1836. Studied at Gottingen, Vienna, Leyden, and 
Berlin, and has been professor of oriental studies at Gottingen, 
Kiel, and Strasburg. He has written a History of the Koran, 
'56; di Life of Mahomet, '63; and a Literary History of the Old 
Testament, which has been translated into French by MM. 
Derembourg and J. Soury, '73. 

Noire (Ludwig), German monist, b. 26 March, 1829. Studied 
at Geissen, and became a teacher at Mainz. His works show 
the influence of Spinoza and Schopenhauer. He is the author 
of Aphorisms on the Monist philosophy, '77, and a work on the 
Origin of Speech, '77. He contends that language originates in 


instinctive sounds accompanying will in associative actions. 
Died 26 March, 1889. 

Noortlioack (John), author of a History of London, 1773, 
and an Historical and Classical Dictionary, 1776. Has been 
credited with the Life of the Man After God's Own Heart. See 

Nordau (Max Simon), b. of Jewish parents at Pcstb, 29 July, 
1849. He became a physician in '73. He has written several 
books of travels and made some noise by his trenchant work 
on Convential Lies of our Civilisation. He has since written on 
The Sickness of the Century. 

Nork (Felix). See Korn (Selig). 

Nott (Josiah Clark), Dr., American ethnologist, b. Columbia, 
South Carolina, 24 March, 1804. He wrote 2he Physical 
History of the Jewish Race, Types oj Mankind, '54, and Indigenous 
Races of the Earth, '55 ; the last two conjointly with G. R. 
Gliddon, and with the object of disproving the iheory of the 
unity of the human race. Died at Mobile, 31 March, 1873. 

Noun (Paul), French author of The Scientific Errors of the 
Bible, 1881. 

Noyes (Thomas Herbert), author of H-jmns of Modern Man, 

Nunez (Rafael), President of Columbia, b. Carthagena, 
28 Sept. 1825. He has written many poems and political 
articles, and in philosophy is a follower of Mill and Spencer. 

Nuytz (Louis Andre). See Andre-Nuytz. 

Nystrom (^Anton Christen^, Dr. Swedish Positivist, b. 15 
Feb. 1842. Studied at Upsala and became a medical doctor in. 
Lund, '68. He served as assistant and field doctor in the 
Dano-Prussian war of '67, and now practises as alienist in 
Stockholm, where he has established a Positivist Society and 
Workmen's Institute. Has written a History of Civiliscdion. 

Ocellus Lucanus, early Greek philosopher, who maintained 
the eternity of the cosmos. An edition of his Avork was- 
published with a translation by the Marquis d'Argens, and 
Thomas Taylor published an English version. 

OcMno (Bernardino Tommasini), Italian reformer, b. Sienna, 
1487. A popular preacher, he was chosen general of the 
Capuchins. Converted to the Reformation by Jean Valdez, he 


had to fly to Geneva, 1542. Invited to England by Cranraer, 
he became prebend of Canterbury and preached in London 
until the accession of Mary, when he was expelled and went 
to Zurich. Here he became an Antitrinitarian, and was 
banished about 1562 for Thirty Dialogues^ in one of which he 
shows that neither in the Bible nor the Fathers is there any 
express prohibition of polygamy. He went to Poland and 
joined the Socinians, was banished thence also, and died 
Slaukau, Moravia, in 1564. Beza ascribes the misfortunes of 
Ochinus, and particularly the accidental death of his wife, to 
the special interposition of God on account of his erroneous 

O'Connor (Arthur, afterwards Condorcet), General, b. 
Mitchells, near Bandon (Cork), 4 July, 1768. Joined the 
United Irishmen and went to France to negotiate for military 
aid. In May 1798 he was tried for treason and acquitted. He 
entered the French service and rose to distinction. In 1807 he 
married Elisa, the only daughter of Condorcet, whose name he 
took, and whose works he edited. He also edited the Journal 
of Religious Freedom. Died at Bignon, 25 April, 1852. 

O'Donoghue (Alfred H.) Irish American counsellor at law, 
b. about 1840. Educated for the Episcopal ministry at Trinity 
College, Dublin, but became a sceptic and published Theology 
and Mythology, an inquiry into the claims of Biblical inspiration 
and the supernatural element in religion, at New York, 1880. 

Oest (Johann Heinrich) German poet, b. Cassel 1727. Wrote 
poems published at Hamburg, 1751, and was accused of 

OfFen (Benjamin), American Freethinker, b. in England, 
1772. He emigrated to New York, where he became lecturer 
to the Society of Moral Philantropists at Tammany Hall. He 
wrote Biblical Criticism and ^4 Legacy to the Friends of Free Dis- 
cussion, and supported the Correspondent, Free Inquirer, and 
Boston Investigator. Died New York, 12 May, 1818. 

Offray de la Mettrie (Julian). See Lamettrie. 

O'Keefe (J. A ), M.D. Educated in Germany ; author of 
an essay On the Progress of the Human Understanding, 1795, in 
which he speaks disparagingly of Christianity. He was a 
241 o 


follower of Kant, and was classed wkh Living Authors of Great 
Britain in 1816. 

O'Kelly (Edmund de Pentheny), a descendant of the 
O'Kelly's; anthor of Comcioasnesss, or the Age of Reason^ 1853 • 
Theological Papers, published by Holyoake; and Theology for 
the People, '55, a series of short papers suggestive of religious 

Oken (Lorenz), German morphologist and philosopher, b. 
Offenburg, 2 Aug. 1779. He studied at Gottingen and became 
a privat-doceut in that university. In a remarkable Sketch of 
Natural Philosophy, 1802, he advanced a scheme of evolution. 
He developed his system in a work on Generation, 1805, and a 
Manual of Natural Philosophy , 1809. He was professor at Jena, 
but dismissed for his liberal views. From '17 till '48 he edited 
the scientific journal Isis. In '32 he became a professor at 
Ziirich, where he died, 11 Aug. 1851. 

Oliver (William), M.D., of Bath, who was accused of 
Atheism. Died 1764. 

Omar Khayyam. See Khayyam. 

Omboni (Giovanni), Lombard naturalist, b. Abbiategrasso, 
29 June, 1829. Is professor of geology at Padua, and author 
of many scientific works. 

Onimus (Ernest Nicolas Joseph), Dr., French Positivist, b. 
near Mulhouse, 6 Dec. 1840. Studied medicine at Strasburg 
and Paris, and wrote a treatise on Jhe Dynamical Theory of 
Heat in Biological Sciences, 1866. In '73 he was one of the jury 
of the Vienna Exhibi tion, and obtained the Cross of the Legion 
of Honor. Is author of the Psychology in the Plays of Shake- 
spere, '78, and has written in the Revue Positive and other 

Oort (Henricus), Dutch rationalist, b. Eemnes, 27 Dec. 1836. 
Studied theology at Leyden, and became teacher at Amsterdam. 
Hys written many works, of which we mention The Worship 
of Baalim in Israel, translated by Bp. Colenso, 1865, and The 
Bible jor Young People, written with Drs. Hooykaas and Kuenen> 
and translated by P. H. Wickstead, 1873-79. 

Orelli ( Johann Kaspar von), learned Swiss critic, b. Ziinch, 
13 Feb. 1789. Edited many classics, and wrote a letter in 


favor of Strauss at the time when there was an outcry at his 
being appointed Professor at Ziirich. Died 6 Jan. 1849. 

Osborne (Francis), English writer, b. Clucksand, Beds. 1589 
Was an adherent of Cromwell in the Civil War. His A-hice to 
a Son, 1656, was popular though much censured by the Puritans 
•who drew up a complaint against his works and proposed to 
have them burnt, and an order was passed 27 July, 1658, for- 
bidding them to be sold. Died 1659. 

Oscar (L.), Swiss writer, author of Religion Traced Back to 
its Source, Basel, 1874. He considers religion "a belief in 
conflict with experience and resting on exaggerated fancies " of 
animism and mythology. One of his chapters is entitled "The 
Crucifixion of the Son of God as Christian mythology." 

Ossoli (Countess d'). See Fuller (Margaret). 

Oswald (Eugen), German teacher in England. Author of 
many popular school books, and a Study of Positivism in 
England, 1884. 

Oswald (Felix Leopold), American writer, b. Belgium, 1845. 
Educated as a physician, he has devoted his attention to 
natural history, and in pursuit of his studies has travelled 
extensively. He has contributed to the Popular Science Monthly, 
The Truthseeker and other journals, and has published Summer- 
land Skctchef!, or Rambles in the Backwoods of Mexico and 
Central America, '81 ; Physical Education, '82 ; The Secrets of 
the East, '83, which argues that Christianity is derived from 
Buddhism, and The Bible of Nature or the Principles of 
Secularism, '88. Dr. Oswald is now employed as Curator of 
Natural History in Brazil. 

O'Toole (Adam Duff), Irish Freethought martyr, burnt to 
death at Hogging (now College) Green, Dublin, in 1327. 
Holinshed says he " denied obstinatelie the incarnation of our 
savior, the trinitie of persons in the vnitie of the Godhead 
and the resurrection of the flesh ; as for the Holie Scripture, 
he said it was but a fable ; the Virgin Marie he affirmed to be a 
woman of dissolute life, and the Apostolike see erronious." 

" Ouida," See Ramee (Louise de la). 

Ouvry (Henry Aime), Col., translator of Feuchterslebens, 
Dietetics of the Soul and Rau's Unsectarian Catechism, and author 
of several works on the land question. 


Overton (Ricliard), English Republican, who wrote a satire 
on relics, 1642, and a treatise on Man s Mortality (London, 1643, 
Amstel-dam, 1644) a work designed to show man is naturally 

Owen (Robert), social reformer, b. Newton, Montgomeryshire, 
Wales, 14 March, 1771. At 18 he was so distinguished by his 
business talents that he became partner in a cotton mill. In 
1797 he married the daughter of David Dale, and soon after- 
wards became partner and sole manager at New Lanark Mills, 
where he built the first infant schools and improved the dwel- 
lings of the workmen. From 1810-15 he published Neiv Views 
on Society, or, Essays on the Formation of Character. In '17 
he caused much excitement by proclaiming that the religions 
of the world were all false, and that man was the cre-ature of 
circumstances. In '24 he went to America and purchased New 
Harmon}", Indiana, from the Rappists to found a new com- 
munity, but the experiment was a failure, as were also others 
at Orbiston, Laner, and Queenswood, Hants. In '28 he debated 
at Cincinatti with Alex. Campbell on the Evidences of Chris- 
tianity. He published a numerous series of tracts, Robert 
Owens Journal , and The New Moral World, '35. He debated 
on his Social Systom M'ith the Rev. J. H. Roebuck, R. Brindley,. 
etc. As his mind began to fail he accepted the teachings of 
S'piritism. Died Newton, 17 Nov. 1858. Owen profoundly 
influenced the thought of his time in the direction of social 
amelioration, and he is justly respected for his energy, integrity 
and disinterested philanthropy. 

Owen (Robert Dale), son of the above, b. Glasgow 9 Nov, 
1800. Was educated by his father till 1820, when he was sent 
to Fellenberg's school, near Berne, Switzerland. In '25 h& 
went to America to aid in the efforts to found a colony at New 
Harmony, Indiana. On the failure of that experiment he began 
with Frances Wright, in Nov. '28, the publication of the Free 
Inquirer, which was continued till '32. In that year he had a 
written discussion with 0. Bachelor on the existence of God^ 
and the authenticity of the Bible, in which he ably championed 
the Freethought cause. He wrote a number of tracts of which 
we mention Situations, 1839; Address on Free Inquiry, 1840; 
Prossimo's Experience, Consistency, Galileo and the Inquisition^ 


He was elected to Congress in '43. After fifteen years of 
labor lie secured the women of Indiana independent rights of 
property. He became charge d'affaires at Xaples in '53. 
During the civil war he strongly advocated slave emancipation. 
Like his father he became a Spiritualist. Died at Lake 
George, 17 June, 1877. 

Paalzow (Christian Ludwig), German jurist, b. Osterburg 
(Altmark), 26 Nov. 1753, translated Voltaire's commentaries on 
The Spirit of the Laws and Burigny's Examination of the 
Apologists of Christiamty (Leipzic, 1793), and wrote a History of 
Beligious Cruelty (Mainz, 1800). Died 20 May, 1824. 

Paepe fCesar de). See De Paepe. 

Pagano (Francisco Mario Saverio Antonio Carlo Pasquale). 
Italian jurist, philosopher and patriot, b. Brienza, 1748. He 
studied at Naples, and became the friend of Filangieri. Was 
made professor of criminal law in 1787. For his Political Essays 
in three volumes (1783-92) he was accused of Atheism and 
impiety. He wrote on Criminal Process and a work on God and 
Nature. Taking part in the Provisional Government of the 
Neapolitan Eepublic in 1791, he was taken prisoner by the 
royalists and executed 6 Oct. 1800. 

Page (David). Scotch geologist, b. 29 Aug. 1814. Author 
of introductory and advanced text-books of geology, which 
went through many editions. He gave advanced lectures in 
Edinburgh, and edited Life Lights of Song, '64. JHis Man 
Whfve, Whince,and Whither?, '67, advocating Darwinian views, 
made some stir in Scotland. He became professor of geology 
at Durham University. A friend of Eobert Chambers, he was 
for some time credited with that writer's Vestiges of Creation, 
in the scientific details of which he assisted. Died at New- 
castle on-Tyne, 9 March, 1879. 

Paget (Violet^. English authoress, who, under the pen- 
name of " Vernon Lee," has written Studies of the Eighteenth 
Century in Italy and Baldwin, dialogues on views and aspirations 
1886. Sin^e '71 she has lived chiefly in Florence, and contri- 
butes to the principal reviews, an article in the Contemporary 
(May '83) on " Responsibilities of Unbelief " being particularly 
noticeable. Miss Paget's writings show a cultivated mind and 
true literary instinct. 


Fag^eze (L.) French Socialist; has written on the Concordat 
and the Budget des Cultes, '86, Separation of Church and 
State, '87, etc. 

Paine (Thomas), Deist, b. Thetford, Norfolk, 29 Jan., 1737 
His father was a Quaker and staymaker, and Paine was 
brought up to the trade. He left home while still young, went 
to London and Sandwich, where he married the daughter of a 
an exciseman, and entered the excise. He was selected by his 
official associates to embod}' their wants in a paper, and on 
this work he displayed such talent that Franklin, then in Lon- 
don, suggested America as a good field for his abilities. Paine 
went in 1771, and soon found work for his pen. He became 
editor of the Penmylvanian Mayuzinc and contributed to the 
Pennsylvanian journal a strong anti-slavery essay. Com- 
mon Sense,- published early in 1776, advocating absolut® 
independence for America, did more than anything else to 
precipitate the great events of that year. Each number of the 
Crisis, which appeared during the war, was read by Washing- 
ton's order to each regiment in the service. Paine subscribed 
largely to the army, and served for a short time himself. After 
peace was declared, congress voted him three thousand dollars, 
and the state of New York gave liim a large farm. Paine 
turned his attention to mechanics, and invented the tubular 
iron bridge, which he endeavored to introduce in Europe. 
Reaching France during the Revolution, he published a 
pamphlet advocating the abolition of royalty. In 1791 he 
published his Rights of Man, in reply to Burke. For 
this he was outlawed. Escaping from England, he went to 
France, where he was elected to the Convention. He stoutly 
opposed the execution of the king, and was thrown by Robes- 
pierre into the Luxembourg prison, where for nearly a year he 
awaited the guillotine. During this time he wrote the first 
part of the Aye of Reason, which he completed on his release. 
This famous book, though vulnerable in some minor points 
of criticism, throws a flood of light on Christian dogmas, and 
has had a more extended sale than any other Freethought work. 
As a natural consequence, Paine has been an object of incessant 
slander by the clergy. Paine died at New York 8 June, 1809, 
and, by his own direction was buried on his farm at New 


Roclielle. Cobbett is said to have disinterred him and brought 
his bones to England. 

Pajot (Francois). See Liniere. 

Paleario (Aonio), «e., Antonio, della Paglia, Italian humanist 
and martyr, b. about 1500 at Veroli in the Roman Campagna. 
In 1520 he went to Rome and took place among the brilliant men 
of letters of court of Leo X. After the taking of Rome by 
Charles V. he retired to Sienna. In 1536 he published at 
Lyons an elegant Latin poem on the Mortality of the Soul — 
modeled on Lucretius. He was Professor of Eloquence at 
Milan for ten years, but was accused of heresy. He had called 
the Inquisition a poignard directed against all men of letters. 
On 3 July, 1570, he was hung and his body thrown into the 
flames. A work on the Benefit of Christ's Death has been 
attributed to him on insufficient grounds. It is attributed to 
Benedetto da Mantova. 

Pallas (Peter Simon), German naturalist and traveller, b. 
Berlin, 22 Sept. 1741. Educated as a ph3'sician at Gottingen 
and Leyden, he was invited by Catherine II. to become 
Professor of Natural History at St. Petersburg. He travelled 
through Siberia and settled in the Crimea. In 1810 he re- 
turned to Berlin, where he died 8 Sept. 1811. Lalande spoke 
highly of him, and Cuvier considered him the founder of 
modern geology. 

Pallavicino (Ferrante), Italian poet and wit, b. Piacenza 
1616. He became a canon of the Late ran congregation, but for 
composing some satirical pieces against Pope Urban VIII. had 
a price set on his head. He fled to Venice, but a false friend 
betrayed him to the Inquisition, and he was beheaded at 
Avignon, 5 March, 1644. 

Palmer (Courtlandt), American reformer, b. New York, 25 
March, 1843, graduated at the Columbia law-school in '69 
He was brought up in the Dutch Reformed Church, but became 
a Freethinker while still young. Mr. Palmer did much to 
promote Liberal ideas. In '80 he established and became 
President of the Nineteenth Century Club, ^r the utmost liberty 
of public discussion. He contributed to the Freethinker's Maxjn^ 
zinCy Truthseeker, etc. A sister married Prof. Draper with whom 
he was intimate. Died at New York, 23 July, 1888, and was 


cremated at Fresli Pond, his friend Col. R. G. IngersoU 
delivering an eiilogium. 

Palmer (Elihu), American author, b. Canterbury, Connecticut, 
1764. He graduated at Dartmouth in 1787, and studied 
divinity but became a deist in 1791. In 179.3 he became 
totally blind from an attack of yellow fever. In 1797 he 
lectured to a Deistical Society in New York. After this 
he dictated his Principles of Nature, 1802, a powerful anti- 
Christian work, reprinted by Carlile in '19. He also wrote 
Prospect or View of the Moral World from the year 1804. 
Palmer was the head of the Society of Columbian Illuminati 
founded in New York in 1801. He died in Philadelphia, 
7 April, 1806 

Panaetius (HavatTtos)^ Stoic philosopher, b. Rhodes, a pupil 
of Diogenes the Stoic, and perhaps of Carneades. About 
150 B.C. he visited Rome and taught a moderate stoicism, 
denying the doctrine of the conflagration of the world, and 
placing physics before dialectics. He wrote a work On Duties, 
to which Cicero expresses his indebtedness in his De Officiis. 
Died in Athens 111 B.C. 

Pancoucke (Charles Joseph), eminent French publisher, b. 
Lille, 26 Nov. 1736. He settled at Paris and became acquainted 
with d'Alembert, Garat, etc., and was a correspondent of 
Rousseau, Buffon and Voltaire, whose works he brought out. 
He translated Lucretius, 1768, brought out the Mercure de 
France, projected in 1781 the imiwrtant Encycloptdie Methodique, 
of which there are 166 vols., and founded the Moniteur, 1789. 
Died at Paris, 19 Dec. 1798. 

Pantano (Eduardo), Italian author of a little book on the 
Sicilian Vespers and the Commune, Catania, 1882. 

PapiUon (J. Henri Fernand), French philosophic writer, b. 
Belfort, 5 June, 1847. He wrote an Introduction to Chemical 
Philosophy, '65 ; contributed to the Pievue de Philosophic Pontive 
and the Revue des Deux Mondes. His principle work is entitled 
Nature and Life, "73. Died at Paris 31 Dec. 1873. 

Paquet (Henri Remi Rene), French writer, b. Charleville, 
29 Sep. 1845. After studying under the Jesuits he went to 
Paris, where he became an advocate, but devoted his main 


attention to literature. Under the anagram of " Neree Quepat " 
he has published La Lorgnette Philoxophique, 72. a dictionary of 
the great and little philosophers of our time, a study of La 
Mettrie entitled Materialist Philosophy in the Eighteenth Cerdury 
^nd other works. 

Pare (William), Owenite Social reformer, b. Birmingham 
1805. Wrote an abridgment of Thompson's Distribution of 
Wealthy also works on Capital and Labor '54, Co-operative 
Agriculture, at Rahaline, '70, etc. He compiled vol. 1 of the 
Biography of Robert Owen. Died at Croydon, 18 June. 1873. 

Parfait (Noel), French writer and politician, b. Chartres, 
50 Nov. 1814. Took part in the revolution of '30, and wrote 
many radical brochures. After the coup d'etat he took refuge 
in Belgium. In '71 was elected deputv and sat on the extreme 

Parfait (Paul), son of the foregoing, b. Paris, 1841. Author 
of L' Arsenal de la Devotion, '76, Notes to serve for a history of 
superstition, and a supplement Le Dossier des Pelerinages, '77, 
and other pieces. Died 1881. 

Parisot (Jean Patrocle), a Frenchman who wrote La Foy 
■devoiltepar la raison, 1681 [Faith Unveiled by Reason], a work 
whose title seems to have occasioned its suppression. 

Parker (Theodore), American rationalist, b. Lexington, 
Mass., 24 Aug. 1810. From his father — a Unitarian — he in- 
herited independence of mind, courage, and love of speculation. 
Brought up in povert}^ he studied hard, and acquired a Univer- 
sity education while laboring on the farm. In March, '31, he 
became an assistant teacher at Boston. In June, '37, he was 
ordained Unitarian minister. Parker gradually became known 
as an iconoclast, and study of the German critics made him a 
complete rationalist, so ihat even the Unitarian body rejected 
him. A society was established to give him a hearing in 
Boston, and soon his fame was established. His Discourse on 
Matters Pertaining to Religion, '47, exhibited his fundamental 
views. He translated and enlarged De Wette's Critical Intro- 
duction to the Old Testament. A fearless opponent of the 
Fugitive Slave Law, he sheltered slaves in his own house. 
Early in '59 failing health compelled him to relinquish his 


duties. Died at Florence, 10 May, 1860. He bequeathed his- 
library of 13,000 volumes to the Boston Public Library. 

Parmenides, a Greek philosopher, b. Elea, Italy, 518 b.c». 
Is said to have been a disciple of Xenophanes. He developed 
his philosophy about 470 B.C. in a didactic poem On Nahu^e,. 
fragments of which are preserved by Sextus Empiricus. He 
held to Eeason as our guide, and considered nature eternal. 

Parny (Evariste Desire de Forges de). Viscount. French 
poet, b. St. Paul, Isle of Bourbon, 6 Feb. 1753. Educated in 
France, he chose the military profession. A disappointed pas- 
sion for a Creole inspired his " Amatory Poems," and he after- 
wards wrote the audacious Wai- of the Gods, Paradise Lost, and 
The Gallantries of the Bible. His poems, though erotic, are full 
of elegant charm, and he has been named the French TibuUus. 
He was admitted into the French Academy in 1803. Died at 
Paris, 5 Dec. 1814. 

Parton (James), author, b. Canterbury, England, 9 Feb. 
1822. Was taken to the United States when a child and edu- 
cated at New York. He married Miss Willis, " Fannie Fern," 
and has written many biographies, including Lives of Thomas 
Jefferson, '74, and of Voltaire, '81. He has also written on 
Topics of the lime, '71, and Church Taxation. He resided in 
New York till '75 when he removed to Newburyport, Massa- 

Parvish (Samuel), Deistic author of An Inquiry into the 
Jewish and Christian Revelation (London, 1739), of which a 
second edition was issued in 1746. 

Pasquier (Etienne). French journalist, b. 7 April, 1529, at 
Paris, Brought up to the bar he became a successful pleader.. 
He defended the Universities against the Jesuits, whom he 
also attacked in a bitter satire, Catechisme dcs Jesuites. Died 
Paris, 30 Aug. 1615. 

Passerano (Alberto RADicAxidi) co'/w^. Italian philosopher 
of last century, attached to the court of Victor Amedee II.. 
For some pamphlets written against the Papal power he was 
pursued by the Inquisition and his goods seized. He lived in 
England and madetheacquaintanceof Collins, also in France and 
Holland, where he died about 1736, leaving his goods to the 
poor. In that year he published at Rotterdam Recite il de Pitce& 


tiirieui^es mr Jes matieres les plus inter essanUs, etc, which contains 
a Parallel between Mahomet and Sosem (anagram of Moses), an 
abridged history of the Sacerdotal Profession^ and a Faithful and 
comic recital of the religion of modern cannibals^ by Zelin Moslem ; 
also a Dissertation upon Death, which was published separately 
in 1733. The Recueil was republished at London in 1749. He 
also wrote a pretended translation from an Arabic work on 
Mohammedanism, satirising the Bible, and a pretended sermon 
by El wall the Quaker. 

Pasteur (Louis). French scientist b. Dole, 27 Dec 1822, 
became doctor in '47 and professor of physic at Strassburg in 
'48. He received the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 
'56 for his discoveries in polarisation and molecular chemistry. 
Decorated with the Legion of honor in '53, he was made com- 
mander '68 and grand officer '78. His researches into innocu- 
lation have been much contested, but his admirers have raised 
a large institute for the prosecution of his treatment. He was 
elected to the Academy as successor of Littre. He gave his 
name as Vice-President of the British Secular Union. 

Pastoret (Claude Emmanuel Joseph Pierre de), Mai-quis,. 
French statesman and writer, b. of noble family at Marseilles, 
25 Oct. 1756. Educated by the Oratorians at Lyons, in 1779 
he published an EUge de Voltaire. B3' his works on Zoroaster,, 
Confucius and Mahomet (1787) and on Moses Considered as Legis- 
lator and Moralist (1788) he did something for the infant science 
of comparative religion. His principal work is a learned 
History 0/ Legislation, in II vols. (1817— 37), in which he passes 
in review all the ancient codes. He embraced the Revolution, 
and became President of the Legislative Assembly (3 Oct. 1791). 
He proposed the erection of the Column of July on the Place 
of the Bastille, and the conversion of the church of Ste 
Genevieve into the Pantheon. On the 19th June, 1792, he pre- 
sented a motion for the complete separation of the state from 
religion. He fled during the Terror, but returned as deputy in 
1795. In 1820 he succeeded his friend Volney as member of 
the French Academy, in '23 received the cross of the Legion 
of Honor, and in '29 became Chancellor of France. Died at 
Paris, 28 Sept. 1840. 

Pater (Walter Horatio), English writer, b. London, 4 Aug* 


1839. B.A. at Oxford in '62, M.A. in '65. Has written charming 
essays in the Westminster Revieiv, Macmillan^ and the Fortnightly 
Review. In '73 he published The Renaissance, and in '85 Marias 
the hjiicurean, His Sensations and ideas. 

Paterson (Thomas), b. near Lanark early in this century. 
After the imprisonment of Southwell and Holyoake he edited 
the Oracle oj Reason. For exhibiting profane placards he was 
arrested and sentenced 27 Jan. 1843 to three months' imprison- 
ment. His trial was reported under the title God v. Paterson 
('43.) He insisted on considering God as the plaintiff and 
in quoting from " the Jew book " to show the plaintiff's bad 
character. When released he went to Scotland to uphold the 
right of free publication, and was sentenced 8 Nov. '43 to 
fifteen months' imprisonment for selling "blasphemous" pub- 
lications at Edinburgh. On his release he was presented with 
a testimonial 6 April, 1845, H. Hetherington presiding. Pater- 
son went to America. 

Patin (Gui), French physician, writer, and wit, b. near Beau- 
vais 31 Aug. 1602. He became professor at the college of 
France. His reputation is chiefly founded on his Letters, in 
which he attacked superstition. Larouss^^ says *' C'etait un 
libre penseur de la famille de Rabelais." Died at Paris 30 
Aug. 1672. 

Patot. See Tyssot de Patot (S.) 

Pauw (Cornelius), learned Dutch writer, b. Amsterdam, 
1739. He wrote philosophical researches on the Americans, 
and also on the Egyptians, Chinese, and Greeks. AV'as esteemed 
b}^ Frederick the Great for his ingenuity and penetration. 
Died at Xanten, 7 July, 1799. He was the uncle of Anacharsis 

Peacock (John Macleay), Scotch poet, b. 21 March, 1817 
He wrote many poems in the National Reformer, and in '67 
published Hours of Reverie. Died 4 May, 1 77. 

Peacock or Pecock (Reginald), the father of English 
rationalism, b. about 1390, and educated at Oriel College 
Oxford, of which he was chosen fellow in 1417. Was succes- 
sively Bishop of St Asaph, 1444, and Chichester, 1450, by the 
fivor of Humphrey, the good Duke of Gloster. He declared 
that Scripture must in all cases be accommodated to ^' the 


doom of reason.'' He questioned the genuineness of the- 
Apostles' Creed. In 1457 he was accused of heresy, recanted 
from fear of martyrdom, was deprived of his bishopric, and 
imprisoned in a monastery at Canterbury, where he used to 
repeat to those who visited him, 

" Wit hath wonder, that reason cannot skan, 
How a Moder is Mayd, and God is Man." 

His books were publicly burnt at Oxford. He died in 1460. 
His influence doubtless contributed to the Reformation. 

Pearson (Karl), author of a volume of essays entitled Ihe 
Ethic of Freethouf/ht, 1888. Educated at Cambridge; B.A. '79, 
M.A. '82. 

Pechmeja (Jean de), French writer. A friend of Raynal, 
he wrote a socialistic romance in 12 books in the style of 
Telemachus, called Telephe, 1784. Died 1785. 

Peck (John), American writer in the Truthseeker. Has 
published Minicles and Miracle Workers, etc. 

Pecqueur (A.), contributor to the Rationaliste of Geneva,.. 

PeHn (Gabriel), French author of works on Spiritism Explained 
and Destroyed, 1864, and God or Science, '67. 

PeUetan (Charles Camille), French journalist and deputy,, 
son of the following; b. Paris, 23 June, 1846. Studied at the 
Lycee Louis le Grand. He wrote in La Tribune Frant^aise, and 
LeRappel, and since '80 has conducted La Justice with his friend 
Clemenceau, of whom he has written a sketch. 

PeHetan (Pierre Clement Eugene), French writer, b. Saint- 
Palais-sur-Meir, 20 Oct. 1813. As a journalist he wrote in 
La Presse, under the name of " Un Inconnu," articles distin- 
guished by their love of liberty and progress. He also contri- 
buted to the Revue des Deux Mondes. In '52 he published his 
Profession of Faith of the Nineteenth Century, and in '57 The Law 
of T*rogrcss and The Philosophical Kings. From '53-'55 he 
opposed Napoleon in the Siecle, and afterwards established 
La Tribune Frangaise. In '83 he was elected deputy, but his 
election being annulled, he was re-elected in '64. He took 
distinguished rank among the democratic opposition. After 
tht battle of Sedan he was made member of the Committee of 


National Defence, and in '76 of the Senate, of whicli he became 
vice-president in '79. In '78 he wrote a study on Frederick 
the Great entitled Un Roi Philosophe, and in '83 Is God Dead ? 
Died at Paris, 14 Dec. 1884. 

Pem'berton (Charles Eeece), English actor and author, b. 
Pontypool, S. Wales, 23 Jan. 1790. He travelled over most of 
the world and wrote The Autobiography of Pel Verjuice, which 
with other remains was published in 1843. Died 3 March, 

Pennetier (Georges), Dr., b. Rouen, 1836, Director of the 
Museum of Natural History nt Rouen. Author of a work on 
the Orgin of Life, '68, in which he contends for spontaneous 
generation. To this work F. A. Pouchet contributed a preface. 

Perfitt (Philip William), Theist, b. 1820, edited the Path- 
finder, 'bd-6l. Preached at South Place Chapel. Wrote Life 
and Teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, '61. 

Periers (Bonaventure des). See Desperiers. 

Perot (Jean Marie Albert), French banker, author of a work 
on Man and God, which has been translated into English, 1881, 
and Moral and Philosophical Allegories (Paris, 1883). 

Perrier (Edmond), French zoologist. Curator at Museum of 
Natural History, Paris, b. Tulle, 1844. Author of numerous 
^'orks on Natural History, and one on Transformisme, '88. 

Perrin (Raymond S.), American author of a bulky work on 
T'he Religion of Philosophy, or the Unification of Knowledge : a 
comparison of the chief philosophical and religious systems 
of the world, 188.5. 

Perry (Thomas Ryley), one of Carlile's shopmen, sentenced 
1824 to three years' imprisonment in Newgate for selling 
Palmer's Principles of Nature. He became a chemist at Leices- 
ter and in 1844 petitioned Parliament for the prisoners for 
blasphemy, Patersonand Roalfe, stating that his own imprison- 
ment had not fulfilled the judge's hope of his recantation. 

Petit (Claude), French poet, burnt on the Place de Greve in 
1665 as the author of some impious pieces. 

PetronitlS, called Arbiter (^TitusJ, Roman Epicurean poet at 
the Court of Nero, in order to avoid whose resentment he 
opened his veins and bled to death in a.d. 66, conversing mean- 


while with his friends on the gossip of the day. To him we 
■owe the lines on superstition, beginning '* Primus in orbe 
Beos fecit timer." Petronius is famous for his " pure Latinity." 
He is as plain-spoken as Juvenal, and with the same excuse, 
Tiis romance being a satire on Nero and his court. 

Petruccelli della Gattina (Ferdinando) Italian writer, b. 
Naples, 1816, has travelled much and written man}-^ works. 
He was deputy to the Naples Parliament in '48, and exiled after 
the reaction. 

Petrus de Abano. A learned Italian physician, b. Abano 
1250. He studied at Paris and became professor of medicine 
at Padua. He wrote many works and had a great reputation. 
He is said to have denied the existence of spirits, and to have 
ascribed all miracles to natural causes. Cited before the 
Inquisition in 1306 as a heretic, a magician and an Atheist, he 
ably defended himself and was acquitted. He was accused a 
second time but dying (1320) while the trial was preparing, he 
was condemned after death, his body disinterred and burnt, 
and he was also burnt in effigy in the public square of 

Pejrpers (H.F. A.), Dutch writer, b. De Dijp, 2 Jan. 1856, 
studied medicine, and is now M.D. at Amsterdam. He is a 
man of erudition and good natured though satirical turn of 
mind. He has contributed much to De Dageraad, and is at 
present one of the five editors of that Freethought monthly. 

Peyrard (Francois), French mathematician, b. Vial (Haute 
Loire) 1760. A warm partisan of the revolution, he was one of 
those who (7 Nov. 1793) incited Bishop Gobel to abjure his 
religion. An intimate friend of Sylvian Marechal, Peyrard 
furnished him with notes for his Dictionnaire deft Atht'es. He 
wrote a work on Nature and its Laws, 1793-4, and proposed the 
piercing of the Isthmus of Suez. He translated the works of 
Euclid and Archimedes. Died at Paris 3 Oct. 1822. 

Peyrat (Alphonse), French writer, b. Toulouse, 21 June, 
1812. He wrote in the National and la Presse, and combated 
against the Second Empire. In '65 he founded VAvenir 
National, which was several times condemned. In Feb. '71, 
he was elected deputy of the Seine, and proposed the procla- 
mation of the Republic. In '76 he was chosen senator. 


He wrote a History of the Dogma of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, '55 ; History and Religion, '58 ; Historical and Religious 
Studies^ '58 ; and an able and scholarly Elementary and Critical 
History of Jesus, '64. 

Peyrere (Isaac de la), French writer, b. Bordeaux, 1594, and 
brought up as a Protestant. He entered into the service of the 
house of Conde, and became intimate with La Mothe de Vayer 
and Gassendi. His work entitled P/'c«a(/am<7a?, 1653, in which 
he maintained that men lived before Adam, made a great sen- 
sation, and was burnt by the hangman at Paris. The bishop 
of Namur censured it, and la Peyrere was arrested at Brussels, 
1656, by order of the Archbishop of Malines, but escaped by 
favor of the Prince of Conde on condition of retracting his 
book at Rome. The following epitaph was nevertheless »iade 

on him : 

La Peyrere ici git, ce bon Israelite, 
hugenot, Catholique, enfin Pre-adamite : 
Quatre relii^ious lui plurent a la fois : 

Et son indifference etait si peu commune 
Qu'apres 80 aus qa'il eut a faiie un choix 

Le bon liomme partit, et n'en choisit pas une. 
Died near Paris, 30 Jan. 1676. 

Pfeiflf (Johan Gustaf Viktor), Swedish baron, b. Upland, 1829. 
Editor of the free religious periodical, The Truthsceker, since 
1882. He has also translated into Swedish some of the writings 
of Herbert Spencer. 

Pharmacopulo (A.P.) Greek translator ot Biichner's Force 
and Matter, and corresponding member of the International 
Federation of Freethinkers. 

Phillips (Sir Richard), industrious English writer, b. 
London, 1767. He was hosier, bookseller, printer, publisher, 
republican. Sheriff of London (1807-8), and Knight. He com- 
piled many schoolbooks, chiefly under pseudon^-ms, of which 
the most popular were the Rev. J. Goldsmith and Rev. D. 
Blair. His own opinions are seen most in his Million of Facts, 
Died at Brighton 2 April, 1840. 

Phillippo (William Skinner), farmer, of Wood Norton, near 
Thetford, Norfolk. A deist who wrote an Essay on Political 
and Reliy ions Meditations, 1868. 


Pi-y Margall (Francisco), Spaiiish philosopher and Repub- 
lican statesman, b. Barcelona, 1820. The first book he learnt 
to read was the Ruins of Volney. Studied law and became an 
advocate. He has written many political works, and trans- 
lated Proudhon, for whom he has much admiration, into 
Spanish. He has also introduced the writings and philosophy 
of Comte into his own country. He was associated with Cas- 
telar and Figueras in the attempt to establish a Spanish 
Republic, being Minister of the Interior, and afterwards 
President in 1873. 

Pichard (Prosper). French Positivist, author of Doctrine of 
Reality, " a catechism for the use of people who do not pay 
themselves with words," to which Littre wrote a preface, 1873. 

Pierson (Allard). Dutch rationalist critic, b. Amsterdam 
8 April, 1831. Educated in theology, he was minister to the 
Evangelical congregation at Leuven, afterwards at Rotterdam 
and finally professor at Heidelberg. He resigned his connec- 
tion with the Church in '64. He has written many works of 
theological and literary value of which we mention his Poems 
'82, New Studies on Calvin^ '83, and Verisimilia, written in con- 
junction with S. A. Naber, '86. 

Pigault-Lebrun (Guillaume Charles Antoine), witty French 
author, b. Calais, 8 April, 1753. He studied under the 
Oratorians of Boulogne. He wrote numerous comedies and 
romances, and Le Citateur, 1803, a collection of objections to 
Christianity, borrowed in part from Yoltaire, whose spirit he 
largely shared. In 1811 Napoleon threatened the priests 
he would issue this work wholesale. It was suppressed under 
the Restoration, but has been frequently reprinted. Pigault- 
Lebrun. He became secretary to King Jerome Napoleon, and 
died at La Celle-Saint-Cloud, 24 July,'l835. 

Pike (J. W.) American lecturer, b. Concord (Ohio), 27 June, 
1826, wrote My Reliyious Experience and What I found in the Bible, 

Pillsbury (Parker), American reformer, b. Hamilton, Mass., 

22 Sep. 1809. Was employed in farm work till '35, when he 

entered Gilmerton theological seminary. He graduated in '38 

studied a year at Andover, was congregational minister for one 

257 p 


year, and then, perceiving the churches were the bulwark of 
slavery, abandoned the ministry. He became an abolitionist 
lecturer, edited the Herald of Freedom, National Anti-Slavery 
Standard, and the Revolution. He also preached for free 
religious societies, wrote Pious Frauds, and contributed to the 
Boston Investigator and Freethinkers' Magazine. His principal 
work is Acts of the Anti-Slavery Apostles, 1883. 

Piron (Alexis), French comic poet, b. Dijon, 9 July, 1689. 
His pieces were full of wit and gaiety, and many anecdotes are 
told of his profanity. Among his sallies was his reply to a 
reproof for being drunk on Good Friday, that failing must be 
excused on a day when even deity succumbed. Being blind 
in his old age he affected piety. Worried by his confessor 
about a Bible in the margin of which he had written parodies 
and epigrams as the best commentary, he threw the whole 
book in the fire. Asked on his death-bed if he believed in 
God he answered " Parbleu, I believe even in the Virgin." 
Died at Paris, 21 Jan. 1773. 

Pisarev (Dmitri Ivanovich) Russian critic, journalist, and 
materialist, b. 1840. He first became known by his criticism 
on the Scholastics of the nineteenth century. Died Baden, near 
Riga, July 1868. His works are published in ten vols. Peters- 
burg, 1870. 

Pitt (William). Earl of Chatham, an illustrious English 
statesman and orator,, b. Boconnoc, Cornwall, 15 Nov. 1808. 
The services to his country of " the Great Commoner," as he 
was called, are well known, but it is not so generally recognised 
that his Letter on Superstition, first printed in the London Journal 
in 1733, entitles him to be ranked with the Deists. He says 
that *'the more superstitious people are, always the more 
vicious ; and the more they believe, the less they practice." 
Atheism furnishes no man with arguments to be vicious ; but 
superstition, or what the world made by religion, is the greatest 
possible encouragement to vice, by setting up something as 
religion, which shall atone and commute for the want of virtue. 
This remarkable letter ends with the words " Remember that 
the only true divinity is humanity." 

Place (Francis), English Radical reformer and tailor; b. 1779 
at Charing Cross. He early became a member of the London, 


Corresponding Society. He wrote to Carlile's Republican and 
Lion. A friend of T. Hardy, H. Tooke, James Mill, Bentham, 
Eoebuck, Hetherington, and Hibbert (who puts him in his list 
of English Freethinkers). He was connected with all the 
advanced movements of his time and has left many manu- 
scripts illustrating the politics of that period, which are now 
in the British Museum. He always professed to be an Atheist 
— see Reasoncr, 26 March, '54. Died at Kensington, I Jan. 1854. 

Piatt (James), F.S.S., a woolen merchant and Deistic author 
of popular works on Business, '75 ; Morality, '78 ; Progress, '80 ; 
Life, '81 ; God and Mammon, etc. 

PHny (Caius Plinius Secundus), the elder, Roman naturalist, 
b. Verona, a.d. 22. He distinguished himself in the army, was 
admitted into the college of Augurs, appointed procurator in 
Spain, and honored with the esteem of Vespasian and Titus. 
He wrote the history of his own time in 31 books, now lost, 
and a National History in 37 books, one of the most precious 
monuments of antiquity, in which his Epicurean Atheism 
appears. Being with the fleet at Misenum, 2t Aug. a.d. 79, 
he observed the erruption of Mount Vesuvius, and landing to 
assist the inhabitants was himself suffocated by the noxious 

Plumacher (Olga), Grerman pessimist, follower of Hartmann, 
and authoress of a work on Ptssimism in the Past and Future, 
Heidelberg, 1884. She has also defended her views in Mi7id. 

Plumer (William) American senator, b. Newburyport, Mass. 
25 June, 1759. In 1780 he became a Baptist preacher, but 
resigned on account of scepticism. He remained a deist. 
He served in the Legislature eight terms, during two of 
which he was Speaker. He was governor of New Hampshire, 
1812-18, wrote to the press over the signature " Cincinnatus," 
and published an Address to the Clergy, '14. He lived till 22 
June, 1850. 

Plutarch. Greek philosopher and historian, b. Cheronvea 
in Boetia, about a.d 50. He visited Delphi and Rome, where 
he lived in the reign of Trajan. His Parallel Lives of forty-six 
Greeks and Romans have made him immortal. He wrote 
numerous other anecdotal and ethical works, including a 


treatise on Superstition. He condemned the vulgar notions of 
Deity, and remarked, in connection with the deeds popularly 
ascribed to the gods, that he would rather men said there was 
no Plutarch than traduce his character. In other words, super- 
stition is more impious than Atheism. Died about a.d. 120. 

Poe (Edgar Allan), American poet, grandson of General Poe> 
who figured in the war of independence, b. Boston, 19 Jan. 
1809. His mother was an actress. Early left an orphan. 
After publishing Jamerlane and other Poems, '27, he enlisted in 
the United States Army, but was cashiered in '31. He then 
took to literary employment in Baltimore and wrote many 
stories, collected as the lales of Mystery, Imagination, and 
Humor. In '45 appeared The Raven and other Poems, which 
proved him the most musical and dextrous of American poets. 
In '48 he published Eureka, a Prose Poem, which, though com- 
paratively little,^ known, he esteemed his greatest work. It 
indicates pantheistic views of the universe. His personal 
appearance was striking and one of his portraits is not unlike 
that of James Thomson. Died in Baltimore, 7 Oct. 1849. 

Poey (Andres), Cuban meteorologist and Positivist of French 
and Spanish descent, b. Havana, 1826. Wrote in the Modern 
Thinker, and is author of many scientific memoirs and a popular 
exposition of Positivism (Paris, 1876), in which he has a 
chapter on Darwinism and Comtism. 

Pompery (Edouard), French publicist, b. Courcelles, 1812. 
A follower of Fourier, he has written on Blanquism and 
opportunism, '79, and a Life of Voltaire, '80. 

Pomponazzi (Pietro) [Lat, Pomponatius], Italian philo- 
sopher, b. Mantua, of noble family, 16 Sept. 1462. He studied 
at Padua, where he graduated 1487 as laureate of medicine. 
Next year he was appointed professor of philosophy at Padua, 
teaching in concurrence with Achillini. He afterwards 
taught the doctrines of Aristotle at Ferrara and Bologna. His 
treatise De Immortalitate Animx, 1516, gave great offence by 
denying the philosophical foundation of the doctrine of the 
immortality of the soul. The work was burnt by the hangman 
at Venice, and it is said Cardinal Bembo's intercession with 
Pope Leo X. only saved Pomponazzi from ecclesiastical pro- 


cedure. Among his works is a treatise on Fate, Free Will, 
etc. Pomponazzi was a diminutive man, and was nicknamed 
" Peretto." He held that donbt was necessary for the 
development of knowledge, and left an unsullied reputation 
for upright conduct and sweet temper. Died at Bologna, 
18 May, 1525, and was buried at Mantua, where a monument 
was erected to his memory. 

Ponnat (de), Barov^ French writer, b. about 1810. Edu- 
cated by Jesuits, he became a thorough Freethinker and 
democrat and a friend of A. S. Morin, with whom he collabo- 
rated on the Rationaliste of Geneva. He wrote many notable 
articles in La Libre Pensee, Le Critique, and Le Candide. for 
writing in which last he was sentenced to one year's imprison- 
ment. He published, under the anagram of De Pontan, 1 he Cross 
or Death, a discourse to the bishops who assisted at the 
Ecumenical Council at Eome (Brussels, '62). His principal 
work is a history of the variations and contradictions of the 
Eoman Church (Paris, '82). Died in 1884. 

Porphyry (nop<^uptos), Greek philosoper of the New Platonic 
school, b. Sinia, 233 a.d. His original name was Malchus or 
Melech — a " King." He was a pupil of Longinus and perhaps 
of Origen. Some have supposed that he was of Jewish faith, 
and first embraced and then afterwards rejected Christianity. 
It is certain he was a man of learning and intelligence ; the 
friend as well as the disciple of Plotinus. He wrote (in Greek) 
a famous work in fifteen books against the Christians, some 
fragments of which alone remain in the writings of his op- 
ponents. It is certain he showed acquaintance with the 
Jewish and Christian writings, exposed their contradictions, 
pointed out the dispute between Peter and Paul, and referred 
Daniel to the time of Antiochus Epiphanes. He wrote many 
other works, among which are lives of Plotinus and Pytha- 
goras. Died at Rome about 305. 

Porzio (Simone), a disciple of Pomponazzi, to whom, when 
lecturing at Pisa, the students cried " What of the soul ? " He 
frankly professed his belief that the human soul differed in no 
essential point from the soul of a lion or plant, and that those 
who thought otherwise were prompted by pyt/ for our mean 
estate. These assertions are in his treatise De Mente HumanCi. 


" POSOS (Juan de)/' an undiscovered author using this pen- 
name, expressed atheistic opinions in a book of imaginary 
travels, published in Dutch at Amsterdam in 1708, and trans- 
lated into German at Leipsic, 1721. 

Post (Amy), American reformer, b. 1803. From '28 she 
was a leading advocate of slavery abolition, temperance, 
woman's suffrage and religious reform. Died Rochester, New- 
York, 29 Jan. 1889. 

Pottsr (Agathon Louis de.) See De Potter (A. L.) 

Potter (Louis Antoine Joseph de). See De Potter (L. A. J.) 

Potvin (Charles), Belgian writer b. Mons. 2 Dec. 1818, is 
member of the Royal Academy of Letters, and professor of the 
history of literature at Brussels. He wrote anonymously Poe^ee 
(t Amour '58, and Rome and the Family. Under the name of " Dom 
Jacobus " he has written an able work in two volumes on 
The Church and Morality, and also Tablets of a Freethinker. He 
was president of " La Libre Pensee " of Brussels from '78 
to '83, is director of the Revue de Belgique and has collabora- 
ted on the National and other papers. 

Pouchet (Felix Archimede), French naturalist, b. Rouen 26 
Aug. 1800. Studied medicine under Dr. Flaubert, father of the 
author of Mme. Bovary, and became doctor in '27. He was 
made professor of natural history at the Museum of Rouen, and 
by his experiments enriched science with many discoveries. 
He defended spontaneous generation and wrote many mono- 
graphs and books of which the principal is entitled The 
Universe, '65. Died at Rouen, 6 Dec. 1872. 

Pouchet (Henri Charles George), French naturalist, son of 
the proceeding, b. Rouen, 1833, made M.D. in '64, and in '79 
professor of comparative anatomy in the museum of Natural 
History at Paris. In '80 he was decorated with the Legi on of 
Honor. He has written on The Plurality of the Human Race, 
'58, and collaborated on the Sikle, and the Revue des Deux Mondes 
and to la Philosophie Positive. 

Pouchkine (A.), see Pushkin. 

Pougens (Marie Charles Joseph de), French author, a natural 
son of the Prince de Conti, b. Paris, 15 Aug. 1755. About the 
age of 24 he was blinded by small pox. He became an intimate 


friend of the philosophers, and, sharing their views, embraced 
the revolution with ardor, though it ruined his fortunes. He 
wrote Philosophical Researches, 1786, edited the posthumous 
works of D'Alembert, 1799, and worked at a dictionary of the 
French language. His JockOy a tale of a monkey, exhibits his 
keen sympathy with animal intelligence, and in his Philosophi- 
cal Letters, 1826, he gives anecdotes of Voltaire, Rousseau, 
D'Alembert, Pechmeja, Franklin, etc. Died at Yauxbuin, near 
Soissons, 19 Dec 1833. 

Poulin (Paul), Belgian follower of Baron Colins and author 
of What is God ? What is Man ? a scientific solution of the 
religious problem (Brussels, 1865), and re-issued as God 
According to Science, '75, in which he maintains that man and 
God exclude each other, and that the only divinity is moral 

Poultier D'Elmolte (Francois Martin), b. Montreuil-sur-Mer, 
31 Oct. 1753. Became a Benedictine monk, but cast aside his frock 
at the Revolution, married, and became chief of a battalion of 
volunteers. Elected to the Convention he voted for the death 
of the King. He conducted the journal, L'Ami des his, and 
became one of the Council of Ancients. Exiled in 1816, he 
died at Tournay in Belgium, 16 Feb. 1827. He wrote Morceau 
Philosophiques in the Journal Encyclopedique ', Victoire, or the 
Confessions of a Benedictine ; Discours Decadaires, for the use 
of Theophilantropists, and Conjectures on the Nature and Origin 
of Things, Tournay, 1821. 

Powell (B. F.), compiler of the Bible of Reason, or Scriptures 
of Ancient Moralists ; published by Hetherington in 1837. 

Prades (Jean Martin de), French theologian b. Castel- 
Sarrasin, about 1720. Brought up for the church, he never- 
theless became intimate with Diderot and contributed the 
article certitude to the Encyclopedie. On the 18th Nov. 
1751 he presented to the Sorbonne a thesis for the doctorate, 
remarkable as the first open attack on Christianity by a French 
theologian. He maintained many propositions on the soul, the 
•origin of society, the laws of Moses, miracles, etc., contrary to 
the dogmas of the Church, and compared the cures recorded in 
the Gospels to those attributed to Esculapius. The thesis 
made a great scandal. His opinions were condemned by Pope 


Benedict XIV., and he fled to Holland for safety. Recommended 

to Frederick the Great by d'Alembert he was received with favor 
at Berlin, and became reader to that monarch, who wrote a 
very anti-Ohristian preface to de Prades' work on ecclesiastical 
history, published as Abrege de VHistoire ecclesiastique de Fleury^ 
Berne (Berlin) 1766. He retired to a benefice at G-logau 
(Silesia), given him by Frederick, and died there in 1782. 

Prater (Horatio), a gentleman of some fortune who devoted 
himself to the propagation of Freethought ideas. Born early in 
the century, he wrote on the Physiology of the Blood, 1832. He 
published Letters to the American People, and Literary E-isays, '56. 
Died 20 July, 1835. He left the bulk of his money to benevolent 
objects, and ordered a deep wound to bs made in his arm to 
insure that he was dead. 

fPreda (Pietro), Italian writer of Milan, author of a work on 
Revelation and Reason, published at Geneva, 1865, under the 
pseudonym of " Padre Pietro." 

Premontval (Andre Pierre Le Guay de), French writer, b. 
Oharenton, 16 Feb. 1716. At nineteen years of age, while in 
the college of Plessis Sorbonne, he composed a work against 
the dogma of the Eucharist. He studied mathematics and 
became member of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin. He 
wrote Le Diogene de i)'ylZem?>er/, orFreethoughtson Man, 1754, 
Panangiana Panurgica, or the false Evangelist, and Vaes 
Philosophiqaes, Amst., 2 vols., 1757. He also wrote De la 
Theologie de L'Etre, in which he denies many of the ordinary 
proofs of the existence of a God. Died Berlin, 1767. 

Priestley (Joseph), LL.D., English philosopher, b. Fieldhead, 
near Leeds, 18 March, 1733. Brought up as a Calvinist, he 
found his way to broad TJnitarianism. Famous as a pneumatic 
chemist, he defended the doctrine of philosophical necessity, 
and in a dissertation annexed to his edition of Hartley expressed 
doubts of the immateriality of the sentient principal in man. 
This doctrine he forcibly supported in his Disquisitions on Matter 
and Spirit, 1777. Through the obloquy these works produced, 
he lost his position as librarian to Lord Shelburne. He then 
removed to Birmingham, and became minister of an indepen- 
dent Unitarian congregation, and occupied himself on his 


History of the Corruptions of Christianity and Hidory of the Early 
Opinions Concerning Jesus Chri^it, which involved him iu 
controversy with Bishop Horsley and others. In consequence 
of his sympathy with the French Revolution, his house was 
burnt and sacked in a riot, 14 July, 1791. After this he 
removed to Hackney, and was finally goaded to seek an asylum 
in the United States, which he reached in 1794. Even in 
America he endured some uneasiness on account of his 
opinions until Jefferson became president. Died 6 Feb. 1804. 

Pringle (Allen), Canadian Freethinker, author of Ingersollin 
Canada J 1880. 

Proctor (Richard Anthony), English astronomer, b. Chelsea, 
23 March, 1837. Educated at King's College, London, and at 
St. John's, Cambridge, where he became B.A. in '60. In '66 
he became Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, of which 
he afterwards became hon. sec. He maintained in '69 the 
since-established theory of the solar corona. He wrote, lec- 
tured, and edited, far and wide, and left nearly fifty volumes, 
chiefly popularising science. Attracted by Newman, he was 
for a while a Catholic, but thought out the question of Catho- 
licism and science, and in a letter to the Neiv York Tribune^ 
Nov. '75, formally renounced that religion as irreconcilable 
with scientific facts. His remarks on the so-called Star of 
Bethlehem in The Universe of Suns, and other Science Gleanings, 
and his Sundaj^ lectures, indicated his heresy.. In '81 he 
started Knowledge, in which appeared many valuable papers, 
notably one (Jan. '87), " The Beginning of Christianity." He 
entirely rejected the miraculous elements of the gospels, which 
he considered largely a rechauffe of solar myths. In other 
articles in the Freethinkers' Magazine and the Open Court he 
pointed out the coincidence between the Christian stories and 
solar myths, and also with stories found in Josephus. The 
very last article he published before his untimely death was a 
vindication of Colonel Ingersoll in his controversy with Glad- 
stone in the North American Review. In '84 he settled at St. 
Josephs, Mobille, where he contracted yellow fever and died at 
New York, 12 Sep. 1888. 

Proildhon (Pierre Joseph), French anarchist and political 
thinker, b. Besancon, 15 Jan. 1809. Self-educated he became a 


printer, and won a prize of 1,500 francs for the person "best 
iitted for a literary or scientific career." In '40 appears his 
memoir, What is Property ? in which he made the celebrated 
answer " C'est le vol.'''' In '43 the Creation of Order in Humanity 
appeared, treating of religion, philosophy and logic. In '46 
he published his System of Economical Contradictions^ in which 
appeared his famous aphorism, " Bieu, cest le maV In '48 he 
introduced his scheme of the organisation of credit in a Bank 
of the People, which failed, though Proudhon saw that no one 
lost anything. He attacked Louis Bonaparte when President, 
and was sentenced to three years' imprisonment and a fine of 
10,000 francs. On 2 Jan. '50 he married by private contract 
while in prison. For his work on Justice in the Revolution and 
in the Church he was condemned to three years' imprisonment 
and 4,000 francs fine in '58. He took refuge in Belgium and 
returned in '63. Died at Passy, 19 Jan. 1865. Among his 
posthumous works was The Gospels Annotated, '66. Proudhon 
was a bold and profound thinker of noble aspirations, but he 
lacked the sense of art and practicability. His complete works 
have been published in 26 vols. 

Protagoras, Greek philosopher, b. Abdera, about 480 B.C. 
Is said to have been a disciple of Democritus, and to have been 
a porter before he studied philosophy. He was the first to call 
himself a sophist. He wrote in a book on the gods, " Respect- 
ing the gods, I am unable to know whether they exist or do 
not exist." For this he was impeached and banished, and his 
book burnt. He went to Epirus and the Greek Islands, and 
died about 411. He believed all things were in flux, and 
«ummed up his conclusions in the proposition that "man is the 
measure of all things, both of that which exists and that which 
•does not exist." Grote, who defends the Sophists, says his 
philosophy " had the merit of bringing into forcible relief the 
■essentially relative nature of cognition." 

Prudhomme (Sully). See Sully Prudhomme. 

Pueckler Muskau (Hermann Ludwig Heinrich), Prince, a 
German writer, b. Muskau, 30 Oct. 1785. He travelled widely 
and wrote his observations in a work entitled Letters of a 
Defunct, 1830; this was followed by Tutti Frutti, '32; Semilasso 
in Africa, '36, and other works. Died 4 Feb. 1871. 


Pushkin (Aleksandr Sergyeevich), eminent Russian poet, 
often called the Russian Byron, b. Pskow, 26 May, 1799. From 
youth he was remarkable for his turbulent spirit, and his first 
work, which circulated only in manuscript, was founded on 
Parny's Guerre des Dieux, and entitled the Gabrielade, the arch- 
angel being the hero. He was exiled by the Emperor, but, 
inspired largely by reading Voltaire and Byron, put forward 
numerous poems and romances, of which the most popular is 
Eugene Oneguine, an imitation of Don Juan. He also wrote 
some histories and founded the Sovremeniiik (Contemporary), 
1836. In Jan. 1837 he was mortally wounded in a duel. 

Putnam (Samuel P.), American writer and lecturer, brought 
up as a minister. He left that profession for Freethought, and 
became secretary to the American Secular Union, of which he 
was elected president in Oct. 1887. In '88 he started Free- 
thought at San Francisco in company with G. Macdonald. Has 
written poems, Prometheus, Ingersoll and Jesus, Adami and Heva ; 
romances entitled Golden Throne, Waifs and Wanderings, and 
Gottlieb, and pamphlets on the Prohlem of the Universe, 2he New 
God, and The Glory of Infidelity. 

Putsage (Jules), Belgian follower of Baron Colins, founder 
of the Colins Philosophical Society at Mons ; has written on 
Determinism and Rational Science, Brussels 1885, besides many 
essays in La Philosophie de UAvenir of Paris and La Societe 
Nouvelle of Brussels. 

Pyat (Felix) French socialist, writer and orator, b. Vierzon, 
4 Oct. 1810. His father was religious and sent him to a Jesuit 
college at Bourges, but he here secretly read the writings of 
Beranger and Courier. He studied law, but abandoned it for 
literature, writing in many papers. He also wrote popular 
dramas, as The Rag-picker of Paris, '47. After '52 he lived 
in England, where he wrote an apology for the attempt of 
Orsini, published by Truelove, '58. In '71 he founded the 
journal le Combat. Elected to the National Assembly he pro- 
tested against the treaty of peace, was named member of the 
Commune and condemned to death in '73. He returned to 
France after the armistice, and has sat as deputy for Marseilles. 
Died, Saint Gerainte near Nice, 3 Aug. 1889. 

Pyrrho (Tlvppov). Greek philosopher, a native of Elis, in 


Peloponesus, founder of a sceptical school about the time of 
Epicurus; is said to have been attracted to philosophy by the 
books of Democritus. He attached himself to Anaxarchus, and 
joined her in the expedition of Alexander the Great, and 
became acquainted with the philosophy of the Magi and the 
Indian Gymnosophists. He taught the wisdom of doubt, the 
uncertainty of all things, and the rejection of speculation. His 
disciples extolled his equanimity and independence of externals. 
It is related that he kept house with his sister, and shared 
with her in all domestic duties. He reached the age of ninety 
years, and after his death the Athenians honored him with a 
statue. He left no writings, but the tenets of his school, which 
were much misrepresented, may be gathered from Sextus and 

duental. See Anthero de Quental. 

" auepat (Neree.") See Paquet (Rene.) 

Cluesnay (Francois), French economist, b. Merey, 4 June 
1694. Self educated he became a physician, but is chiefly 
noted for his lableau Econoinique, 1708, and his doctrine of 
Laissez Faire. He derived moral and social rules from physical 
laws. Died Versailles, 16 Dec. 1774. 

Uuinet (Edgar), French writer, b. Bourgen Bresse, 17 Feb. 
1803. He attracted the notice of Cousin by a translation of 
Herder's T.he Philosophy of History. With his friend Michelet 
he made many attacks on Catholicism, the Jesuits being their 
joint work. He fought in the Revolution of '48, and opposed 
the Second Empire. His work on The Genius of Religion, '42, 
is profound, though mystical, and his historical work on The 
Revolution, '65 is a masterpiece. Died at Versailles, 27 March, 

duintin (Jean), Heretic of Picardy, and alleged founder of 
the Libertines. He is said to have preached in Holland and 
Brabant in 1525, that religion was a human invention. Quintin 
was arrested and burnt at Tournay in 1530. 

Cturis (Charles), French advocate of Angers, who has pub- 
lished some works on law and La Defense Catholique et la Critique, 
Paris, 1864. 

Rabelais (Francois), famous and witty French satirist and 
philosopher, b. Chinon, Touraine, 7 Jan. 1495. At an early 


age he joined the order of Franciscans, but finding monastic 
life incompatible with his genial temper, quitted the convent 
without the leave of his superior. He studied medicine at 
Montpelier about 1530, after which he practised at Lyons. 
His great humorous work, published anonymously in 1535, 
"vV-as denounced as heretical by the clergy for its satires, not 
only on their order but their creed. The author was protected 
by Francis I. and was appointed cure of Meudon. Died at 
Paris, 9 xipril, 1553. His writings show surprising fertility of 
mind, and Coleridge says, " Be^^ond a doubt he was among the 
deepest as well as boldest thinkers of his age." 

Radenhausen (Christian), German philosopher, b. Fried- 
richstadt, 3 Dec. 1813. At first a merchant and then a litho- 
grapher, he resided at Hamburg, where he published Isis, 
Mankind and the World (4 vols.), '70-72 ; OsirL^, '74 ; The New 
Faith^ '77 ; Christianity is Heathenism, '81 ; Ihe True Bible and the 
False, '87 ; Esther, '87. 

Eadicati (Alberto di), Count. See Passerano. 

Ragon (Jean Marie de), French Freemason, b. Bray-sur- 
Seine, 1781. By profession a civil engineer at Nanc}^, after- 
wards Chief of Bureau to the Minister of the Interior. Author 
of many works on Freemasonry, and The Mass and its Mysteries 
Compared icith the Ancient Mysteries, 1844. Died at Paris, 1862. 

Ram (Joachim Gerhard), Holstein philosopher of the seven- 
teenth century, who was accused of Atheism. 

Ramaer (Anton Gerard Willem), Dutch writer b. Jever, 
East Friesland, 2 Aug. 1812. From '29 he served as officer 
in the Dutch army. He afterwards became a tax collector, and 
in '60 was pensioned. He wrote on Schopenhauer and other 
able works, and also contributed largely to De Dageraad, often 
under the pseudonym of " Laghme." He had a noble mind and 
eacrificed much for his friends and the good cause. Died 
16 Feb. 1867. 

Ramee (Louise de la), English novelist, b., of French extrac- 
tion. Bury St. Edmunds, 1840. Under the name of " Ouida," 
a little sister's mispronunciation of Louisa, she has published 
many popular novels, exhibiting her free and pessimistic 
opinions. We mention Tricoiin, Folk Farine, Signa, Moths and 

A Village Commune. She has lived much in Italy, where the 
scenes of several novels are placed. 

Ramee (Pierre de la) called Ramus, French humanist, b. 
Cuth (Vermandois) 1515. He attacked the doctrines of Aris- 
totle, was accused of impiety, and his work suppressed 
1543. He lost his life in the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 
2G Aug. 1572. 

Ramsey (William James), b. London, 8 June, 1844. Becom- 
ing a Freethinker early in life, he for som^ time sold literature 
at the Hall of Science and became manager of the Freethought 
Publishing Co. Starting in business for himself he published 
the Freethinker, for which in '82 he was prosecuted with Mr. 
Foote and Mr. Kemp. Tried in March '83, after a good defence, 
he was sentenced to nine months' imprisonment, and on Mr. 
Footo's release acted as printer of the paper. 

Ranc (Arthur), French writer and deputy, b. Poitiers, 10 
Dec. 1831, and was brought up a Freethinker and Republican 
by his parents. He took the prize for philosophy at the 
College of Poitiers, and studied law at Paris. He conspired 
with C. Delescluze against the Second Empire and was im- 
prisoned, but escaped to Geneva. He coTlaborated on La 
Marseillaise, was elected on the Municipal Council of Paris in 
71, and Deputy, '73. Has written Under the Empire and many 
other political works. 

Randello (Cosimo), Italia author of The Simple Story of a 
Great Fraud, being a criticism of the origin of Christianity, 
directed against Pauline theology, published at Milan, 1882. 

Rapisardi (Mario), Italian poet, b. Catania, Sicily, 1843. 
Has translated Lucretius, '80, and published poems on Lucifer, 
and The Last Prayer of Pius IX., '71, etc. 

Raspail (Francois Vincent), French chemist and politician 
b. Carpentras 24 Jan. 1794, was brought up by ecclesiastics 
and intended for the Church. He became, while quite young, 
professor of philosophy at the theological seminary of Avignon 
but an examination of theological dogmas led to their rejection. 
He went to Paris, and from 1815 — 24 gave lessons, and after- 
wards became a scientific lecturer. He took part in the Revo- 
lution of '30. Louis Philippe offered him the Legion of Honor 
but li3 refused. Taking part in all the revolutionary outbreaks 



he was frequently imprisoned. Elected to the chamber in 
'69 and sat on the extreme left. Died at Arcueil 6 Jan. 1878. 

Rau (Herbert), German rationalist b. Frankfort 11 Feb. 
1813. He studied theology and became preacher to free con- 
gregations in Stuttgart and Mannheim. He wrote Gospel of 
Nature^ A Catechism of the Religion of the Future, and other works. 
Died Frankfort 26 Sept. 1876. 

Rawson ("Albert Leighton) LL.D. American traveller and 
author, b. Chester, Vermont 15 Oct. 1829. After studying law, 
theology, and art, he made four visits to the East, and made 
in '51-2 a pilgrimage from Cairo to Mecca, disguised as a 
Mohammedan student of medicine. He has published many 
maps and typographical and philological works, and illustrated 
Beecher's Life of Jesus. Has also written on the Antiquities of 
the Orient, New York, '70, and Chorography of Palestine, Lon- 
don, '80. Has written in the Freethinkers' Magazine, maintaining 
that the Bible account of the twelve tribes of Israel is non- 

Raynal (Guillaume Thomas Francois) Vahbe, French his- 
torian and philosopher, b. Saint Geniez, 12 April, 1713. He 
was brought up as a priest but renounced that profession soon 
after his removal to Paris, 1747, where he became intimate 
with Helvetius, Holbach, etc. With the assistance of these, and 
Diderot, Pechmeja, etc., he compiled a philosophical History 
of European establishments in the two Indies (4 vols. 1770 
and 1780"), a work full of reflections on the religious and 
political institutions of France. It made a great outcry, wag 
censured by the Sorbonne, and was burnt by order of Parlia- 
ment 29 May, 1781. Raynal escaped and passed about six 
years in exile. Died near Paris, 6 March, 1796. 

Reade (William Winwood), English traveller and writer, 
nephew of Charles Reade the novelist, b. Murrayfield, near 
Crieff, Scotland, 26 Dec. 1824. He studied at Oxford, then 
travelled much in the heart of Africa, and wrote Savage Africa, 
63, 1 he African Sketch Book, and in '73, The Stonj of the Ashantee 
Campaign; which he accompanied as Times correspondent. In 
the Martrydom of Man ('72), he rejects the doctrine of a 
personal creator. It went through several editions and is still 
worth reading. He also wvote Liherty lla'lyH novel, (jO;'lhe 


Veil of IsU, '61, and See Saw, a novel, '65. He wrote his last 
work The Outcast, a Freethought novel, with the hand of death 
■upon him. Died 24 April, 1875. 

Reber (George), American author of Ihe Christ of Paul, or the 
Enigmas of Christianity (New York, 1876), a work in which 
he exposes the frauds and follies of the early fathers. 

Reclus (Jean Jacques Elisee), French geographer and 
eocialist, the son of a Protestant minister, b. Sainte-Foy-la- 
Grande (Gironde), 15 March, 1830, and educated by the 
Moravian brethren, and afterwards at Berlin. He early dis- 
tinguished himself by his love for liberty, and left France after 
the coup cVetat of 2 Dec. '51, and travelled till '57 in England, 
Ireland, and the North and South America, devoting himself to 
studying the social and political as well as physical condition 
of the countries he visited, the results being published in the 
Tour du monde, and Revue des Deux Mondes, in which he upheld 
the cause of the North during the American war. In '71 he 
supported the Commune and was taken prisoner and 
sentenced to transportation for life. Many eminent men in 
England and America interceded and his sentence was 
commuted to banishment. At the amnesty of March '79, he 
returned to Paris, and has devoted himself to the publication 
of a standard Universal Geography in 13 vols. In '82 he gave two 
of his daughters in marriage without either religious or civil 
ceremony. He has written a preface to Bakounin's God and 
the State, and many other works. 

Reddalls (George Holland), English Secularist, b. Birming- 
ham, Nov. 1846. He became a compositor on the Birmingham 
Daily Post, but wishing to conduct a Freethought paper 
started in business for himself, and issued the Secular Chronicle, 
'73, which was contributed to by Francis Neale, H. V- Mayer, 
G. Standring, etc. He died 13 Oct. 1875. 

Reghillini de Schio (M.), Professor of Chemistry and 
Mathematics, b. of Venetian parents at Schio in 1760. He 
wrote in French an able exposition of Masonry, 1833, which he 
traced to Egypt; and an Examination of Mosaism and Christianity, 
'34. He was mixed in the troubles of Venice in '48, and fled to 
Belgium, dying in poverty at Brussels Aug. 1853. 


Regnard (Albert Adrien), French doctor and publicist, b. 
Lachante (Nievre), 20 March, 1836, author of Esmis d'Histoire 
et de Critique Scientijiqiie (Paris, '65) — a work for which he 
could find no publisher, and had to issue himself — in which 
he proclaimed scientific materialism. Losing his situation, he 
started, with Naquet and Clemenceau, the Bevue Encyclopediqne, 
which being suppressed on its first number, he started La 
Libre Pensee with Asseline, Condereau, etc. His articles in this 
journal drew on him and Eudes a condemnation of four months' 
imprisonment. He wrote Neiv Researches on Cerebral Congestion^ 
'68, and was one of the French delegates to the anti-Council of 
Naples, '69. Has published Atheism, studies of political science, 
dated Londres, 78; a Histonj of England since 18l5; and has 
translated Biichner's Force and Matter, '84. He was delegate 
to the Freethinkers' International Congress at Antwerp, '85. 

Regnard (Jean Francois), French comic poet, b. Paris. 8 Feb. 
1655. He went to Italy about 1676, and on returning home 
was captured by an Algerian corsair and sold as a slave. Being 
caught in an intrigue with one of the women, he was required 
to turn Muhammadan. The French consul paid his ransom 
and he returned to France about 1681. He wrote a number of 
successful comedies and poems, and was made a treasurer of 
France. He died as an Epicurean, 4 Sept. 1709. 

Regnier (Mathurin), French satirical poet, b. Chartres, 21 
Dec. 1573. Brought up for the Church, he showed little inclina- 
tion for its austerities, and was in fact a complete Pagan, 
though he obtained a canonry in the cathedral of his native 
place. Died at Rouen, 22 Oct. 1613. 

Reich (Eduard) Dr., Grerman physician and anthropologist 
of Sclav descent on his father's side, b. Olmiitz, 6 March 1839. 
He studied at Jena and has travelled much, and published 
over thirty volumes besides editing the Athenamm of Jena '75, 
and Universities of Grossenbain, '83. Of his works we mentio:: 
Man and the Soid, '72 ; The Church of Humanity, 74 ; Life of Man 
as an Individual, '81 ; History of the Soul, '84 ; The Emancipation 
of Women, 84. 

Reil ( Johann Christian), German physician, b. Eauden, East 
Friesland, 20 Feb. 1758. Intended for the Church, he took 
instead to medicine ; after practising some years in his native 
273 s 


town he went in 1787 to Halle, and in 1810 he was made 
Professor of Medicine at Berlin University. He wrote many- 
medical worke, and much advanced medical science, displacing 
the old ideas in a way which brought on him the accusation 
of pantheism. Attending a case of typhus fever at Halle he 
was attacked b}^ the malady, and succumbed 22 Nov. 1813. 

Reimams (Hermann Samuel), German philologist, b. Ham- 
burg, 22 Dec. 1694. He was a son-in-law of J. A. Fabricus. 
Studied at Jena and Wittenberg; travelled in Holland and 
England ; and was appointed rector of the gymnasium in 
Weimar, 1723, and in Hamburg, 1729. He was one of the most 
radical among German rationalists. He published a work on 
The Principle Jruths of Natural Religion, 1754, and left behind 
the Wolfenbiiltel Fragments, published by Lessing in 1777. Died 
at Hamburg, 1 March, 1768. Strauss has written an account of 
his services, 1862. 

Reitzel (Robert), German American revolutionary, b. Baden, 
1849. Named after Blum, studied theology, went to America, 
walked from New York to Baltimore, and was minister to an 
independent Protestant ehurch. Studied biology and resigned 
as a minister, and became speaker of a Freethought congrega- 
tion at Washington for seven years. Is now editor of Der 
Arme Tciifd of Detroit, and says he " shall be a poor man and a 
Revolutionaire all ray life." 

Remshurg (John E.), American lecturer and writer, b. 1848^ 
Has written a series of pamphlets entitled The Image Breaker^ 
False Claims of the Christian Church, '83, Sabbath Breaking 
Thomas Paine, and a vigorous onslaught on Bible Morals, 
instancing twenty crimes and vices sanctioned by scripture, '85 , 

Renan (Joseph Ernest), learned French writer, b. Treguier 
(Brittany) 27 Feb. 1823. Was intended for the Church and 
went to Paris to study. He became noted for his linguistic 
attainment, but his studies and independence of thought did 
not accord with his intended profession. My faith, he says 
was destroyed not by metaphysics nor philosophy but by 
historical criticism. In '45 he gave up all thoughts of an 
ecclesiastic career and became a teacher. In '48 he gained the 
Volney prize, for a memoir on the Semitic Languages, after- 
wards amplified into a work on that subject. In '52 he pub- 


lished his work on Averroes and Averroi'sm. In '56 was 
elected member of the Academy of Inscriptions, and in '60 
Bent on a mission to Syria ; having in the meantime published 
a translation of Joh and Song of Songs. Here he wrote his long 
contemplated Vie de Jesus, '63. In '61 he had been appointed 
Professor of Hebrew in the Institute of France, but denounced 
by bishops and clergy he was deprived of his chair, which 
was, however, restored in '70. The Pope did not disdain to 
attack him personally as a " French blasphemer." The Vie de 
Jesus is part of a comprehensive Histonj of the Origin ofCkrisli- 
anity, in 8 vols., '63—83, which includes The Apostles, St Paul, 
Anti- Christ, The Gospels, The Christian Church, and Marcus 
Aurelius, and the end of the Antique World. Among his other 
works we must mention Studies on Religious History ('58^. 
Philosophical Dialogues and Fragments {'76), Spinoza ('77), Caliban, 
a satirical drama ('80), the Hibbert Lecture on the Influence of 
Rome on Christians, Souvenirs, '8i ; New Studies of Religious 
Histor7j,'8'i ; The Abbess ofJouarre, a drama which made a great 
sensation in '86; and 2 he History of the People oflsj-ael, '87 — 89. 

Renand (Paul), Belgian author of a work entitled Nouvelk 
Symbolique, on the identity of Christianity and Paganism, pub- 
lished at Brussels in 1861. 

Rengart (Karl Fr.), of Berlin, b. 1803, democrat and free- 
thought friend of C. Deubler. Died about 1879. 

Renard (Georges), French professor of the Academic of 
Lausanne; author of Man, /v he Frcef 1881, and a Life of 
Volta/ire, '83. 

Renoxvier (Charles Bernard), French philosopher, b. Mont- 
pellier, 1815. An ardent Radical and follower of the critical 
philosophy. Among his works are Manual of Ancient Philo- 
sophy (2 vols., '44) ; Republican Manual, '48 ; Essays of General 
Criticism, '54 ; Science of Morals, '69 ; a translation, made with 
F. Pillon, of Hume's Psychology, '78 ; and A Sketch of a Systematic 
Classification of Philosophical Doctrines, '85. 

Renton (William), English writer, b. Edinburgh, 1852. 

Educated in Germany. Wrote poems entitled Oil and Water 

Colors, and a work on The Logic of Style, '74. At Keswick he 

published Jesus, a psychological estimate of that hero, '76, 



Has since published a romance of the last generation called 
Bishupupool, '83. 

Rethore (Frangois), French professor of philosophy at the 
Lyceum of Marseilles, b. Amiens, 1822. Author of a work 
entitled Condillac, or Empiricism and Rationalism, '64. Has 
translated H. Spencer's Classification of Sciences. 

Reuschle (Karl Gustav), German geographer, b. Mehrstetten, 
12 Dec. 1812. He wrote on Kepler and Astronomy, '71, and 
Philosophy and Natural Science, '71, dedicated to the memory 
of D. F. Strauss. Died at Stuttgart, 22 May, 1875. 

Revillon (Antoine, called Tony), French journalist and 
deputy, b. Saint-Laurent-les Macon (Ain), 29 Dec. 183 2. At 
first a lawyer in '57, he went to Paris, where he has written 
on many journals, and published many romances and 
brochures. In '81 he was elected deputy. 

Rey (Marc Michel), printer and bookseller of Amsterdam. 
He printed all the works of d'Holbach and Rousseau and some 
of Voltaire's, and conducted the Journal des Savans. 

Reynaud (Antoine Andre Louis), Baron, French mathema- 
tician, b. Paris, 12 Sept. 1777. In 1790 he became one of the 
National Guard of Paris. He was teacher and examiner for 
about thirty years in the Polytechnic School. A friend of 
Lalande. Died Paris, 24 Feb. 1841. 

Reynaud (Jean Ernest), French philosopher, b. Lyons, 
14 Feb. 1806. For a time he was a Saint Simonian. In '36 he 
edited with P. Leroux the Enryclope'die Nouvelle. He was a 
moderate Democrat in the Assembly of '48. His chief work, 
entitled Earth and Heaven, '54, had great success. It was 
formally condemned by a clerical council held at Perigueux. 
Died Paris, 28 June, 1863. 

Reynolds (Charles B.), American lecturer, b. 4 Aug. 1832. 
Was brought up religiously, and became a Seventh Day Baptist 
preacher, but was converted to Freethought. He was pro se- 
cuted for blasphemy at Morristown, New Jersey, May 19, 20,. 
1887, and was defended by Col. Ingersoll The verdict was. 
one of guilty, and the sentence was a paltry fine of 25 dollars 
Has written in the Boston Investigator, Truthseeker, and Ironc lad 



Reynolds (George William MacArthur), English writer; 
author of many novels. Wrote Errors of the Christwii Religion^ 

Eialle (J. Gieard de), French anthropologist, b. Paris 1841. 
He wrote in La Peme'e Nouvelle, conducted the Revue de Lin- 
quistique et de Philologie comparee, and has written on Comparcu 
tive Mythology, dealing with fetishism, etc., 78, and works on 

Ribelt (Leonce), French publicist, b. Bordeaux 1824, author 
of several political works and collaborator on La Morale 
Indtptndante . 

Ribeyrolles (Charles de), French politician, b. near Martel 
(Lot) 1812. Intended for the Church, he became a social 
democrat ; edited the Emancipation of T oulouse, and La Reforme 
in '48. A friend of V. Hugo, he shared in his exile at Jersey, 
Died at Rio- Janeiro, 13 June, 1861. 

Ribot (Theodule), French philosopher, b. Guingamp (Cotes 
du-Nord) 1839 ; has written Contemporai~y English Psychuhgy 
*70, a resume of the views of Mill, Bain, and Spencer, whose 
Principles of Psychology he has translated. Has also written on 
Heredity, '73; 2^he Philosophy of Schopenhauer, '7 i; The miladies 
of Memory, personality and Will, 3 vols.; and Contemporary 
German Psychology. He conducts the Revue Philosophique. 

Ricciardi (Guiseppe Napoleone), Count, Italian patriot, b. 
Capodimonte (Naples), 19 July, 1808, son of Francesco 
Ricciardi, Count of Camaldoli, 1758-1842. Early in life he 
published patriotic poems. He says that never after he was 
nineteen did he kneel before a priest. In '32 he founded at 
Naples // Progresso, a review of science, literature, and art. 
Arrested in '34 as a Republican conspirator, he was imprisoned 
eight months and then lived in exile in France until '48. Here 
he wrote in the Revue Independante, pointing out that the Papacy 
from its very essence was incompatible with libert3\ Elected 
deputy to the Neapolitan Parliament, he sat on the extreme 
left. He wrote a History of the Revolution of Italy in '48 (Paris 
*49). Condemned to death in '53, his fortune was seized. He 
wrote an Italian Martyrology from 1792-1847 (Turin '56), and The 
Pope and Italy, '62. At the time of the Eucumenical Council he 


called an Anti-eouncil of Freethinkers at Naples, '69. This 
was dissolved by the Italian government, but it led to the 
International Federation of Freethinkers. Count Ricciardi 
published an account of the congress. His last work was a life 
of his friend Mauro Macchi, '82. Died 1884. 

Richepin (Jean), French poet, novelist, and dramatist, b* 
Medeah (Algeria) in 1849. He began life as a doctor, and 
during the Franco-Grerman war took to journalism. In '76 he 
pnhliBhed the Song of the Beggars, which was suppressed. In 
'84 appeared Les Blasphemes, which has gone through several 

Richer (Leon), French Deist and journalist, b. Laigh, 1824. 
Ho was with A. Gueroult editor of VOpinion Nationale, and in 
'69 founded and edits VAvenir des Femmes. In '68 he published 
Letters of a Freethinker to a Village Priest, and has written many 
volumes in favor of the emancipation of women, collaborating 
with Mdlle. Desraismes in the Women's Rights congresses he Id 
in Paris. 

Rickman (Thomas Clio), English Radical. He published 
several volumes of poems and a life of his friend Thomas 
Paine, 1819, of whom he also published an excellent portral t 
painted by Romney and engraved by Stiarpe. 

Riem (Andreas), German rationalist b. Frankenthal 1749. 
He became a preacher, and was appointed by Frederick the 
Great chaplain of a hospital at Berlin. This he quitted in 
order to become secretary of the Academy of Paintin g. He 
wrote anonymously on the Aufklarinj. Died 1807. 

Ritter (Charles), Swiss writer b. Geneva 1838, and has 
tr iQslated into French Strauss's Essay of Religious History, 
Gkorge Eliot's Fragments and Thoughts, and Zeller's Christian 
B lur and the Tdhingen School. 

SjRoalfe (Matilda), a brave woman, b. 1813. At the time of the 
blasphemy prosecutions in 1843, she went from London to Edin- 
burgh to uphold the right of free publication. She opened a 
shop and circulated a manifesto setting forth her determina- 
tion to sell works she deemed useful " whether they did or did 
not bring into contempt the Holy Scriptures and the Christian 
Religion." When prosecuted for selling The Ageof Reison, Ihe 


Oracle of Reason, etc., she expressed her intention of continuing 
her offence as soon as liberated. She was sentenced to two 
months imprisonment 23 Jan. '44, and on her liberation con- 
tinued the sale of the prosecuted works. She afterwards 
married Mr. Walter Sanderson and settled at Galashiels, where 
she died 29 Nov. 1880. 

Robert (Pierre Frangois Joseph), French conventionnel and 
friend of Brissot and Danton, b. Giranee (Ardennes) 21 Jan. 
1763. Brought up to the law he became professor of public law to 
the philosophical society. He was nominated deputy for Paris, 
and wrote Repuhlicanism adapted to France, 1790, became 
secretary to Danton, and voted for the death of the king. He 
wrote in Prudhomme's Recohitions de Paris. Died at Brussels 

Robertson (A. D.), editor of the Free Enquirer, published at 
New York, 1835. 

Robertson (John Mackinnon), Scotch critic, b. Arran, 14 
Nov. 1856. He became journalist on the Edinburgh Evening 
News, and afterwards on the National Reformer. Mr. Robertson 
has published a study of Walt Whitman in the "Round Table 
Series." Essays towards a Critical Method, '89, and has con- 
tributed to Our Corner, Time, notably an article on Mithraism, 
March, '89, The Wtstminster Review, etc. He has also issued 
pamphlets on Socialism and Malthusiasm. and Toryism and Bar- 
barism, '85, and edited Hume's Essay on Natural Religion '89. 

Roberty (Eugene de), French positivist writer, of Russian 
birth, b. Podolia (Russia), 1843 ; author of works on Sociology, 
Paris, '81, and 'Ihe Old and the New Philosophy, an essay on the 
general laws of philosophic development, '87. He has recently 
written a work entitled The Unknowable, '89. 

Robin (Charles Philippe), French physician, senator mem- 
ber of the Institute and of the Academy of Medecine, b 
Jasseron C^ix), 4 June, 1821. Became M.D. in '46, and D.Sc. 
'47. In company with Littre he refounded Nysten's Dictionary 
of Medicine, and he has written many important medical works, 
and one on Instruction. In '72 his name was struck out of the 
list of jurors on the ground of his unbelief in God, and it thus 
remained despite many protests until '76. In the same year 


he was elected Senator, and sits with the Republican Left. He 
has been decorated with tne Legion of Honor. 

Robinet (Jean Baptiste Eene), French philosopher, b. 
Eennes, 23 June, 1735. He became a Jesuit, but gave it up 
and went to Holland to publish his curious work, De la Nature, 
1776, by some attributed to Toussaint and to Diderot. He 
continued Marsy's Analysis of Bayle, edited the Secret Letters of 
Voltaire, translated Hume's Moral Essays, and took part in the 
Recucil Philosopliique, published by J. L. Castilhon. Died at 
Rennes, 24 March, 1820. 

Robinet (Jean Eugene Francois), French physician and 
publicist, b. Vic-sur-Seille, 1825. He early attached himself 
to the person and doctrine of Auguste Comte, and became his 
physician and one of his executors. During the war of '70 
he was made Mayor of the Sixth Arrondissement of Paris. He 
has written a Notice of the Work and Life of A. Comte, '60, a 
memoir of the private life of Danton, '65, The Trial of the 
Dantonists, '79, and contributed an account of the Positive 
Philosophy of A. Comte and P. Lafitte to the " Bibliotheque 
Utile," vol. 66, '81. 

Boell (Hermann Alexander), German theologian, b. 1653, 
author of a Deistic dissertation on natural religion, published 
at Frankfort in 1700. Died Amsterdam, 12 July, 1718. 

Rogeard (Louis Auguste), French publicist, b. Chartres, 25 
April, 1820. Became a teacher but was dismissed for refusing 
to attend mass. In '49 he moved to Paris and took part in the 
revolutionary movement. He was several times imprisoned 
under the Empire, and in '65 was sentenced to five years' im- 
prisonment for writing Les Propos de Labienus (London, i.e. 
Ziirich), '65. He fled to Belgium and wrote some excellent 
criticism on the Bible in the Rive Gavche. In '71 he assisted 
Pyat on Le Vengeur, and was elected on the Commune but 
declined to sit. An incisive writer, he signed himself 
" Atheist." Is still living in Paris. 

Rokitansky (Karl), German physician and scientist, founder 
of the Vienese school in medicine, b. Koniggriitz (Bohemia) 
11 Feb. 1804. studied medicine at Prague and Vienna, and 
received his degree of Doctor in '28. His principal work is a 
Manual of Practical Anatomy, '42-6. Died Vienna, 23 July, 1878. 


Eoland (Marie Jeanne), nie Phlipon, French patriot, b". 
Paris, 17 March, 1754. Fond of reading, PlatarcK's Lives influ- 
enced her greatly. At a convent she noted the names of 
sceptics attached and read their writings, being, she says, in 
turn Jansenist, stoic, sceptic, atheist, and deist. The last she 
remained, though Miss Blind classes her with Agnostics. After 
her marriage in 1779 with Jean Marie Eoland de la Platiere 
(b. Lyons, 1732), Madame Roland shared the tasks and studies 
of her husband, and the Revolution found her an ardent consort. 
On the appointment of her husband to the ministry, she became 
the centre of a Girondist circle. Carlyle calls her " the 
creature of Simplicity and Nature, in an age of Artificiality, 
Pollution, and Cant," and " the noblest of all living French- 
women." On the fall of her party she was imprisoned, and 
finally executed, 8 Nov. 1793. Her husband, then in hiding, 
hearing of her death, deliberately stabbed himself, 15 Nov. 

Rolph (William Henry), German philosopher, b. of English 
father, Berlin, 26 Aug. 1847. He became privat-docent of 
Zoology in the University of Leipsic, and wrote an able work 
on Biological Problems, '84, in which he accepts evolution, 
discards theology, and places ethics on a natural basis. Died 
1 Aug. 1883. 

Eomagnosi (Giovanni Domenico), Italian philosopher and 
jurist, b. Salso Maggiore, 13 Dec. 1761. He published in 1791 
an able work on penal legislation. Genesis of Penal Law, many 
pages of which are borrowed from d'Holbach's System of Nature 
He became Professor of Law in Parma, Milan, and Pavia. A 
member of the Italian Academy, he was named professor at 
Corfu, where he died 8 June, 1835. In '21 he wrote Elements 
of Philosophij , followed by What is a Sound Mind? ('27) and 
Ancient Moral Philosophy , '32. A somewhat obscure writer, he 
nevertheless contributed to the positive study of sociology. 

Romiti (Guglielmo), Italian Positivist. Professor of Anatomy 
in the University of Siena. Has published Anatomical Notes, 
and a Discourse which excited some commotion among the 

Romme (Gilbert), French Mathematician, b. Riou, 1750, 
became deputy to the Legislative Assembly in 1791, and to the 


Convention in 1792. In Sept. 1793 he introduced the^new 
Republican Calendar, the plan of which was drawn byJLaland, 
and the names assigned by Fabre d'Eglantine. He advocated 
the Fetes of Eeason. Being condemned to death, he committed 
suicide, 18 June, 1795. His brother Charles, b. 1744, was also 
an eminent geometrician, and a friend of Laland. He died 15 
June, 1805. 

Ronge (Johannes), German religious reformer, b. Bischop- 
walde (Silesia), 16 Oct. 1813. He entered the seminary of 
Breslau, and became a Catholic priest in '40. His liberal 
views and bold preaching soon led to his suspension. In '44 
his letter denouncing tho worship of " the holy coat," exhibited 
by Arnoldi, Bishop of Treves, made much clamor. Excom- 
municated by the Church, he found many free congregations^ 
but was proscribed after the revolution of '49 and took refuge 
in England. In '51 he issued a revolutionary manifesto. In 
'61 he returned to Frankfort, and in "73 settled at Darmstadt. 
Died at Vienna, 25 Oct. 1887. 

Ronsard (Pierre), French poet, b. of noble family 11 Sept. 
1524. He became page to the Duke of Orleans, and afterwards 
to James V. of Scotland. Eeturning to France, he was a great 
favorite at the French Court. Died 27 Dec. 1585. 

Roorda van Eysinga (Sicco Ernst Willem), Dutch positivist, 
b. Batavia (Java), 8 Aug. 1825. He served as engineer at 
Java, and was expelled about '64 for writing on behalf of the 
Javanese. He contributed to the De Dageraad and Revue 
Positive. Died Clarens (Switzerland), 23 Oct. 1887. 
I • Roquetaillade (Jean de la), also known as Eupescina, early 
French reformer of Auvillac (Auvergne), who entered the order 
of the Franciscans. His bold discourses led to his imprison- 
ment at Avignon 1356, by order of Innocent VI., when he 
wrote an apology. Accused of Magic, Nostradamus says he was 
burnt at Avignon in 1362, but this has been disputed. 

Rose (Charles H.), formerly of Adelaide, Australia, author of 
A Light to Lighten the Gentile)^, 1881. 

Rose (Ernestine Louise) nee Siismond Potowsky, Eadica] 
refoi-mer and orator, b. Peterkov (Poland), 13 Jan. 1810. Hei 
father was a Jewish Eabbi. From early life she was of a bold 


and inquiring disposition. At the age of 17 she went to 
Berlin. She was in Paris during the Revolution of '30. Soon 
after she came to England where she embraced the views of 
Robert Owen, who called her his daughter. Here she mar- 
ried Mr. William E. Rose, a gentleman of broad Liberal viewg. 
In May '36, they went to the United States and became citizens 
of the Republic. Mrs. Rose lectured in all the states on the 
social system, the formation of character, priestcraft, etc. She 
lectured against slavery in the slave-owning states and sent in 
'38 the first petition to give married women the right to hold 
real estate. She was one of the inaugurators of the Woman's 
Rights Movement, and a constant champion of Freethought. 
An eloquent speaker, some of her addresses have been published. 
Defence of Atheism, Women's Rights and Speech at the Hartford 
Bible Convention in '54. About '73 she returned to England 
where she still lives. One of her last appearances at public 
was at the Conference of Liberal Thinkers at South Place 
Chapel in '76, where she delivered a pointed speech. Mrs. 
Rose has a fine face and head, and though aged and suffering, 
i-etains the utmost interest in the Freethought cause. 

Roskoff (Georg Gusiav), German rationalist, b. Presburg, 
Hungary, 30 Aug. 1814. . He studied theology and philosophy 
at Halle, and has written works on Hebrew Antiquity, '57. The 
Samson legend and Herakles myth, '60, and a standard History 
of the Devil in 2 vols., Leipzig, '69. 

Ross (William Stewart), Scotch writer, b. 20 Mar. 1844, 
Author of poems and educational works, and editor of Secular 
Review, now The Agnostic Journal. Wrote God and his Book, 
'87, and several brochures published under the pen name of 
" Saladin." 

Rosseail (Leon), French writer in the Rationalist of Geneva 
under the name of L. Russelli. He published separately the 
I emale Followers of Jesus, founded the Horizon, contributed to 
la Lihre Pensee, and was editor of VAthee, Died 1870. 

Rossetti (Dante Gabriel), poet and painter, b. of Italian 

parents, London, 12 May, 1828. Educated at King's College, 

he became a student at the Royal Academy and joined the 

pre-Raphaelites. As a poet artist he exhibited the richest 



gifts of orignality, earnestness, and splendour of expression. 
Died at Westgato on Sea, 9 April, 1882. 

Rossetti (William Michael) critic and man of letters, brother 
of the preceding, b. London, 25 Sep. 1829. Educated at King's 
College, he became assistant secretary in the Inland Revenue 
Office. He has acted as critic for many papers and edited many 
works, the chief being an edition of Shelley, '70, with a 
memoir and numerous notes. He is Chairman of the Commitee 
of the Shelley Society. 

Rossmaessler (Emil Adolf), German naturalist b. Leipsic 
3 March, 1806. Studied theology, but abandoned it for science, 
and wrote many scientific works of repute. In '48 he was 
elected to Parliament. Among his writings are Man in the 
Mirror of NiUure. '-iQ — 55. The History of the Earthy '68. Died 
as a philosopher 8 April, 1867. 

Roth ( Juliiis), Dr., German author of Religion and Priest- 
craft, Leipzig, 1869 ; Jesuitism, '71. 

Rothenbnecher (Adolph), Dr., German author of an able 
little Handbook of Morals, written from the Secular standpoint, 
Cottbus, 1884. 

Rotteck (Karl Wenceslaus von), German historian and 
statesman b. Freiburg 18 July, 1775. Studied in his native 
town, where in 1798 be became Professor of History. In 1819 
he represented his University in the States of Baden, where 
he distinguished himself by his liberal views. He was for- 
bidden by government to edit any paper and was deprived of 
his chair. This persecution hastened his death, which occurred 
26 Nov 1840. Rotteck's General History of the World (9 vols., 
1827) was very popular and gave one of the broadest views 
of history which had then appeared. 

Rousseau (Jean Jacques), Swiss philosopher, b. Geneva, 28 
June, 1712. After a varied career he went to Paris in 1741 and 
supported himself. In 1715 he obtained a prize from the 
academy o^ Dijon for negative answer to the question " whether 
the re-establishment of the arts and sciences has conduced to 
the purity of morals." This success prompted further literary 
efforts. He published a dictionary of music, the New Heloise 
(1759), a love stories in the form of letters, which had great 


success, and Einilius (May 1762), a moral romance, in which he 
condemns other education than that of following nature. In 
this work occurs his Confession of Faith of a Savoyard Vicar ^ 
discarding the supernatural element in Christianity. The 
French parliament condemned the book 9 June, 1762, and 
prosecuted the writer, who fled to Switzerland, Pope Clement 
XVIII fulminated against Emile, and Rousseau received so 
many insults on account of his principles that he returned to 
Paris and on the invitation of Hume came to England in Jan, 
1766. He knew little English and soon took offence with 
Hume, and asked permission to return to Paris, which he 
obtained on condition of never publishing anything more. He 
however completed his Confes^i.onf!, of which he had previously 
composed the first six books in England. Rousseau was a 
sincere sentimentalist, an independent and eloquent, but not 
deep thinker. His captious temper spoiled his own life, but 
his influence has been profound and far-reaching. Died near 
Paris, 2 July, 1778. 

Rouzade (Leonie) Madame, French Freethought lecturess. 
Has written several brochures and novels, notably Le Momie 
Renverse, 1872, and Ciet ca, ca etla, ideas upon moral philosophy 
and social progress. Writes in Malon's Revue Socia lisfe, and is 
one of the editors of Les Droits des Femmes. 

Roy (Joseph), French translator of Feuerbach's Essence of 
Christianity, 1864, and Religion, Death, Immortality, 'QQ. Has 
also translated Marx's Capital. 

Royer (Clemence Auguste), French authoress, b. Nantes, 24 
April, 1830, of Catholic royalist family. Visiting England in 
'54, she studied our language and literature. Going to 
Switzerland, in '59 she opened at Lausanne a course of logic 
and philosophy for women. In '60 she shared with Proudhon 
in a prize competition on the subject of taxation. In '62 she 
translated Darwin's Origin of Species, with a bold preface and 
notes. In '64 her philosophical romance The Twins of Hellas 
appeared at Brussels, and was interdicted in France. Her ablest 
work is on The Origin of Man and of Societies, '69. In this she 
states the scientific view of human evolution, and challenges 
the Christian creed. This was followed by many memoirs, 
Pre-historic Funeral Rites, '76 ; Two IJypothcse.< of Heredity '77 • 


The Good and the Moral Law, ^81. Mdlle. Royer has contributed 
to the Revue Moderne, Revue de Philosophie, Positive, Revue 
iVAnthropoloyie, etc., and has assisted and spoken at many 
political, social, and scientific meetings. 

Ruedt (P. A.), Ph. D., German lecturer and "apostle of 
-unbelief," b. Mannheim, 8 Dec. 1844. Educated at Mannheim 
and Carlsiuhe, he studied philosophy, philology, and jurispru- 
dence at Heidelberg University, '65-69. Dr. Riidt became 
acquainted with Lassalle, and started a paper, Die Waffe, and 
in '70 was imprisoned for participation in social democratic 
agitation. From '74 to '86 he lived in St. Petersburg as teacher, 
and has since devoted himself to Freethought propaganda. 
Several of his addresses have been published. 

Ruelle (Charles Claude), French writer, b. Savigny, 1810. 
Author of The History of Christianity, '66, and La Schmita, '69. 

Ruge (Arnold), German reformer, b. Bergen (Isle Riigen), 
13 Sept. 1802. Studied at Halle, Jena, and Heidelberg, and as 
a member of the Tugenbuni was imprisoned for six years. 
After his liberation in '30 he became professor at Halle, and 
with Echtermeyer founded the Hallische Jahrbiicher, '38, 
which opposed Church and State. In '48 he started Die Reform. 
Elected to the Frankfort Assembly, he sat on the Extreme 
Left. When compelled to fly he came to England, where he 
wrote New Germany in " Cabinet of Reason " series, and trans- 
lated Buckle's History of Civilisation. He acted as visiting 
iutor at Brighton, where he died 30 Dec. 1880. 

Ruggieri (Cosmo), Florentine philosopher and astrologer, 
patronised by Catherine de Medicis. He began to publish 
Atmanachs in 1604, which he issued annually. He died at 
Paris in 1615, declaring himself an Atheist, and his corpse was 
in consequence denied Christian burial. 

Rumpf (Johann Wilhelm), Swiss author of Church, Faith, 
and Progress, and The Bible and Christ, a criticism (Strasburg^ 
1858). Edited Das Freire Wort (Basle, '56). 

Russell (John). See Amberley. 
S Ryall (Mai thus Questell), was secretary of the Anti- 
Persecution Union, 1842, and assisted his friend Mr. Holyoake 
on The Orach of Reason und The Movement. Died 1846. 


Rydberg (Abraham Viktor), Swedish man of Letters, b. 
Joukoping, 18 Dec. 1829. He has written many works of 
which we mention Tlie Last Athenian Roman Days, and The Magic 
of the Middle Ages, which have been translated into English. 

Rystwick (Herman van), early Dutch heretic who denied 
hell and taught that the soul was not immortal, but the 
elements of all matter eternal. He was sent to prison in 
1499, and set at liberty upon abjuring his opinion, but having 
published them a second time, he was arrested at the Hague, 
and burnt to death in 1511. 

Sabin (Ibn), Al Mursi, Spanish Arabian philosopher, b. 
Murcia about 1218 of noble family. About 1249 he cor- 
responded with Frederick II., replying to his philosophical 
questions. Committed suicide about 1271. 

Sadoc, a learned Jewish doctor in the third century B.C. He 
denied the resurrection, the existence of angels, and the doctrine 
of predestination, and opposed the idea of future rewards and 
punishments. His followers were named after him, Sadducees. 

Saga (Francesco) de Rovigo, Italian heretic, put to death for 
Anti-Trinitarianism at Venice, 25 Feb. 1566. 

Saigey (Emile), French inspector of telegraph wires. Wrote 
Modern Physics, 1867, and The Sciences in the Eighteenth Century: 
Physics of Voltaire, '74. Died 1875. 

SaiUard (F.^, French author of The Revolution and the Church 
(Paris, '69), and The Organisation of the Republic, '83. 

Sainte Beuve (Charles Augnstin), French critic and man of 
letters b. Boulogne, 23 Dec. 1804. Educated in Paris, he 
studied medicine, which he practised several years. A favor- 
able review of V. Hugo's Odes and Ballades gained him the 
intimacy of the Romantic school. As a critic he made his 
mark in '28 with his Historical and Critical Picture of French 
Poetry in the Sixteenth Century. His other principal works 
are his History of Port Royal, '40 — 62; Literary Portraits, 
'32 — 39 ; and Causeries du Lundi, '51 — 57. In '45 he was 
elected to the Academy, and in '65 was made a senator. As a 
critic he was penetrative, comprehensive, and impartial. 

Saint Evremond (Charles de Marguetel de Saint Denis) 
seigneur de, French man of letters, b. St. Denys-le-Guast (Nor- 


rnandy), 1 April, 1713. He studied law, but subsequently 
entered the army and became major-general. He was confined 
in tlie Bastile for satirising Cardinal Mazarin. In England he 
was well received at the court of Charles II. He died in Lon- 
don, 20 Sept. 1703, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
Asked on his death-bed if he wished to reconcile himself to 
God, he replied, he desired to reconcile himself to appetite. 
His works, consisting of essays, letters, poems, and dramas, 
were published in 3 vols. 1705. 

Saint-Glain (Dominique de), French Spinozist, b. Limoges, 
about 1620. He went into Holland that he might profess the 
Protestant religion more freely ; was captain in the service of 
the States, and assisted on the Eotterdam Gazette. Heading 
Spinoza, he espoused his sj'stem, and translated the Tractatus 
Theologico-Politicus into French, under the title of La Clef du 
Sanctiialre, 1678. This making much noise, and being in 
danger of prosecution, he changed the title to Ceremonies 
Super stitieuses des Juifs, and also to Reflexions Curieuses d^un 
Esprit Besinteresse, 1678. 

Saint-Hyacinthe (Themiseul de Cordonnier de), French 
writer, b. Orleans, 24 Sept. 1684. Author of Philosophical 
Researches, published at Rotterdam, 1743. Died near Breda 
(Holland), 1746. Voltaire published his Diner Du Comte de 
Boidainvillitrs under the name of St. Hyacinthe. 

Saint John (Henry). See Bolingbroke, Lord. 

Saint Lambert (Charles, or rather Jean Francois de), 
French writer, b. Nancy, 16 Dec. 1717. After being educated 
among the Jesuits he entered the army, and was admired for 
his wit and gallantry. He became a devoted adherent of Vol- 
taire and an admirer of Madame dn Chatelet. He wrote some 
articles in the Encyclopedic, and many fugitive pieces and 
poems in the literary journals. His poem, the Seasons, 1769 
procured him admission to the Academy. He published 
essays on Helvetius and Bolingbroke, and Le Catechisnie Uni- 
versel. His Philosophical Works were published in 1801. Died 
Paris, 9 Feb. 1803. 

Sale (George), English Oriental scholar, b. Kent, 1680, 
educated at Canterbury. He was one of a society which 


undertook to publish a Univerml History, and was. also one of 
the compilers of the General Dictionary. His most important 
work was a translation of the Koran, with a preliminary dis- 
course and explanatory notes, 1734. He was one of the 
founders of the Society for the Encouragement of Learning. 
Died 14 Nov. 1736. 

Salieres (A.), contributor to VAthee, 1870. Has written a 
work on Patriotism, 1881. 

Sallet (Friedrich von), German pantheist poet of French 
descent, b. Neisse (Silesia), 20 April, 1812. An officer in the- 
army, he was imprisoned for writing a satire on the life of a 
trooper. In '34 he attended Hegel's lectures at Berlin, and in 
'38 quitted the army. He wrote a curious long poem entitled 
the Layman's Gospel, in which he takes New Testament texts- 
and expounds them pantheistically — the God who is made flesh 
is replaced by the man who becomes God. Died Eeichau 
(Silesia), 21 Feb. 1843. 

Salmeron y Alonso (Nicolas), Spanish statesman, b. Alhama 
lo Seco, 1838. Studied law, and became a Democratic journalist ; 
a deputy to the Cortes in 1871, and became President thereof 
during the Eepublic of '73, He wrote a prologue to the work 
of Giner on Phil>sophy and Arts, '78, and his own works were 
issued in 1881. 

Salt (Henry Stephens), English writer, b. India, 20 Sept 

18B1 ; educated at Eton, where he bacame assistant master 

A contributor to Progress, he has written Literary Sketches, '88. 

A monograph on Shelley, and a Life of James Thomson, "B.V.^' 


Saltus (Edgar Evertson), American author, b. New York 
8 June 1858. Studied at Concord, Paris, Heidelberg and 
Munich. In '84 he published a sketch of Bulzac. Next year 
appeared The Philosophy of Disenchnntment, appreciative and 
well written views of Schopenhauer and Hartmann. This was 
followed by The Anatomy of JSegntion, a sketchy account of 
some atheists and sceptics from Kapila to Leconte de Lisle, '86. 
Has also written several novels, and Eden, an episode, '89. His 
brother Francis is the author of Honey and Gall, a book of 
jDoems (Philadelphia, '73.) 

28i^ T - v;.; 


Salverte (Anne Joseph Eusebe Baconniere de), French 
philosopher, b. Paris, 18 July, 1771. He studied among the 
Oratorians. "Wrote Epistle to a Reasonable Woman, an Essay- 
on What should he Believed, 1793, contributed to Marechal's 
Diciionnairedes Athees, published an eloge on Diderot, 1801, and 
many brochures, among others a tragedy on the Death of Jesus 
Christ. Elected deputy in '28, he was one of the warm 
partisans of liberty, and in '30, demanded that Catholicism 
should not be recognised as the state religion. He is chiefly 
remembered by his work on Ihe Occidt Sciences, '29, which was 
translated into English, '46. To the French edition of '56 
Littre wrote a Preface. He died 27 Oct. 1839. On his death 
bed he refused religious offices. 

Sand (George), the pen name of Amandine Lucile Aurore 
DupiN, afterwards baroness Dudnevant, French novelist, 
b. Paris, 1 July, 1804, and brought up by her grandmother 
at the Chateau de Nohant. Reading Rousseau and the philo- 
sophers divorced her from Catholicism. She remained a 
Humanitarian. Married Sept. 1822, Baron Dudnevant, an 
elderly man who both neglected and ill-treated her, and from 
whom after some years she was glad to separate at the sacrifice 
of her whole fortune. Her novels are too many to enumerate. 
The Revolution of '48 drew her into politics, and she started a 
journal and translated Mazzini's Republic and Royalty in Italy, 
Died at her Chateau of Nohant, 8 June, 1876. Her name was 
long obnoxious in England, where she was thought of as an 
assailant of marriage and religion, but a better appreciation of 
her work and genius is making way. 

Sarcey (Franscique), French critic, b. Dourdan, 8 Oct. 1828) 
editor of Le XfXe. Siecle, has written plays, novels, and many 
anti-clerinal articles. 

*' Sarrasi," pseudonym of A. deC ; French Orientalist 

b. Department of Tarn, 1837, author of D Orient Devoile, '80, in 
which he shows the mythical elements in Christianity. 

SauU (William Devonshire), English geologist, b. 1783. He 

established a free geological museum, contributed to the erection 

of the John Street Institute, and was principally instrumental 

in opening the old Hall of Science, City Road. He wrote 



on the connection between astronomy, geology, etc. He died 
26 April, 1855, and is buried in Kensal Green, near his friends, 
Allen Davenport and Henry Hetherington. 

Saunderson (Nicholas), English mathematican, b. Thurleston 
(Yorkshire), 2 Jan. 1682. He lost both his eyes and his sight 
by small pox when but a year old, yet he became conversant 
with Euclid, Archimedes, and Diophantus, when read to him in 
Greek. He lectured at Cambridge University, explaining New- 
ton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, and even 
his works on light and color. It was said, " They have turned 
out Whiston for believing in but one God, and put in Saunder- 
son, who believes in no God at all." Saunderson said that to 
believe in God he must first touch him. Died 19 April, 1739. 

Sauvestre (Charles), French journalist, b. Mans. 1818, one of 
the editors of UOpinion Nationale. Has written on The Clergy 
and Education ('61), Monita Secreta Societatis Jesu; Secret Instruc- 
tions of the Jesuits ('65), On the Knees of the Church ('68), Religious 
Congregations Unveiled ('70), and other anti-clerical works. He 
died at Paris in 1883. 

SaviUe (Sir George), Marquis of Halifax, English statesman, 
b. Yorkshire, 1630. He became President of the Council in 
the reign of James II., but was dismissed for opposing the 
repeal of the Test Acts. He wrote several pieces and memoirs. 
Burnet gives a curious account of his opinions, which he 
probably tones down. 

SawteUe (C. M.), American author of Reflections on the Science 
of Ignorar.ce, or the art of teaching others what you don't know 
yourself, Salem, Oregon, 1868. 

Sbarbaro (Pietro), Italian publicist and reformer, b. Savona, 
1838; studied jurisprudence. He published a work on Ihe 
Philosophy of Research^ '66. In '70 he dedicated to Mauro\i\ di. hook on T he Task f the Nineteenth Century^ 3,nd pre- 
sided at a congress of Freethinkers held at Loreto. Has 
written popular works on the Conditions of Human Progress, 
the Ideal of Democracy, and an essay entitled From Socino to 
Mazzini, '86. 

Schade (Georg), German Deist, b. Apenrade, 1712. He 
believed in the immortality of brutes. In 1770 he was impri- 


soned for his opinions on the Isle of Christiansoe. He settled 
at Kiel, Holstein, in 1775, where he died in 1795. 

Scherer (Edmond), French critic and publicist, b. Paris 
8 April, 1815. Of Protestant family, he became professor of 
exegesis at Geneva, but his views becoming too free, he 
resigned his chair and went to Strasburg, where he became 
chief of the School of Liberal Protestants, and in the Revue de 
Jheologie et de Philosophic Chretienne, '50-60, put forward views 
which drew down a tempest from the orthodox. He also wrote 
in the Bibliotheque Universelle and Revue des Dcux-Mondes. Some 
of his articles have been collected as Melanges de Critique 
Religieuse, '60 ; and Mdanges d'Histoire Religieuse, '64. He 
was elected deputy in '71, and sat with the Republicans of the 
Left, Died 1889. 

Scherr (Johannes), German author, b. Hohenrechberg, 
3 Oct, 1817. Educated at Ziirich and Tiibingen, he wrote in 
'43 with his brother Thomas a Popular ffistorg of Religions and 
Philosophical Ideas^ and in '57 a History of Religion, in three 
parts. In '60 he became Professor of History and Literature 
:it Ziirich, and has written many able literary studies, includ- 
ing histories of German and English literature. Died at 
Ziirich, 21 Nov. 1887. 

Schiff (Johan Moriz), German physiologist, b. Frankfort, 
1823. Educated at Berlin and Gottingen, he became Professor 
of Comparative Anatomy at Berne, '54-63 ; of Physiology at 
Florence, '63-76, and at Genoa. Has written many physiological 
treatises, which have been attacked as materialistic 

Schiller (Johann Christoph Friedrich von), eminent German 
poet and historian, b. Marbech, 10 Xov. 1759. His mother 
wished him to become a minister, but his tastes led him in a 
different direction. A friend of Goethe, he enriched German 
literature with numerous plays and poems, a History of the 
Netherlands Revolt, and of the Thirty Years' War. He died in 
the prime of mental life at Weimar, 9 May, 1805. 

Schmidt (Eduard Oskar), German zoologist, b. Torgau, 

21 Feb. 1823. He travelled widely, and became professor of 

natural history at Jena. Among the first of Germans to accept 

Darwinism, he has illustrated its application in manv direc-» 




tions, and published an able work on Jhe Doctrine of Descent 
and Darwinism in the " International Scientific Series." Died 
atStrasburg, 17 Jan. 1886. 

Schmidt (Kaspar), German philosopher, b. Bayreuth, 25 Oct. 
1806. Studied at Berlin, Erlangen, and Konigsberg, first 
theology, then philosophy. Under the pseudonym of " Max 
Stirner " he wrote a system of individualism The Only One, < nd 
His Possession (Der Einzige und sein Eigenthum), '45. He 
also wrote a History of Reaction in two parts (Berlin, '52), and 
translated Smith's Wealth of Nations and Say's Text-book of 
Political Economy. Died at Berlin, 25 June, 1856. 

Schneeberger (F. J.), Austrian writer, b. Vienna, 7 Sept, 
1827. Has written some popular novels under the name of 
" Arthur Storch," and was one of the founders of the German 
Freethinkers' Union. 

Schoelcher Victor), French philosophist, b. Paris, 21 July 
1801 While still young he joined the secret society Aide-toi, le 
ciel Vaidern, and studied social questions. He devoted himself 
from about '26 to advocating the abolition of slavery, and 
wrote many works on the subject. On 3 March, '48, he was 
made Under Secretary of the Navy, and caused a decree te be 
issued by the Provisional Government enfranchising all slaves 
on French territory. He was elected Deputy for Martinique 
*48 and '49. After 2 Dec '51, he came to London, where he 
wrote occasionally in the Reasoner and National Reformer. He 
returned to France during the war, and took part in the defence 
of Paris. In '71 he was again returned for Martinique, and in 
'75 he was elected a life senator. 

SchoU (Aurelien), French journalist, b. Bordeaux, 14 July, 
1833. He began life as a writer on the Corsaire, founded Satan, 
Le Nain Jaune, etc., and writes on VEvenement. Has written 
several novels, and le Procts de Jesus Christ, '77. 

SchoU (Karl), German writer and preacher to the Free reli- 
gious bodies of Mannheim and Heidelberg, b. Karlsruhe, 17 Aug. 
1820. He became a minister '44, but was suspended for his free 
opinions in '45. His first important work was on the Messiah 
Legend of the East (Hamburg, '52), and in '61 he published a 
volume on Free Speech, a collection of extracts from French, 


English, and American Freethinkers. In '70 he started a 
monthly journal of the Religion of Humanity, ^^■ Werde Lichtl 
which continued for many years. Has published many dis- 
courses, and written Truth, from Ruins, '73, and on Judaism and 
the Reliyion of Humanitij , '79. 

Schopenhauer (Arthur), German pessimist philosopher, b* 
Danzig, 22 Feb. 1788. The sou of a wealthy and well-educated 
merchant and a vivacious lady, he was educated in French and 
English, and studied at Gottingen science, history, and the 
religions and philosophies of the East. After two visits to 
Italy, and an unsuccessful attempt to obtain pupils at Berlin, 
lie took up his abode at Frankfort. In 1815 he wrote his chief 
work, T-he World as ir«7Za«(/if/ea, translated into English in '83. 
His philosophy is expressed in the title, will is the one reality, 
all else appearance. He also wrote The Two Ground Problems of 
Ethics, '61, On the Freedom of Will, and a collection of essays 
entitled Parega and Paralipomena (51). Died at Frankfort, 21 
Sept. 1860. Schopenhauer was a pronounced Atheist, and an 
enemy of every form of superstition. He said that religions 
are like glow-worms ; they require darkness to shine in. 

Schroeter (Eduard), German American writer, b. Hannover* 
4 June, 1810, studied theology at Jena; entered the Free- 
religious communion in '45. In '50, he went to America* 
living since '53 in Sauk City, and frequently lecturing there* 
In '81, he attended the International Conference of Freethinkers 
at Brussels. He was a constant contributor to the Freidenker, 
of Milwaukee, until his death 2 April, 1888. 

Schroot (A), German author of Visions and Ideas (Berlin, 
1865), Natural Law and Human Will; Creation and Man, and 
Science and Life (Hamburg, 1873). 

Schnenemann Pott (Friedrich), German American, b. Ham- 
burg, 3 April, 1826. He joined the " Freie Gemeinde," and was 
expelled from Prussia in 48. After the Revolution he returned 
to Berlin and took part in democratic agitation, for which he 
was tried for high treason, but acquitted. In '54 he removed 
to America, where he made lecturing tours over the States 
settling at San Francisco. 

Schultze (Karl August, Julius Fritz), German writer, b. 
Celle, 7 May, 1846, studied at Jena, Gottingen and Miinich,ha8 


written an able study on Fetishism, Leipzig '71, a pamphlet 
on Eeligion in German Schools, '72, a History of the Philosophy 
of the Renaissance, '74, and Kant and Darwin, '75. In '76, he 
was appointed Professor of Philosophy in Jena, since which 
he has written The Elements of Materialism, '80, Philosophy of 
the Natural Sciences, 2 vols. '81-82, and Elements of Spiritualism f 

Schumann (Robert Alexander), German musical composer, 
b. Nekau, 8 July, 1810. He studied law at Leipsic, but forsook 
it for music. He started a musical journal '34, which he 
edited for some years. His lyrical compositions are unsur- 
passed, and he also composed a *' profane " oratorio. Paradise 
and the Peri ('40). His character and opinions are illustrated 
by his Letters. Died 29 July, 1856. 

Schweichel (Georg Julius Robert), German writer, b. 
Konigsberg, 12 July, 1821. He studied jurisprudence, but 
took to literature. Taking part in the events of '48, after the 
reaction he went to Switzerland. Has written several novels 
dealing with Swiss life, also a Life of Auerhach. He wrote the 
preface to Bulk's hrgang des Lehen's Jesu, 1884. 

Schweitzer (Jean Baptista von), German Socialist poet, b. 
Frankfort, 12 July, 1833. He studied law in Berlin and Heidel- 
berg ; became after Lassalle's death president of the German 
Workmen's Union, and was sent to Parliament in '67. He 
wrote the Zeitgeist and Christianity, '62, The Darwinians, '75, 
and several other works. Died 28 July, 1875. 

Scot (Reginald), English rationalist, author of The Dis- 
coverie of Witchcraft, 1584, the first English work to question 
the existence of witches. It was burnt by order of King 
James I, and was republished in 1886. Scot died in 1599. 

Scott (Thomas), English scholar, b. 28 April 1808. In 
early life he travelled widely, lived with Indians and had been 
page to Chas. X, of France. Having investigated Christianity, 
he in later life devoted himself to Freethought propaganda by 
sending scholarly pamphlets among the clergy and cultured 
classes. From '62-77, he issued from Mount Pleasant, Rams- 
gate, over a hundred different pamphlets by Bp. Hinds, 
F. W. Newman, Kalisch, Lestrange, Willis, Strange, etc., most 
of which were given away. He issued a challenge to the 


Christian Evidence Society, and wrote with Sir G. W. Cox. 
Ihe E7iglis-h Life of Jesus 71. Altogether his publications 
extend to twenty volumes. Little known outside his own 
circle, Thomas Scott did a work which should secure him 
lasting honor. Died at Norwood, 30 Dec. 1878. 

Seaver (Horace Holley), American journalist, b. Boston, 
25 Aug. 1810. In '37 he became a compositor on the Boston 
Investuialor, and during Kneeland's imprisonment took the 
editorship, which he continued for upwards of fifty years 
during which he battled strenuously for Freethought in 
America. His articles were always very plain and to the 
point. A selection of them has been publislied with the title 
Occasional Thou^/hts (Boston, '88). With Mr. Mendum, he 
helped the erection of the Paine Memorial Hall, and won the 
esteem of all Freethinkers in America. Died, 21 Aug. 1889. 
His funeral oration was delivered by Colonel Ingersoll. 

Sebille (Adolphe), French writer, who, under the pseu- 
donym of "Dr. Fabricus," published God, Man, and his latter end^ 
a medico-psychological study, 1868, and Letters Jrom a Materialist 
to Mgr. Dufjanloupj 1868-9. 

Sechenov or Setchenoff (Ivan), Russian philosopher, 
who, in 1863, published Psychological Studies, explaining the 
mind by physiology. The work made a great impression in 
Russia, and has been translated into French by Victor Derely, 
and published in '84 with an introduction by M. G. 

Secondat (Charles de). See Montesquieu. 

Seeley (John Robert), English historian and man of letters 
b. London, 1834, educated at City of London School and 
Cambridge, where he graduated in '57. In '63, he was 
appointed Professor of Latin in London University. In '66, 
appeared his Ecce Homo, a survey of the Life and Work of 
Jesus Christ, published anonymously, and which Lord Shaftes- 
bury denounced in unmeasured terms as vomitted from the pit 
of hell. In '69, he became professor of modern history at 
Cambridge, and has since written some important historical 
works as well as Natural Religion ('82). Prof. Seeley is 
president of the Ethical Society. 


Segond (Louis August), French physician and Positivist, 
^author of a plan of a positivist school to regenerate medicine, 
1849, and of several medical works. 

Seidel (Martin), Silesian Deist, of Olhau, lived at the end 
of the sixteenth century. He held that Jesus was not the 
predicted Messiah, and endeavored to propagate his opinion 
among the Polish Socinians. He wrote three Letters on the 
Messiah, The Fo undatiims of the Christian Religion, in which he 
considered the quotation from the Old Testament in the new, 
and pointed out the errors of the latter. 

Sellon (Edward), English archaeologist, author of The Mono- 
lithic Temples of India ; Annotations on the Sacred Writings of the 
Hindus, 1865, and other scarce works, privately printed. 

Semerie (Eugene), French Positivist, b. Aix, 6 Jan. 1832. 
Becoming physician at Charenton, he studied mental maladies, 
and in '67 published a work on Intellectual Symptoms of Madness, 
in which he maintained that the disordered mind went back 
from Positivism to metaphysics, theology, and then to fetish- 
ism. This work was denounced by the Bishop of Orleans. Dr. 
Semerie wrote A Simple Reply to M. Dupanloup, '68. During the 
sieges of Paris he acted as surgeon and director of the ambu- 
lance. A friend of Pierre Lafitte, he edited the Politique Positive, 
.and wrote Positivists and Catholics, '73, and The Law of the Three 
States, '75. Died at (irasse. May, 1884. 

Semler (Johann Salomo), German critic, b. Saalfeld, 18 Dec. 
1725. He was professor of theology at Halle and founder of 
historical Biblical criticism there. He translated Simon's 
Critical History of the New Testament, and by asserting the right 
of free discussion drew down the wrath of the orthodox. 
Died at Halle, 4 March, 1791. 

Serafini (Maria Alimonda), Italian authoress of a Catechism 
^or Female Freethinkers (Geneva, 1869), and a work on Marriage 
and Divorce (Salerno, '73). 

Serveto y Reves (Miguel), better known as Michael Servetus, 
•Spanish martyr, b. Villanova (Aragon), 1509. Intended for 
the Church, he left it for law, which he studied at Toulouse. 
He afterward studied medicine at Paris, and corresponded 
with Calvin on the subject of the Trinity, against which he 


wrote De Trinitatis Errorihas and Christ la niwii Rcslit'itio^ which 
excited the hatred of both Catholics and Protestants. To- 
Calvin Servetiis sent a copy of his last work. Calvin, through 
one Trie, denounced him to the Catholic authorities at Lyons. 
He was imprisoned, but escaped, and to get to Naples passed 
through Geneva, where he was seized at the instance of Calvin,, 
tried for blasphemy and heresy, and burnt alive at a slow fire,. 
26 Oct. 1553. 

Seume (Johann Gottfried), German poet, b. near Weissen- 
fels, 29 Jan. 1763. He was sent to Leipsic, and intended for a 
theologian, but the dogmas disgusted him, and he left for 
Paris. He lived an adventurous life, travelled extensively,, 
and wrote Promenade to Syracuse, 1802, and other works. Died 
at Teplitz, 13 June, 1810. 

Sextus Empiricus, Greek sceptical philosopher and phy- 
sician, who probably lived early in the third century of the 
Christian era He left two works, one a summary of the doc- 
trines of the sceptics in three books ; the other an attack on 
all positive philosophy'. 

Shadwell (Thomas), English dramatist, b. Straton Hall, 
Norfolk, 1640. Although damned by Dryden in his Mac Flecknoe>- 
Shadwell's plays are not without merit, and illustrate the days 
of Charles 11. Died 6 Dec. 1692. 

Shaftesbury (Anthony Ashley Coopkk), third Earl, b. 
London, 26 Feb. 1671. Educated by Locke, in 1693 he was- 
elected M.P. for Poole, and proposed granting counsel to pri- 
soners in case of treason. His health suffering, he resigned 
and went to Holland, where he made the acquaintance of 
Bayle. The excitement induced by the French Prophets occa- 
sioned his Letters upon Enthusiasm, 1708. This was followed^ 
by his Moralists and Sen.sns Communis. In 1711 he removed 
to Naples, where he died 4 Feb. 1713. His collected works 
were published under the title of Characteristics, 1732. They 
went through several editions, and did much to raise the. 
character of English Deism. 

Shakespeare (William). The greatest of all dramatists, b. 

Stratford-on-Avon, 23 April, 1564. The materials for writing 

his life are slender. He married in his 19th year, went to- 

London, where he became an actor and produced his marvellous- 



plays, the eternal honor of English literature. Shakespeare 
gained wealth and reputation and retired to his native town^ 
where he died April 23, 1616. His dramas warrant the 
inference that he was a Freethinker. Prof. J. R. Green says^ 
" Often as his questionings turned to the riddle of life and 
death, and leaves it a riddle to the last without heeding the 
common theological solutions around him." His compre- 
hensive mind disdained endorsement of religious dogmas and 
his wit delighted in what the Puritans call profanity. Mr. 
Birch in his Inquiry into the Philosophy and Religien of Shakes- 
peare, sustains the position that he was an Atheist. 

Shaw (James Dickson), American writer, b. Texas, 27 Dec» 
1841. Brought up on a cattle farm, at the Civil War he joined 
the Southern Army, took part in some battles, and was- 
wounded. He afterwards entered the Methodist Episcopal 
ministry, '70; studied biblical criticism to answer sceptics, and 
his own faith gave way. He left the Church in March, '83, and 
started the Independent Pulpit at Waco, Texas, in which he 
publishes bold Freethoughc articles. He rejects all superna- 
turalism, and has written The Bible, What Is It ? Studies in 
Theology, The Bible Against Itself, etc. 

SheUey (Percy Bysshe), English poet, b. Field Place 
(Sussex), 4 Aug. 1792. From Eton, where he refused to fag^ 
he went to Oxford. Here he published a pamphlet on the 
necessity of Atheism, for which he was expelled the University. 
His father, Sir Timothy Shelley, also forbade him his house. 
He went to London, wrote Queen Mab, and met Miss West- 
brook, whom, in 1811, he married. After two children had been 
born, they separated. In '16 Shelley learned that his wife had 
drowned herself. He now claimed the custody of his children,^ 
but, in March, '17, Lord Eldon decided against him, largely on 
account of his opinions. Shelley had previously written A 
Letter to Lord Ellenhorough, indignantly attacking the sentence 
the judge passed on D. I. Eaton for publishing Paine's Age of 
Reason. On 30 Dec. '16, Shelley married Mary, daughter of 
William Godwin and Mary Wools tonecraft. In '18, fearing 
their son might also be taken from him, he left England never 
to return. He went to Italy, where he met Byron, composed 
The Cenci, the Witch of Atlas, Prometheus Unbound, Adonais,. 


Epipsychidion, Hellas, and many minor poems of exquisite beauty, 
the glory of our literature. He was drowned in the Bay of 
Spezzia, 8 July, 1822. Shelley never wavered in his Free- 
thought. Trelawny, who knew him well, says he was an 
Atheist to the last. 

Siciliani (Pietro), Professor in the University of Bologna 
b. Galatina, 19 Sep. 1835, author of works on Positive Philosophi/, 
Socialism, Darwinism, and Modern Sociology, '79 ; and Modern 
Psychogeny, with a preface by J. Soury, '82. Died 28 Dec. '85. 

Sidney (Algernon), English Republican, and second son of 
Robert, Earl of Leicester, b. 1617. He became a colonel in the 
Army of Parliament, and a member of the House of Commons. 
On the Restoration he remained abroad till 1677, but being im- 
plicated in the Rye House Plot, was condemned by Judge 
Jeffreys to be executed on Tower Hill, 7 Dec. 1678. 

Sierebois (P.) See Boissiere. 

Siffle (Alexander Francois), Dutch writer, b. Middleburg, 
11 May, 1801. Studied law at Leyden, and became notary at 
Middleburg. He wrote several poems and works of literary 
value, and contributed to de Dageraad. He was a man of wide 
reading. Died at Middleburg, 7 Oct. 1872. 

Sigward (M.),b.St. Leger-sur-Dhume, France, 15 April, 1817. 
An active French democrat and Freethinker, and compiler of 
a Republican calendar. He took part in the International 
Congress at Paris '89, and is one of the editors of Le Danton. 

Simcox (Edith), author of Natural Law in the English and 
Foreign Philosophical Library; also wrote on the Design Argu- 
ment in the Fortnightly Review, 1872, under the signature " H. 

Simon de Tournai a Professor at Paris University early in 
the Xlllth centur3^ He said that " Three seducers," Moses, 
Jesus, and Muhammad, " have mystified mankind with their 
doctrines." He was said to have been punished by God for 
his impiety. 

Simon (Richard), learned French theological critic, b. Dieppe, 
15 May, 1638. Brought up by the Congregation of the Oratory, 
he distinguished himself by bold erudition. His Critical His- 
tory of the Old lestament, 1678, was suppressed by Parliament. 


He followed it with a Critical History of tho New 'le t'imenf,\x\\\Q,h 
was also condemned. Died at Dieppe, 11 April, 1712. 

Simonis. — A physician, b. at Lucques and persecuted in 
Poland for his opinions given in an Atheistic work, entitled 
Simonis Religio^ published at Cracow, 1588. 

Simpson (George), of the Glasgow Zetetic Society, who in 
1838 put forward a Refutation of the Arg anient a priori for the 
being and attributes of God, in reply to Clarke and Gillespie. 
He used the signature " Antitheos." Died about 1844. 

Sjoberg (Walter), b. 24 May, 1865, at Borgo f Finland), live& 
near Helsingfors, and took part in founding the Utilistiska 
Samfundet there. During the imprisonment of Mr. Lennstrand 
he gave bold lectures at Stockholm. 

Skinner (William), of Kirkcaldy, Deist, author of Thoughts 
on Superstition or an attempt to Discover Truth (Cupar, 1822), was 
credited also with Jehovah Unveiled or the God of the Jews, pub- 
lished by Carlile in 1819 

Slater (Thomas), English lecturer, b. 15 Sept. 1820. Has 
for many years been an advocate of Secularism and Co-opera- 
tion. He was on the Town Council of Bury, and now resides 
at Leicester. 

Slenker (Elmina), nee Drake, American reformer, b. of 
Quaker parents, 23 Dec. 1827. At fourteen, she began notes 
for her work. Studying the Bible, afterwards published at 
Boston, '70 ; she conducts the Children's Corner in the Boston 
Investigator, and has contributed to most of the American 
Freethought papers. Has written John's Way ('78), Mary 
Jones, The In/idel Teacher ('85), The Darwins ('79), Free- 
thought stories. Resides at Snowville, Virginia. 

Smith (Geritt), American reformer, b. Utica (N.Y.), 
6 March, 1799, graduated at Hamilton's College. He was elected 
to Congress in 1850, but only served one Session. Though of 
a wealthy slaveholding family, he largely devoted his fortune 
to the Anti-Slavery cause. In religion, originally a Presby- 
terian, he came to give up all dogmas, and wrote The Religion 
of Reason, '64, and Nature the base of a Free Theology, '67. 
Died, New York, 28 Dec. 1874. 

Snoilsky (Karl Johan Gustav), Count, Swedish poet, b. 
Stockholm, 8 Sept. 1841. Studied at Upsala, '60. Displays 


his Freethought in his poems published under the name of 
** Sventrost." 

Socinus [Ital. Sozzini] (Fausto), anti-trinitarian, b Siena, 
5 Dec 1539. He adopted the views of his uncle, Laelio, 
(1525-1562), and taught them with more boldness. In 1574 he 
■went to Switzerland, and afterwards to Poland, where he made 
many converts, and died 3 March, 1604. 

Sohlman (Per August Ferdinand), Swedish publicist, b. 
Nerika, 1824. He edited the Aftonbladet, of Stockholm, from 
^57, and was a distinguished Liberal politician. Died at 
Stockholm, 1874. 

Somerby (Charles Pomeroy), American publisher, b. 1843. 
Has issued many important Freethought works, and is business 
manager of the Truthseeker. 

Somerset (Edward Adolphus Saint Maur), 12tl\ Duke oJ\ 
Td. 20 Dec. 1804. Educated at Eton and Oxford. He married 
2. daughter of Thomas Sheridan. Sat as M.P. for Totnes, 
"'34-35, and was Lord of the Treasury, '35-39, and First Lord of 
the Admiralty, '59-66. In 72 he startled the aristocratic world 
by a trenchant attack on orthodoxy entitled Christian Iheology 
■and Modern Scepticism. He also wrote on mathematics and on 
Monarchy and Democracy. Died 28 Nov. 1885. 

Soury (Auguste Jules), French philosopher, b. Paris, 1842- 
In '65 he became librarian at the Bibliotheque Rationale. He 
has contributed to the Revue des Deux Mondes^ Revue Nouvelle 
and other journals, and has published important works on 
The Bible and Archeology, '72 : Historical Studies on Religions, '77 ; 
Essays of Religious Criticism, '78 ; Jesus and the Gospels, '78, a 
work in which he maintains that Jesus suffered from cerebral 
affection, and which has been translated into English, together 
with an essay on '^Ihe Religion of Israel from his Historical 
Studies. Studies of Psychology, '79, indicated a new direction in 
M. Soury's Freethought. He has since written A Breviary of 
the History of Materialism, '80 ; Naturalist Theories of the World 
and of Life in Antiquity, '81 ; Natural Philosophy, '82 ; Contempo- 
rary Psychological Doctrines, '83. He has translated Noeldeke's 
Literary History of the Old Jestament, '73 ; Haeckel's Proofs of 
Evolution, '79; and Preyer's Elements of General Physiology, '84. 


Southwell (Charles), English orator, b. London, 1814. He 
Served with the British Legion in Spain, and became an actor 
and social missionary. In Nov. '41 he started The Oracle of 
Reason at Bristol, for an article in which on " The Jew Book ' 
lie was tried for blasphemy 14 Jan. '42, and after an able 
defence sentenced to twelve months' imprisonment, and a fine 
of one hundred pounds. After coming out he edited the 
Lancashire Beacon. He also lectured and debated both in 
England and Scotland ; wrote Christianitij Proved Idolatry^ '44 ; 
Apology for Atheism^ '46 : Difficulties of Christianity, '48 : Super- 
stition Unveiled; llie Impossibility of Atheism^ which he held on 
the ground that Theism was unproved, and Another Fourpenny 
Wilderness, in answer to G. J. Holyoake's criticism of the same. 
He also wrote about '45, Confessions of a Freethinker, an account 
of his own life. In '56 he went to New Zealand, and died at 
Auckland 7 Aug. 1860. 

Souverain (N.), French author of Platonism Unveiled 1700, 
a posthumous work. He had been a minister in Poitou and 
was deposed on account of his opinions. 

Sozzini See Socinus, 

Spaink (Pierre Francois), Dutch physician, b. Amsterdam, 
13 Dec. 1862, and studied at the city, wrote for a time on De 
Dageraad, with the pen names **A. Th Eist." and "F.R.S.' 
Has translated Eomanes' Scientific Evidences of Organic Evo- 

Spaventa (Bertrando), Italian philosopher, b. 1817. Since 
'61 he has been professor of philosophy at Naples. Has written 
upon the Philosophy of Kant, Gioberti, Spinoza. Hegel, etc. 
Died 1888. 

Specht (Karl August), Dr. German writer, b. Lhweina, 
2 July, 1845. Has been for many years editor of Menschenthum 
at Gotha, and has written on Brain and Soul, Theology and Science 
and a Popular History of the Worlds Development, which has gone 
through several editions. Dr. Specht is a leading member of 
the German Freethinkers' Union. 

Spencer (Herbert), English philosopher, b. Derby, 1820. He 
was articled to a civil engineer, but drifted into literature. He 
wrote in the Westminster Review, and at the house of Dr. Chap- 
man met Mill, Lewes and " George Eliot."' His first important 


work was Social Statistics^ ^51. Four years later appeared hit? 
Principles of Psychology^ which with First Principles, '62; 
Principles of Biology, '64 : Principles of Sociology, '76-85, and 
Data of Ethics, '79, form part of his " Synthetic Philosophy "' 
in which he applies the doctrines of evolution to the phe- 
nomena of mind and society no less than to animal life. He 
has also published Essays, 3 vols, '58-74; a work onEducation '61 ;. 
Recent Discussions on Science, Philosophy and Morals, '71 ; The 
Sttit/y of Sociology, '72 ; Descriptive Sociology, '72-86, an immense 
work compiled under his direction. Also papers directed against 
Socialism ; The Coming Slavery, '84 ; and Man and the Slate, '85,. 
and has contributed many articles to the best reviews 

Spinosa (Baruch), Pantheistic philosopher, b. of Jewish 
parents, Amsterdam, 24 Nov. 1632. He early engaged in the- 
study of theology and philosophy, and, making no secret of hi& 
doubts, was excommunicated by the Synagogue, 27 July, 1656» 
About the same time he narrowly escaped death by a fanatic's- 
dagger. To avoid persecution, he retired to Rhinsburg, and 
devoted himself to philosophy, earning his living by polishing 
lenses. About 1670 he settled at the Hague, where he remained 
until his deaMi. In 1670 he issued his Tractatus Jheologico- 
politicus, which made a great outcry; and for more than a 
century this great thinker, whose life was gentle and self- 
denying, was stigmatized as an atheist, a monster, and a blas- 
phemer. A re-action followed, with Lessing and Goethe, upon 
whom he had great influence. Though formerly stigmatized 
as an atheist, Spinosa is now generally recognised as among- 
the greatest philosophers. He died in poverty at the Hague, 
21 Feb. 1677. His Ethia^ was published with his Ope7-a Posthiuna. 
The bi-centenary of his death was celebrated there by an 
eloquent address from M. Penan. 

Spooner (Lysander), American writer, b. Athol (Mass.),. 
19 Jan. 1808. His first pamphlet was .4 Deist's Reply to the albged' 
Supernatural Evidences of Christianity . He started letter-carrying 
from Boston to New York, but was overwhelmed with prosecu- 
tions. He published many works against slavery, and in favor 
or Individualism. Died at Boston, 14 May, 1887. 

Stabili (Francesco), see Cecco' d'Ascoli. 

Stamm (August Theodor), German Humanist, wrote The 


Religion of Action^ translated into English, 1860. After the 
events of '48, he came to England, went to America, Aug. '54. 
Standring (George), English lecturer and writer, b. 18 Oct. 
1855, was for some years chorister at a Eitualistic Church, but 
discarded theology after independent inquiry in '73. He 
became hon. sec. of the National Secular Society about '75, 
resigning on appointment of paid sec, was auditor and sub- 
sequently vice-president. Started Republican Chronicle, April, 
1875, this was afterwards called The Republican , and in Sept. 
'88 The Radical. He is sec. of the London Secular Federation, 
and has contributed to the National Reformer, Freethinker, Pro- 
gress, Oar Corner, Reynolds's and Pall Mall Gazette. His brother, 
Sam., b. 27 July, 1853, is also an active Freethinker. 

Stanley (F. Lloyd), American author of An Outline of the 
Future Religion of the World (New York and London, 1884), a 
Deistic work in which he criticises preceding religions. 

Stanton (Elizabeth, nee Cady), American reformer, b. 
Johnstone, New York, 12 Nov. 1815. A friend of Ernestine 
Rose and Lucretia Mott, she was associated with them in the 
Anti-Slavery and the Woman's Rights crusades, of which last 
the first convention was held at her home in Seneca Falls, July 
'48. She edited with her friends, Susan Anthony and Parker 
Pilsbury, The Revolution, and is joint author of History of 
Woman's Suffrage ('80-86). She has written in the North 
American Review notably on " Has Christianity Benefited 
Woman," May, 1885. 

Stap (A.), author of Historic Studies on the origins of Chris- 
tianity. Bruxelles, 1864, and The Immaculate Conception, 1869. 

Starcke (Carl Nicolay), Dr. and teacher of philosophy in 
the University of Copenhagen, b. 29 March, 1858. A decided 
disciple of Feuerbach on whom he published a dissertation 
in '83. This able Monograph on the whole doctrine of the 
German philosopher was in '85, published in a German edition. 
Prof. Starcke has since published in the " International 
Scientific Series," a work on The Primitive Family, in which he 
critically surveys the views of Lubbock, Maine, McLennan, 
etc. He is now engaged on a work on Ethics based on the 
doctrines of Ludwig Feuerbach. 

Stecchetti (Lorenzo). See Guerini (0.) 
305 u 


Stefanoni (Luigi). Italian writer and publicist, b. Milan, 
1842. In '59, his first Romance, The Spanish in Italy was sup- 
pressed by the Aiistrians. He joined Garibaldi's volunteers 
and contributed to Unita Italiana. In '66, he founded at Milan 
the Society of Freethinkers and the organ 11 Libera Pensiero^ 
in which he wrote A critical History of Superstition, afterwards 
published separately 2 vols. '69. He also compiled a Philo- 
sophical Dictionary, '73-75 ; and wrote several romances as 
Vlnfcrno, The Red and Blade of Rome, etc. He translated 
Biichner's Force and Matter. Morin's Jesus reduit. La Mettrie's 
Man-machine. Letourneau's Physiology of the Passions, and 
Feuerbach's Essence of Religion. 

Steinbart fGotthelf, Samuel), German rationalist, b. 
Ziillichau, 21 Sept. 1738. Brought up in a pietist school, he 
became a Freethinker through reading Voltaire. In '74, he 
became Prof, of Philosophy at Frankfurt-on-the-Oder, and 
wrote a System of Pure Philosophy, '78. Died, 3 Feb. 1809. 

Steinthal (Hajjim), German philologist, b. Grobzig, 16 May, 
1823, has written many works on language and mythology. 

Steller (Johann), Advocate at Leipsic, published an 
heretical work, Pilatus liberatoris Jesu suhsidio defensus, 
Dresden, 1674. 

" Stendhal (M. de)," Pseud, see Beyle (M. H.) 
Stephen (Sir James FitzJames), English judge and writer, 
b. London, 3 March, 1829. Studied at Cambridge, graduated 
B.A. '52, and was called to the bar in '54. He was counsel for 
the Eev. Rowland Williams when tried for heresy for writing 
in Essays and Reviews, and his speech was reprinted in '62. 
He wrote in the Saturday Review, and reprinted Essays hy a 
Barrister. From Dec. '69, to April, '72, he was Legal Member 
of the Indian Council, and in '79 was appointed judge. He is 
author of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity , '73, and some valuable 
legal works. He has written much in the Nineteenth Century, 
notably on the Blasphemy Law '83, and Modern Catholicism, 
Oct. '87. 

Stephen (Leslie), English man of letters, brother of pre- 
ceding, b. London, 28 Nov. 1832. Educated at Cambridge, 
where he graduated M.A., '57. He married a daughter of 


Thackeray, and became editor of the CornhiU Magazine from 
'71-82, when he resigned to edit the Dictionary of National 
Biography. Mr. Stephen also contributed to Macmillan, the 
Fortnightly, and other reviews. Some of his boldest writing 
is found in Essays on Freethinking and Plainspeaking, '73. He 
has also written an important History of English Thotight in the 
Eighteenth Century, '76, dealing with the Deistic movement, and 
2he Science of Ethics, '82, besides many literary works. 

Stern (J)., Rahhiner, German writer, b. of Jewish parents, 
Liederstetten (Wurtemburg), his father being Eabbi of the 
town. In '58 he went to the Talmud High School, Presburg 
and studied the Kabbalah, which he intended to translate into 
German. To do this he studied Spinoza, whose philosophy 
converted him. In '63 he graduated at Stuttgart. He founded 
a society, to which he gave discourses collected in his first 
book, Gottesfamme, '72. His Old and New Faith Among the Jews, 
'78, was much attacked by the orthodox Jews. In Women in 
the Talmud, '79, he pleaded for mixed marriages. He has also 
written Jesus as a Jewish Reformer, The Egyptian Rdigion and 
Positivism, and Is the Pentateuch by Moses? In '81 he went to live 
at Stuttgart, where he has translated Spinoza's Ethics, and is 
engaged on a history of Spinozism. 

" Sterne (Oarus) " ; pseud. See Krause (E). 

Stevens(E. A.),of Chicago,late secretary of American Secular 
Union, b. 8 June, 1846. Author of God in the State, and con- 
tributor to the American Freethought journals. 

Stewart (John), commonly called Walking Stewart, b. 
London before 1750. Was sent out in 1763 as a writer to 
Madras. He walked through India, Africa, and America. He 
was a Materialist. Died in London, 20 Feb. 1822. 

" Stirner (Max)." See Schmidt (Kaspar). 

Stosch (Friedrich Wilhelm), called also Stoss (Johann 
Friedrich), b. Berlin, 1646, and studied at Frankfort-on-the- 
Oder. In 1002 he published a little book, Concordia rationis et 
fidei, Amst. [or rather Berlin]. It was rigorously suppressed, 
and the possession of the work was threatened with a penalty 
of five hundred thalers. Lange classes him with German Spi- 
nozists, and says ''Stosch curtly denies not only the imma- 
teriality, but also the immortality of the soul." Died 1704. 
807 ■ 


Stout ('^^ Robert), New Zealand statesman, b. Lerwick 
(Shetland Isles), 1845. He became a pupil teacher, and in '63 
left for New Zealand. In '67 he began the study of the law, 
was elected to the . General Assembly in '75, and became 
Attorney-General in March, '78. He has since been Minister 
of Education of the Colony. 

Strange (Thomas Lumsden), late Madras Civil Service, and 
for many years a judge of the High Court, Madras. A highly 
religious man, and long an Evangelical Christian, he joined 
the Plymouth Brethren, and ended in being a strong, and then 
weak Theist, and always an earnest advocate of practical piety 
in life and conduct, and a diligent student and writer. When 
judge, he sentenced a Brahmin to death, and sought to bring 
the prisoner " to Jesus." He professed himself influenced, but 
at the gallows "he proclaimed his trust to be in Rama and not 
in Christ." This set the judge thinking. He investigated 
Christianity's claims, and has embodied the result in his works. 
The Bible, Is it the Word of God? '71 ; The Speaker'' s Commentary 
Reviewed, '71 ; The Development of Creation on the Earth, '74 ; ^Ihe 
Legends of the Old Testament, '74; and The Sources and Development 
of Christianity , '75. A friend of T. Scott and General Forlong, 
he died at Norwood, 4 Sept. 1884. 

Strauss (David Friedrich), German critic, b. Ludwigsburg 
(Wurtemburg), 27 Jan. 1808. He studied Theology at 
Tiibengen, was ordained in '30, and in '32 became assistant- 
teacher. His Life of Jesus Critically Treated, '35, in which he 
shows the mythical character of the Gospels, aroused much 
controversy, and he was deprived of his position. In '39 the 
Ziirich Government appointed him professor of church history, 
but they were obliged to repeal their decision before the storm 
of Christian indignation. His next important work was on 
the Christian Doctrines (2 vols.), '40 In '47 he wrote on Julian 
the Apostle, and in '58 an account of the Life and Time of Ulrich 
von Hutten. He prepared a New Life of Christ for the German 
People, '64, followed by the Christ of the Creeds and the Jesus of 
History. In '70 he published his lectures on Voltaire, and two 
years later his last work The Old Faith and the ISew, in which 
he entirely breaks not only with Christianity but with the 
belief in a personal God and immortality. A devoted servant 


of truth, his mind was always advancing. He died at his 
native place, 8 Feb. 1874. 

Strindberg (Johan August), Swedish writer, known as the 
Scandinavian Eousseau, b. Stockholm, 22 Jan. 1849. He has 
published many prominent rationalistic works, as TJie Bed 
Chamber and Marriage. The latter was confiscated. He is one 
of the most popular poets and novelists in Sweden. 

Stromer (Hjalmar), Swedish astronomer, b. 1849. He 
lectured on astronomy and published several works thereon, 
and also wrote Confessions of a Freethinker. Died 1887. 

Strozzi (Piero), Italian general in the service of France, b. 
of noble Florentine family 1500. Intended for the Church he 
abandoned it for a military career, and was created marshal of 
France by Henry II. about 1555. He was killed at the siege 
of Thionville, 20 June 1558, and being exhorted by the Due de 
Guiso to think of Jesus, he calmly declared himself an 

Suard (Jean Baptiste Antione), French writer, b. Besancon, 
15 Jan, 1734. He became a devoted friend of Baron d'Holbach 
and of Garat, and corresponded with Hume and Walpole. He 
vfvoiQ Miscellanies of Literature, Qic. He had the post of censor 
of theatres. Died at Paris 20 July, 1817. 

Sue (Marie Joseph, called Eugene), French novelist, b. Paris, 
10 Dec. 1804. He wrote many romances, of which The Mysteries 
of Paris and The Wandering Jew, '42-45, were the most popular. 
In '50 he was elected deputy and sat at the extreme left, but 
was exiled by the coup d'etat. He died as a Freethinker at 
Annecy (Savoy), 3 July 1857. 

Sullivan (J.), author of Search for Deity, an inquiry as to 
the origin of the conception of God (London, 1859). 

Sully Prudhomme (Rene Francois Armand), French poet, b. 
Paris, 16 March 1839. He studied law but took to poetry and 
has published many volumes. In '78 he was made Chevalier of 
Honor, and in '82 member of the Academy, His poems are of 
pessimistic cast, and full of delicacy of philosophical suggestion. 
Sunderland (La Roy), American author and orator, b. Exeter 
(Rhode Island), 18 May, 1803. He became a Methodist preacher 
and was prominent in the temperance and anti-slave rv move- 


ments. He came out of the Church as the great bulwark of 
slavery and opposed Christianity during the forty years pre- 
ceding his death. He wrote many works against slavery and 
Pathetism, '47 ; Book of Human Nature^ '53, and Ideology^ 
3 vols., '86-9. Died in Quincy (Mass.) 15 May, 1885. 

Suttner (Bertha von), Baroness, Austrian author of Inventory 
of a Soul, 1886, and of several novels. 

Sutton (Henry S.), anonymous author of Qulnquenergia ; or. 
Proposals for a New Practical Theology, and Letters from a 
Father to a Son on Revealed Religion. 

Swilll)urne (Algernon Charles), English poet and critic, b. 
London, 5 April, 1837, educated at Oxford, and went to Florence, 
where he spent some time with W. S. Landor. Atalanta in 
Calydon^ a splendid reproduction of Greek tragedy, first showed 
his genius. Poems and Ballads, 1866, evinced his unconven- 
tional lyrical passion and power, and provoked some outcry. 
In \\m Songs before Sunrise, l^ll, he glorifies Freethought and 
Eepublicanism, with unsurpassed wealth of diction and rhythm. 
Mr. Swinburne has put forward many other volumes of melo- 
dious and dramatic poems, and also essays, studies, and prose 

Symes (Joseph), English lecturer and writer, b. Portland, 
29 Jan. 1841, of pious Methodist parents. In '64 he offered 
himself as candidate for the ministry, and was sent to the 
Wesle3^an College, Richmond, and in '67 went on circuit as 
preacher. Having come to doubt orthodoxy, he resigned in '72, 
preached his first open Freethought lecture at Newcastle, 17 
Dec. '76. Had several debates, wrote Philosophic Atheism, Man's 
Place in Nature, Hospitals not of Christian Origin^ Christianity a 
Persecuting Religion, Blows at the Bible, etc. He contributed to 
the Freethinker, and was ready to conduct it during Mr. Foote's 
imprisonment. He went to Melbourne, Dec. '83, and there 
established the Liberator, and has written Life and Death of My 
Religion, '84 ; Christianity and Slavery, Phallic Worship, etc. 

Symonds (John Addington), English poet and author, b. 

Bristol, 5 Oct. 1840, educated at Harrow and Oxford, and was 

elected in '62 to a Fellowship at Magdalen College, which he 

vacated on his marriage. His chief work is on the Renaissance in 



iiaZ?/, 7 vols., completed in '86. He has also written critical 
sketches, studies, and poems. Ill health compels his living 

Taine (Hippolyte Adolphe), D.O.L., brilliant French man of 
letters, b. Vouziers, 21 April. 1828. Educated at the College 
Bourbon (now the Oondorcet Lyceum), in '53 he took the degree 
of Doctor of Letters. In '56 appears his French Philosophers of 
the Nineteenth Centuri^, in which he sharply criticised the 
spiritualist and religious school. He came to England and 
studied English Literature ; his Hand History of which was 
sent in for the Academy prize, '63, but rejected on the motion 
of Bishop Dupanloup on account of its materialist opinions. 
Also wrote on English Positiinsm, a study of J. S. Mill. In '71 
Oxford made him D.O.L., and in Nov. '78, he was elected to the 
French Academy ; his latest work is The Origins of Contemporary 

Talandier (Alfred), French publicist, b. Limoges, 7 Sept. 
1828. After entering the bar, he became a socialist and took 
part in the revolution of '48. Proscribed after 12 Dec. he came 
to England, started trades unions and co-operation, translated 
Smiles's Self-Help, and wrote in the National Pi^eformer, 
Eeturned to Paris in '70 and became professor at the Lycee 
Henri IV. In '74 he was deprived of his chair, but elected on 
the Municipal council of Paris, and two years later chosen as 
deputy, and was re-elected in '81. In '83 he published a 
Popular Rabelais and has written in Oar Corner on that grea 

Taubert (A.), the maiden name of Dr. Hartmann's first wife 
She wrote The Pessimists and their Opponeiits, 1873. 

Taule (Ferdinand), M.D., of Strassburg, author of Notions on 
the Nature and Properties of Organised Matter. Paris, 1866. 

Taurellus (NicolausJ, German physician and philosopher, b. 
Montbehard, 26 Nov. 1547, studied medicine at Tiibingen and 
Basle. For daring to think for himself, and asking how the 
Aristotlelian doctrine of the eternity of the world could be 
reconciled with the dogma of creation, he was stigmatised as 
an atheist. Wrote many works in Latin, the principal of 
which is Philosophisi Triumphans, 1573. He died of the plague 
28 Sept. 1606. 


Taylor (Robert), ex-minister, orator, and critic, b. Edmonton 
18 Aug. 1784. In 1805 he walked Guy's and St. Thomases 
Hospital, and became M R.O.S., 1807. Persuaded to join the 
Church, he entered St. John's, Cambridge, Oct. 1809, in Jan. 
'13 graduated B.A., and soon after took holy orders. He was 
curate at Midhurst till '18, when he first became sceptical 
through discussions with a tradesman. He preached a sermon 
on Jonah which astonished his flock, and resigned. He then 
went to Dublin and published The Clerical Review and started 
" The Society of Universal Benevolence." In '24 he came to 
London and started " The Christian Evidence Society," and 
delivered discourses with discussion ; also edited the PhiU. 
alethian. In '27 he was indicted for blasphemy, tried Oct. 24, 
after an able defence he was found guilty, and on 7 Feb. '28 
sentenced to one year's imprisonment in Oakham Gaol. Here 
he wrote his Syntagma on the Evidences of Christianity, and his 
chief work. The Diegesis, being a discovery of the origins, 
evidences, and early history of Christianity. He also contri- 
buted a weekly letter to The Lion, which R. Carlile started 
on his behalf. On his liberation they both went on " an infidel 
mission " about the country, and on May 30 the Rotunda, 
Blackfriars, was taken, where Taylor attired in canonicals 
delivered the discourses published in The DeviVs Pulpit. He 
was again prosecuted, and on 4 July, '31, was sentenced to two 
year's imprisonment. He was badly treated in gaol, and soon 
after coming out married a wealthy lady and retired. Died at 
Jersey, 5 June, 1844. 

Taylor (Thomas), known as " The Platonist," b. London, 
1758. He devoted his life to the elucidation and propagation 
of the Platonic philosophy. He translated the works of Plato, 
Aristotle, Porphyry, five books of Plotinus, six books of 
Proclus, Gamblichus on the Mysteries, Arguments of Celsus 
taken from Origen, Arguments of Julian against the Christians, 
Orations of Julian, etc. He is said to have been so thorough 
a Pagan that he sacrificed a bull to Zeus. Died in Walworth, 
1 Nov. 1835. 

Taylor (William), of Norwich, b. 7 Nov. 1765. He formed 
an acquaintance with Southey, with whom he corresponded. 
His translations from the German, notably Lessing's Nathan 


the Wise, brought him some repute. He also wrote a Survey of 
German Poetry and English Synonyms, 1830. He edited the 
Norwich Iris, 1802, which he made the organ of his political 
and religious views. In '10 he published anonymously 
A Letter Concerning the Two First Chapters of Luke, also entitled 
Who ivas theFather of Jesus Christ"? 1810, in which he argues that 
Zacharias was the father of Jesus Christ- Also wrote largely 
in the Monthly Preview, replying therein to the Abbe Barruel ; 
and the Critical Review when edited by Fellowes, in which he 
gave an account of the rationalism of Paulus. Died at Norwich, 
5 March, 1836. 

Tchernychewsky (N. G.) See Chernuishevsky. 

" Tela (Josephus)," the Latinised name of Joseph Webbe 
who in 1818 edited the Philosophical Library, containing the 
Life and Morals of Confucius, Epicurus, Isoscrates, Mahomet, 
etc., and other pieces. Webbe is also thought to have been 
concerned in the production of Ecce Homo, '13. Cushing, in 
his Initials and Pseudonyms, refers Tela to " Joseph Webb," 
1735-87 ; an American writer; Grand Master of Freemasons in 
America ; died in Boston." I am not satisfied that this is the 
same person. 

Telesio (Bernardino), Italian philosopher, b. of noble family 
at Cosenza, 1509. He studied at Padua, and became famous 
for his learning, optical discoveries, and new opinions in philo- 
sophy. He wrote in Latin On the Nature of Things according to 
Proper Principles, 1565. He opposed the Aristotleian doctrine 
in physics, and employed mathematical principles in explaining 
nature, for which he was prosecuted by the clergy. He died 
Oct. 1588. His works were placed in the Index, but this did 
not prevent their publication at Venice, 1590. 

Telle (Reinier), or Regnerus Vitellius, Dutch Humanist, 
b. Zierikzee, 1578. He translated Servetus On the Errors of the 
Trinity, published 1620. Died at Amsterdam, 1618. 

Testa (Giacinto), of Messina, Italian author of a curious 
Stoi'ia di Gesu di Nazareth, 1870, in which he maintains that 
Jesus was the son of Guiseppe Pandera, a Calabrian of Brindisi. 

Thaer (Albrecht Daniel). German agriculturist, b. Celle, 
14 May, 1752. Studied at Gottingen, and is said to have 


inspired Lessing's work on Ihe Education of the Human Race 
Died 28 Oct. 1828. 

Theodorus of Gyrene, a Greek philosopher, whose opinions 
resembled those of Epicurus. He was banished fer Atheism 
from his native city. He resided at Athens about 312 b.c. 
When threatened with crucifixion, he said it mattered little 
whether he rotted in the ground or in the air. 

Theophile de Viau, French satiric poet, b. Clerac, 1590. For 
the alleged publication of Le Parnasse Satijriques^ he was accused 
of Atheism, condemned to death, and burnt in effigy. He fled, 
and was received by the Due de Montmorency at Chantilly, 
where he died, 25 Sept. 1626. 

Thompson (Daniel Greenleaf), American author of works 
on 7he Problem of Evil, '87; The Religious Sentiments, etc. He is 
President of the Xineteenth Century Club. 

Thomson (Charles Otto), Captain, b. Stockholm, 3 Jan. 1833. 
Went to sea in '49 and became a merchant captain in '57, and 
was subsequently manager of the Eskilstuna gas works. At 
Eskilstuna he started a Utilitarian Society in '88, of which he 
is president. He has done much to support Mr. Lennstrand in 
his Freethought work in Sweden ; has translated articles by 
Ingersoll, Foote and others, and has lectured on behalf of the 
movement. He shares in the conduct of Fritcinkaren. 

Thomson (James), Pessimistic poet, b. Port Glasgow, 23 Nov. 
1834. Educated at the Caledonian Asylum, London, he became 
a schoolmaster in the army, where he met Mr. Bradlaugh, 
whom he afterwards assisted on the National Reformer. To 
this paper he contributed many valuable essays, translations, 
and poems, including his famous " City of Dreadful Night," 
the most powerful pessimistic poem in the English language, 
(April, '74, afterwards published with other poems in '80). 
*' Vane's Story " with other poems was issued in '81, and "A 
Voice from the Nile," and "Shelley" (privately printed in '84). 
Thomson also contributed to the Secularist and Liberal, edited 
by his friend Foote, who has published many of his articles in 
a volume entitled Satires and Profanities, which includes " The 
Story of a Famous Old Jewish Firm," also published separately. 
Thomson employed much of his genius in the service of Free- 
thought. Died 3 June, 1882. 


Thomson (William), of Cork. A disciple of Bentham, and 
author of The Distribution of Wealth, 1824; Appeal for Women^ 
"'25 ; Labor Reivard, '27, and in the Co-operative Magazine. 

Thorild (Thomas), or Thoben, Swedish writer, b. Bohuslan, 
18 April, 1759. In 1775 he studied at Lund, and in 1779 went 
to Stockholm, and published many poems and miscellaneous 
pieces in Swedish, Latin, German, and English, in which he 
wrote Cromwell, an epic poem. In 1786 he wrote Common Sense 
on Liberty, with a view of extending the liberty of the press. 
He was a partisan of the French Revolution, and for a political 
Tvork was imprisoned and exiled. He also wrote a Sermon of 
Sermons, attacking the clergy, and a work maintaining the 
rights of women. Died at Greifswald; 1 Oct. 1808. He was 
a man far in advance of his time, and is now becoming 

Thulie (Jean Baptiste Henri), French physician and anthro- 
pologist, b. Bordeaux, 1832. In '56 he founded a journal, 
^'Realism." In '66 he published a work on Madness and the Law. 
He contributed to La Pensee Noavelle, defending the views of 
Biichner. He has written an able study. La Femme, Woman, 
published in '85. M. Thulie has been President of the Paris 
Municipal Council. 

Tiele (Cornelis Petrus), Dutch scholar, b. Leyden, 16 Dec. 
1830. Although brought up in the Church, his works all tell 
in the service of Freethought, and he has shown his liberality 
of views in editing the poems of Genestet together with his 
life, '68. He has written many articles on comparative reli- 
gion, and two of his works have been translated into English, 
viz.. Outlines of the History of Religion, a valuable sketch of the 
old faiths, fourth ed. '88 ; and Comparative History of the Egyptian 
and Mesopotamian Religions, '82. 

THlier (Claude), French writer, b. of poor parents, Clamecy, 
11 April, 1801. He served as a conscript, and wrote some 
telling pamphlets directed against tyranny and superstition, 
and some novels, of which we note My Uncle Benjamin. Died 
at Nevers, 12 Oct. 1844. His works were edited by F. Pyat. 

Tindal (Matthew), LL.D., English Deist, b. Beer-ferris, 
Devon, 1657. Educated at Oxford, and at first a High Church- 
man, he was induced to turn Romanist in the reign of 


James II., but returned to Protestantism and wrote The Rights 
of the Christian Church. This work was much attacked by the 
clerg3^, who even indicted the vendors. A defence which he 
published was ordered to be burnt by the House of Commons. 
In 1730 he published Christianity as Old as the Creation, to which 
no less than 150 answers were published. He died 16 Aug. 
1733, and a second volume, which he left in MS., was destroyed 
by order of Gibson, Bishop of London. 

Toland (John), Irish writer, b. Redcastle, near Londonderry, 
30 Nov. 1669. Educated as a Catholic, he renounced that faith 
in early youth, went to Edinburgh University, where he 
became M.A. in 1690, and proceeded to Leyden, studying under 
Spanheim, and becoming a sceptic. He also studied at Oxford, 
reading deeply in the Bodleian Library, and became the cor- 
respondent of Le Clerc and Bayle. In 1696 he startled the 
orthodox with his Christianity not Mysterious, which was 
" presented '' by the Grand Jury of Middlesex and condemned 
by the Lower House of Convocation. The work was also 
burnt at Dublin, Sept. 1697. He wrote a Life of Milton (1698), 
in which, mentioning Eikon Basilike, he referred to the " sup- 
positious pieces under the name of Christ, his apostles and 
other great persons." For this he was denounced by Dr. 
Blackball before Parliament. He replied with Aniytor, in 
which he gives a catalogue of such pieces. He went abroad 
and was well received by the Queen of Prussia, to whom he 
wrote Letters to Serena (1704), which, says Lange, " handles the 
kernel of the whole question of Materialism." In 1709 he pub- 
lished Adeisidsenon and Orifjines Judaic8s. InlllSNazarenuSyOV 
Jewish, Gentile and Mahommedan Christianity, in which he a 
gave an account of the Gospel of Barnabus. He also wrote i B 
four pieces entitled Jetradymus and Pantheisticon ,^h.\c\i described ' 
a society of Pantheists with a liturgy burlesquing that of the 
Catholics. Toland died with the calmness of a philosopher, at 
Putney, 11 March, 1722. Lange praises him highly. 

Tollemache {Hon. Lionel Arthur), b. 1838, son of Baron (s 
Tollemache, a friend of C. Austin, of whom he has written. 
Wrote many articles in Fortnightly Review, reprinted (privately) ; 
as Stones of StumhUng, '84. Has also written Safe Studies, '84 ; ^ 
Recollections of Pallison, '85; and Mr. Ro7nanes's Catechism, '87. j. 


Tone (Theobald Wolfe), Irish patriot, b. Dublin, 20 June, 
1763. Educated at Trinity College in 1784, he obtained a 
scholarship in 1786, B.A. He founded the Society of United 
Irishmen, 1791. Kept relations with the French revolutionists, 
and in 1796 induced the French Directory to send an expedition 
against England. He was taken prisoner and committed 
I suicide in prison, dying 19 Nov. 1798. 

[ Topinard (Paul), M.D., French anthropologist, b. Isle- Adam 
I L830. Editor of the Revae cV AnlhropoLgie, and author of a 
standard work on that subject published in the Library of 
Contemporary Science. 

Toulmin (Greorge Hoggart), M.D., of "Wolverhampton. Author 
of The Antiquity and Duration of the World, 1785; The Eternity 
of the Universe, 1789; the last being republished in 1825. 

Tournai (Simon de). See Simon. 

Traina (Tommaso), Italian jurist. Author of a work on The 
Ethics ofHerhert Spencer, Turin, 1881. 

Travis (Henry), Dr., b. Scarborough, 1807. He interested 
himself in the socialistic aspect of co-operation, and became a 
friend and literary executor to Robert Owen. In '51 — 53 he 
edited Robert Owen's Journal. He also wrote on Effectual 
Reform, Free Will and Law, Moral Freedom and Causation, and 
A Manual of Social Science, and contributed to the National 
Reformer. Died 4 Feb. 1884. 

Trelawny (Edward John),b. Cornwall, Nov. 1792. Became 
intimate in Italy with Shelley, whose body he recovered and 
cremated in August, 1822. He accompanied Byron on his 
Greek expedition, and married a daughter of a Greek chief. 
He wrote Adventures of a Younger Son^ '31 ; and Records of 
Shelley, Byron, and the Author, '78. He died 13 Aug. 1881, and 
was cremated at Gotha, his ashes being afterwards placed 
beside those of Shelley. Trelawny was a vehement Pagan 
despising the creeds and conventions of society. Swinburne 
calls him " World-wide liberty's lifelong lover." 

Trenchard. (John), English Deist and political writer, b. 
■Somersetshire, 1669. He studied law, but abandoned it, and 
twas appointed Commissioner of Forfeited Estates in Ireland. 
Iln conjunction with Gordon he wrote Cato\s Letters on civil and 


religious liberty, and conducted Ihe Independent Whig. He sat 
in the House of Commons as MP. for Taunton; he also wrote 
the Natural History of Superstition, 1709; but La Contagion 
Sacree, attributed to him, is really by d'Holbach. Died 17 Dec. 

Trevelyan (Arthur), of Tyneholm, Tranent, N.B , a writer 
in the Reasoner and National Reformer. Published 2 /^e Insanity 
of Mankind (Edinburgh, 1850), and some tracts. He was a 
Vice-President of the National Secular Society. Died at 
Tyneholm, 6 Feb. 1878. 

Trezza (Gaetano), Italian writer, b. Verona, Dec. 1828. 
Was brought up and ordained a priest, and was an eloquent 
preacher. Study led him to resign the clerical profession. He 
has published Confessions of a Sceptic, '78 ; Critical Studies, 
'78; New Critical Studies, '81. He is Professor of Literature 
at the Institute of High Studies, Florence. To the first num- 
ber of the Revue Internationale '83, he contributed Les Dieiix s'en 
vont. He also wrote Religion and Religions, '84 ; and a Monk 
on St. Paul. A study on Lucretius has reached its third 
edition, '87. 

Tridon (Edme Marie, Gustave), French publicist, b. Chatillon 
sur Seine, Burgundy, 5 June, 1841. Educated by his parents- 
who were rich, he became a doctor of law but never practised. 
In '64 he published in Le Journal des Ecoles,hm remarkable study 
of revolutionary history Les Hehertistes. In May, '65 he founded 
with Blanqui, etc., Le Candide, the precursor of La Libre Pensee^ 
»66, in both of which the doctrines of materialism were 
expounded. Delegated in '65 to the International Students 
Congress at Liege his speech was furiously denounced by 
Bishop Dupanloup; he got more than two years' imprisonment 
for articles in Le Candide and La Libre Pensee, and in Ste Pelagic 
contracted the malady which killed him. While in prison he 
wrote the greater part of his work Du Molochisme Juif, 
critical and philosophical studies of the Jewish religion^ 
only published in '84. After 4 Sept. '70, he founded La Patrie 
en Danger. In Feb. '71 he was elected depnty to the Bordeaux 
Assembly, but resigned after voting against declaration of peace 
He then became a member of the Paris Commune, retiring after 


the collapse to Brussels where he died 29 Aug. 1871. He received 
the most splendid Freethinker's funeral witnessed in Belgium. 
Truebner (Nicolas), publisher, b. Heidelberg, 17 June, 1817. 
After serving with Longman and Co., he set up in business, 
and distinguished himself by publishing works on Freethought, 
religions, philosophy and Oriental literature. Died London, 
30 March, 1884. 

Truelove (Edward), English publisher, b. 29 Oct. 1809. 
Early in life he embraced the views of Robert Owen, and for 
nine years was secretary of the John Street Institution. In 
'44 and '45 he threw in his lot with the New Harmony Com- 
munity, Hampshire. In '52 he took a shop in the Strand, 
where he sold advanced literature. He published Voltaire's 
Philosophical Dictionary and Romances^ Paine's complete works, 
D'Holbach's System of Nature, and Taylor's Syntagma and Diegesis. 
In '58 he was prosecuted for publishing a pamphlet on Tyrannicide , 
by W. E. Adams, but the prosecution was abandoned. In '78 he 
was, after two trials, sentenced to four months' imprisonment for 
publishing R. D. Owen's il/ora? Physiology. Upon his release he 
was presented with a testimonial and purse of 200 sovereigns. 
Trumbull (Matthew M.), American general, a native of 
London, b. 1826. About the age of twenty he went to America, 
served in the army in Mexico, and afterwards in the Civil War. 
General Grant made him Collector of Revenue for Iowa. He 
held that office eight years, and then visited England. In 1882 
he went to Chicago, where he exerted himself on behalf of a 
fair trial for the Anarchists, 

Tschirnhausen (Walthier Ehrenfried), German Count, b. 
1651. He was a friend of Leibniz and Wolff, and in philosophy 
a follower of Spinoza, though he does not mention him. 
Died 1708. 

Tucker (Benjamin R.), American writer, b. Dartmouth, Mass., 
17 April, 1854. Edits Liberty, of Boston. 

Turbiglio (Sebastiano), Italian philosopher, b. Chiusa, 7 July, 
1642, author of a work on Spinoza and the transformation of his 
Jhoughts, 1875. 

Tnrgeuev (Ivan Sergyeevich), Russian novelist, b. Orel, 
28 Oct. 1818. In his novels. Fathers and Sons and Virgin Soil 


lie has depicted characters of the Nihilist movement. Died at 
Bougival, near Paris, 3 Sept. 1883. 

Turner (William), a surgeon of Liverpool, who, under the 
name of William Hammon, published an Answer to Dr. Priestley's 
Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever, 1782, in which he avows him- 
self an Atheist. 

Tuuk (Tilia, Van der), Dutch lady, b. Zandt, 27 Nov. 1854. 
Was converted to Freethought by reading Dekker, and is now 
one of the editors of Be Dageraad. 

Twesten (Karl), German publicist and writer, b. Krcl, 22 
April, 1820. Studied law, '38-41, in Berlin and Heidelberg, 
and became magistrate in Berlin and one of the founders of the 
National Liberal Party. Wrote on the religious, political, and 
social ideas of Asiatics and Egyptians (2 vols.), '72. Died Berlin, 
14 Oct. 1870. 

Tylor (Edward Burnet), D.CL., F.R.S., English anthropo- 
logist, b. Camberwell, 2 Oct. 1832. He has devoted himself to 
the study of the races of mankind, and is the first lining 
authority upon the subject. He has wrote Anahuac, or Mexico 
and the Mexicans, '61; Researches into the Early History of 
Mankind, '65; Primitive Cidture; being researches into the 
development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and 
custom (2 vols.), '71. In this splendid work he traces 
religion to animism, the belief in spirits. He has also written 
an excellent handbook of Anthropology, an introduction to the 
Study of Man and Civilisation, '81 ; and contributed to the 
Encyclopedia Britannica, as well as to periodical literature. He 
is President of the Anthropological Society. 

Tyndall (John),LL.D., F.R.S., Irish scientist, b. near Carlo w, 
1820. In '47 he became a teacher in Queenswood College 
(Hants), and afterwards went to Germany to study. In '56 he 
went to Switzerland with Professor Huxley, and they wrote a 
joint work on glaciers. He contributed to the Fortnightly 
Review, notably an article on Miracles and Special Providence, 
'66. In '72 he went on a lecturing tour in the United States, 
and two years later was president of the British Association. 
His address at Belfast made a great stir, and has been 
published. In addition to other scientific works he has 


published popular Fragments of Science, which has gone 
through several editions. 

Tyrell (Henry). See Church. 

Tyssot de Patot (Simon), b. of French family in Delft, 1655. 
He became professor of mathematics at Deventer. Under the 
pen name of "Jacques Masse" he published Voyages and 
Adventures, Bordeaux, 1710, a work termed atheistic and 
scandalous by Eeimmann. It was translated into English by 
S. Whatley, 1733, and has been attributed to Bayle. 

Ueberweg (Friedrich), German philosopher, b. Leichlingen 
22 Jan. 1826 ; studied at Gottingen and Berlin, and became 
Professor of Philosophy at Konigsberg, where he died 9 June, 
1871. His chief work is a History of Philosophy. Lange cites 
Czolbe as saying " He was in every way distinctly an Atheist 
and Materialist." 

Uhlich (Johann Jacob Marcus Lebericht), German religious 
reformer, b. Kothen 27 Feb. 1799. He studied at Halle and 
became a preacher. For his rationalistic views he was sus- 
pended in 1847, and founded the Free Congregation at Magde- 
burg. He wrote numerous brochures defending his opinions. 
His Religion of Common Sense has been translated and published 
in America. Died at Madgeburg, 23 March, 1872, 

Ule (Otto), German scientific writer, b. Lossow 22 Jan. 1820. 
Studied at Halle and Berlin. In '52 he started the journal 
Die Ndtur, and wrote many works popularising science. Died 
at Halle 6 Aug. 1876. 

Underwood (Benjamin F.). American lecturer and writer, 
b. New York 6 July, 1839. Has been a student and a soldier 
in the Civil War. He fought at Ball's Bluff, Virginia, 21 Oct. 
'61. was wounded and held prisoner in Eichmond for nine 
months. In '81 he edited the Index in conjunction with Mr. 
Potter, and in '87 started The Open Court Sit Chicago. He has 
had numerous debates ; those with the Eev. J. Marples and 
O. A. Burgess being published. He has also published Essays 
and Lectures, The Religion of Materialism, Ivfuence of Christianity 
on Civilisation, etc. His sister, Sara A., has written Heroines of 
Freethought, New York, 1876. 

Vacherot (Btienne), French writer, b. Langres, 29 July, 
1809. In '39 he replaced Victor Cousin in the Chair of Philo- 
321 V 


sophy at the Sorboime. For his free opinions expressed in his 
Critical History of the School of Alexandria, a work in three vols, 
crowned by the Institute, '46-51, he was much attacked by 
the clergy and ai the Empire lost his position. He afterwards 
wrote Essays of Critical Philosophy, '64, and La Religion '69. 

Vacquerie (Auguate), French writer, b. Villequier, 1819. A 
friend of Victor Hugo. He has written many dramas and 
novels of merit, and was director of Le Rappel. 

Vaillant (Edouard Marie), French publicist, b. Yierzon, 
26 Jan. 1840. Educated at Paris and Germany. A friend of 
Tridon he took part in the Commune, and in '84 was elected 
Muncipal Councillor of Paris. 

Vairasse (Denis) d'Alais, French writer of the seventeenth 
century. He became both soldier and lawyer. Author of 
Histoire des Sevarambes, 1677 : imaginary travels in which he 
introduced free opinions and satirised Christianity. 

Vale (Gilbert) author, b. London, 1788. He was intended 
for the church, but abandoned the profession and went to New 
York, where he edited the Citizen of the World and the Beacon. 
He published Fanaticism; its Source arid Influence, N.Y. 1835, 
and a Lift of Paine, '41. Died Brooklyn, N.Y. 17 Aug. 1866. 

Valk (T. A. F. van der), Dutch Freethinker, who, after being 
a Christian missionary in Java, changed his opinions, and 
wrote in De Dageraad between 1860-70, using the pen name of 

VaHa fLorenzo), Italian critic, b. Piacenza, 1415. Having 
hazarded some free opinions respecting Catholic doctrines, he 
was condemned to be burnt, but was saved by Alphonsus, 
King of Naples. Yalla was then confined in a monastery, but 
Pope Nicholas V. called him to Rome and gave him a pension. 
He died there, 1 Aug. 1457. 

Vallee (Geoffrey), French martyr, b. Orleans, 1556. He 
irrote La Beatitude des Chrestiens on le Fleo de la Foy, for which ke 
was accused of blasphemy, and hanged on the Place de GreVe, 
Paris, 9 Feb. 1574. 

Valliss (Rudolph), German author of works on The Natural 
History of Gods (Leip., 1815) ; The Eternity of the World, '75^ 
Catechism of Human Duty, '76, etc. 


Van Cauberg (Adolplie), Belgian advocate. One of the 
founders and president of the International Federation of Free- 
thinkers. Died 1886. 

Van Effen. See Effen. 

Vanini (Lucilio, afterwards Julius C^sar), Italian philo- 
sopher and martyr, b. Taurisano (Otrauto), 1585. At Eome 
and Padua he studied Averroism, entered the Carmelite order^ 
and travelled in Switzerland, Germany, Holland and France 
making himself admired and respected by his rationalistic 
opinions. He returned to Italy in 1611, but the Inquisition 
was on his track and he took refuge at Venice. In 1612 ho 
visited England, and in 1614 got lodged in the Tower. When 
released he went to Paris and published a Pantheistic work in 
Latin On the Admirable Secrets of Nature, the Queen and Goddess 
of MortaU. It was condemned by the Sorbonne and burnt, 
and he fled to Toulouse in 1617; but there was no repose for 
Freethought. He was accused of instilling Atheism into his 
scholars, tried and condemned to have his tongue cut out, his 
body burned and his ashes scattered to the four winds. This was 
done 19 Feb. 1619. President Gramond, author of if/^ior?/ of 
France binder Louis XIII., writes " I saw him in the tumbril a 
they led him to execution, mocking tlie Cordelier who had been 
sent to exhort him to repentance, and insulting our Savior by 
these impious words. ^ He sweated with fear and weakness, 
and I die undaunted.' " 

Vapereau (Louis Gustave), French man of letters, b. Orleans 
4 April, 1819. In '41 he became the secretary of Victor 
Cousin. He collaborated on the Dictionnaire des Sciences 
Philosophiques and the Liberie d". Penser, but is best known by 
his useful Dictionnaire Universel des Contemporains. In '70 he 
was nominated prefect of Cantal,but on account of the violent 
attacks of the clericals was suspended in '73 and resumed his 
literary labors, compiling a Universal Dictionary of Writers, '76, 
and Elements of the History of French Literature, 1883-85. 

Varnhagen von Ense (Karl August Ludwig Philipp), 
German author, b. Dusseldorf, 21 Feb. 1785. He studied 
medicine and philosophy, entered the Austrian and Eussian 
armies, and served in the Prussian diplomatic service. He was 
an intimate friend of Alex, von Humboldt, and shared his 


Freethinking opinions. Died in Berlin, 10 Oct. 1858. He 
vividly depicts the men and events of his time in his Diary. 

Vauvenargues (Luc de Clapiers), Marquis ; French moralist, 
b. Aix, 6 Aug. 1715. At eighteen he entered the army, and 
left the service with ruined health in 1743. He published in 
1746 an Introduction to the Knowledge of the Human Mind, 
foUoived hy Reflections and Maxims, which was deservedly 
praised by his friend Voltaire. Died at Paris 28 May, 1747. 
His work, which though but mildly deistic, was rigorously 
suppressed, and was reprinted about 1770. 

Velthuysen (Lambert), Dutch physician, b. Utrecht, 1622. 
He wrote many works on theology and philosophy in Latin 
His w^orks, De Officio Pastorum and De Idolatria et Superstitione 
were proceeded against in 1668, but he was let off with a tine. 
Died 1685. 

Venetianer (Moritz), German Pantheist, author of Der 
AUgeist, 1874, and a work on Schopenhauer as a Scholastic. 

Vereschagin (Tasily), Russian painter, b. Novgorod, 1842 
He studied at Paris under Gerome, took part in the Russo- 
Turkish war, and has travelled widely- The realistic and 
anti-religious conceptions of his Holy Family and Resurrection 
were the cause of their being withdrawn from the Vienna 
Exhibition in Oct. '85, by order of the archbishop. In his 
Autobiographical Sketches, translated into English, '87, he 
shows his free opinions. 

Vergniaud (Pierre Victurnien), French Girondist orator, b. 
Limoges, 31 May, 1759. He studied law, and became an advo- 
cate. Elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1791, he also 
became President of the Convention. At the trial of the King 
he voted for the appeal to the people, but that being rejected, 
voted death. AVith Gensonne and Guadet, he opposed the 
sanguinary measures of Robespierre, and, being beaten in the 
struggle, was executed with the Girondins, 31 Oct. 1793. 
Vergniaud was a brilliant speaker. He said : " Reason thinks, 
Religion dreams." He had prepared poison for himself, but 
as there was not enough for his comrades, he resolved to suffer 
with them. 

Verlet (Henri), French founder and editor of a journal, 


La Libre Pense'e, 1871, and author of a pamphlet on Atheism and 
the Supreme Being. 

Verliere (Alfred), French author of a Guide du Lihre-Penseur- 
(Paris, 1869) ; collaborated La Libre Pensee, Rationaliste, etc. 
To Bishop Dupanloup's Atheisme et Peril Social he replied with 
Deisnie et Peril Social, for which he was condemned to several 
months' imprisonment. 

Vermersch (Eugene), French journalist, b. Lille about 1840. 
Took part in the Commune, and has written on many Radical 

Vernes (Maurice), French critic, b. Mauroy, 1845. Has 
published Melanges de Critique Rcligieuse, and translated from 
Kuenen and Tiele. 

Veron (Eugene), French writer and publicist, b. Paries 
29 May, 1825. He wrote on many journals, founded ia France 
Republicaine at Lyons, and VArt at Paris. Besides historical 
works he has written VEsthetique in the " Library of Contem- 
porary Science," '78; The Natural History of Religions, 2 vols., 
in the Bibliotheque Materialiste, '84 ; and La Morale, '84. 

Viardot (Louis), French writer, b. Dijon, 31 July, 1800 
came to Paris and became an advocate, but after a voyage in 
Spain, left the bar for literature, writing on the Globe National 
and Siecle. In '41 he founded the Revue Independante with 
" George Sand," and Pierre Leroux. He made translations from 
the Russian, and in addition to many works on art he wrote 
The Jesuits, '57; Apology of an Unbeliever, translated into 
English, '69, and republished as Libre Examen, '71. Died 

Vico (Giovanni Battista), Italian philosopher, b. Naples 1668. 
He became Professor of Rhetoric in the University of that city, 
and published a New Science of the Common Nature of Nations. 
1725, in which he argues that the events of history are 
determined by immutable laws. It presents many original 
thoughts. Died Naples, 21 Jan. 1743. 

Virchow (Rudolf), German anthropologist, b. Schivelbein 
Ponnerania, 13 Oct. 1821. Studied medicine at Berlin and 
became lecturer, member of the National Assembly of '48, and 
Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Berlin. His Cellular 
Pathology, '58, established his reputation. He was chosen 


deputy and rose to the leadership of the Liberal opposition. 
His scientific views are advanced although he opposed the 
Haeckel in regard to absolute teaching of evolution. 

Vischer (Friedrich Theodor), German art critic, b. Ludwigs- 
burg, 30 June, 1807. Was educated for the Church, became a 
minister, but renounced theology and became professor of 
and is Jahrhiicher der G^e<7e«w^arf, '44,was accused of blasphemy 
and for his Freethinking opinions he was suspended two years. 
At the revolution of '48 he was elected to the National 
Assembly. In '5.5 he became Professor at Ziirich. His work 
on uEsihctic, or the Science of the Beautiful, '46-54, is con- 
sidered classic. He has also written. Old and New, '81, and 
several anonymous works. Died Gmunden, 14 Sept. 1887. 

Vitry (Guarin de") French author of a Rapid Examination of 
Christian Dogma, addressed to the Council of 1869. 

Vloten (Johannes van), Dutch writer, b. Kampen, 18 Jan 
1818; studied theology at Leiden and graduated D.D. in '43. 
He has, however, devoted himself to literature, and produced 
many works, translating plays of Shakespeare, editing Spinoza, 
and writing his life — translated into English by A. Menzies. 
He edited ?i\%o De Levenshode, 1865, etc. 

Voelkel (Titus), Dr., German lecturer and writer, b. "Wirsitz 
(Prussian Poland) 14 Dec. 1841. Studied (59-65) theology, natural 
philosophy, and mathematics, and spent some years in France. 
He returned '70, and was for ten years employed as teacher at 
higher schools. Since '80 has been " sprecher " of Freethought 
associations and since '85 editor of the Neues Frdreligioses 
Sonntag>t-Blatt, at Magdenburg. In '88 he was several times 
prosecuted for blasphemy and each time acquitted. He 
represented several German societies at the Paris Congress of 
Freethinkers, '89. 

Voglet (Prosper), Belgian singer, b. Brussels, 1825. He was 
blinded through his baptism by a Catholic priest, and has in 
consequence to earn his living as a street singer. His songs, 
of his own composition, are anti-religious. Many have 
appeared in La Tribune da Peuple, which he edited. 

Vogt (Karl), German scientist^b. Giessen, 5 July, 1817, the 
on of a distinguished naturalist. He studied medicine and 


became acquainted with Agassiz. In '48 he was elected 
deputy to the National Assembly. Deprived of his chair and 
exiled, he became professor of Natural History at Geneva. His 
lectures on Man, His Position in Creation and in the History of the 
Earth, '63, made a sensation by their endorsement of Darwinism. 
They were translated into English and published by the 
Anthropological Society. He has also written a Manual of 
Geology, Physiological Letters, Zoological Letters, Blind Faith and 
Science, etc., and has contributed to the leading Freethought 
journals of Germany and Switzerland. 

Volkmar (Gustav), Swiss critic, b. Hersfeld, 11 Jan. 1809. 
Studied at Marburg "29 — 32 ; became privat docent at Zurich, 
'53, and professor '63. He has written rationalist works on the 
Gospel of Marcion, *52 ; Justin Martyr, '53; the Origin of the 
Gospels, '66; Jesus and the first Christian Ages, '82, etc. 

Volney (Constantin Francois Chassebouf de). Count, 
French philosopher, b. Oraon (Anjou) 3 Feb. 1757. Having 
studied at Ancenis and Angers, he went to Paris in 1774. 
Here he met D'Holbach and others. In 1783 he started for 
Egypt and Syria, and in 1787 published an account of his 
travels. Made Director of Commerce in Corsica, he resigned 
on being elected to the Assembly. Though a wealthy land- 
lord, he wrote and spoke for division of landed property. In 
1791 his eloquent Pudns appeared. During the Terror he was 
imprisoned for ten months. In '95 he visited America. 
Returning to France, Napoleon asked him to become colleague 
in the consulship but Volney declined. He remonstrated with 
Napoleon when he re-established Christianity by the Concor- 
dat, April 1802. Among his other works was a History of 
Samuel and the Law of Nature. Died 25 April, 1820. 

Voltaire (Frangois Marie. Arouet de), French poet, historian 
and philosopher, b. Paris 21 Nov. 1694. Educated by the 
Jesuits, he early distinguished himself by his wit. For a 
satirioal pamphlet on the death of Louis XIV he was sent to 
the Bastille for a year and was afterwards committed again for 
a quarrel with the Chevalier de Eohan. On his liberation he 
came to England at the invitation of Lord Bolingbroke, and 
became acquainted with the English Freethinkers. His Lettres 
Philosophiques translated as " Letters on the English," 1732, 


gave great offence to the clerg}" and was condemned to be burnt. 
About 1735 he retired to the estate of the Marquise de Chatelet 
at Cirey, where he produced many plays. We may mention 
Mahomet, dedicated to the Pope, who was unable to see that 
its shafts were aimed at the pretences of the church. In 1750 
he accepted the invitation of Frederick II. to reside at his 
court. But he could not help laughing at the great king's 
poetry. The last twenty years of his life was passed at Ferney 
near the Genevan territory, which through his exertions 
became a thriving village. He did more than any other man 
of his century to abolish torture and other relics of barbarism, 
and to give just notions of history. To the last he continued 
to wage war against intolerance and superstition. His works 
comprise over a thousand pieces in seventy volumes. Over 
fifty works were condemned by the Index, and Voltaire used 
no less than one hundred and thirty different pen-names. His 
name has risen above the clouds of detraction made by his 
clerical enemies. Died 30 May, 1778. 

Voo (G. W. van der), Dutch writer, b. 6 April, 1806. For 
more than half a century he was schoolmaster and teacher of 
the French language at Rotterdam, where he still lives. He 
contributed many articles to De Dageraad. 

Voamaer (Oarel), Dutch writer, b. the Hague 20 March, 1826. 
Studied law at Leyden. He edited the Tydstroom (1858 — 9) 
and Spectator (1860—73), and wrote several works on Dutch 
art and other subjects. Died at Montreaux (Switzerland), 12 
June, 1888. 

Voysey (Charles), English Theist, b. London 18 March, 1828. 
Graduated B.A. at Oxford, '51, was vicar of Healaugh, York- 
shire, '61 — 71, and deprived 11 Feb. '71 for heresy in sermons 
published in The Sling and the Stone. He has since established 
a Theistic Church in Swallow Street, Piccadilly, and his sermons 
are regularly published . He has also issued Fragments from 
Reimaras, '79, edited The Langham Magazine and published 
Lectures on the Bible and the Theistic Faith, etc. 

Vulpian (Edme Felix Alfred), French physician, b. 5 Jan. 
1826. Wrote several medical works and upon being appointed 
lecturer at the School of Medicine, '69, was violently opposed 


on account of his Atheism. He was afterwards elected to the 
Academy of Sciences. Died 17 May, 1887. 

Wagner (Wilhelm Richard), German musical composer and 
poet, b. Leipsic, 22 May, 1813. From '42-49 he was conductor 
of the Royal Opera, Dresden, but his revolutionary sentiments 
caused his exile to Switzerland, where he produced his "Lohen- 
grin." In '64 he was patronised by Ludwig II. of Bavaria, and 
produced many fine operas, in which he sought that poetry, 
scenery, and music should aid each other in making opera 
dramatic. In philosophy he expressed himself a follower of 
Schopenhauer. Died at Venice, 13 Feb. 1883. 

Waite (Charles Burlingame), American judge, b. Wayne 
county, N.Y. 29 Jan. 1824. Educated at Knox College, Illinois^ 
he was admitted to the Bar in '47. After successful practice 
in Chicago, he was appointed by President Lincoln Justice o 
the Supreme Court of Utah. In '81 he issued his History of the 
Christian Religion to the year a.d. 200, a rationalistic work, which 
explodes the evangelical narratives. 

Wakeman (Thaddeus B.), American lawyer and Positivist, 
b. 29 Dec. 1834, was one of the editors of Man and a president 
of the New York Liberal Club. A contributor to the Free- 
thinkers* Magazine. 

Walferdin (Frangois-Hippolyte), b. Langres, 8 June, 1795* 
A friend of Arago he contributed with him to the enlargement 
of science, and was decorated with the Legion of Honor in 
1844. He published a fine edition of the works of Diderot in 
'57, and left the bust of that philosopher to the Louvre. Died 
25 Jan. 1880. 

Walker (B.), of Worcester. Owenite author of Is the Bible 
True'? and What is Blasphemy f 1843. 

Walker (Edwin C), editor of Lucifer and Fair Play^ Valley 
Falls, Kansas. 

Walker (Thomas), orator, b. Preston, Lancashire, 5 Feb. 
1858. Went to America and at the age of sixteen took to the 
platform. In '77 he went to Australia, and for a while lectured 
at the Opera, Melbourne. In '82 he started the Australian 
Secular Association, of which he was president for two years 
when he went to Sydney. Id '85 he was convicted for lecturing 


on Malthusiaiiism, but the conviction was quashed by the 
Supreme Court. In '87 he was elected M.P. for Northumberland 
district. Is President of Australian Freethought Union. 

Walser (George H.), American reformer, b. Dearborn Co. 
Indiana, 26 May, 1834. Became a lawyer, and a member of 
the legislature of his State. He founded the town of Liberal 
Barton Co. Missouri, to try the experiment of a town without 
any priest, church, chapel or drinking saloon. Mr. Walser 
has also sought to establish there a Freethought University. 

Ward (Lester Frank). American botanist, b. Joliet, Illinois, 
18 June, 1841. He served in the National Army during the 
civil war and was wounded. In '65 he settled at Washington 
*nd became librarian of the U.S. bureau of statistics. He is 
now curator of botany and fossil plants in the U.S. national 
museum. Has written many works on paleo-botany, and two 
volumes of sociological studies entitled Dynamic Sociolo(jy. He 
has contributed the Popular Science Monthly. 

Ward {Mar}' A.), translator of AinieVs Journal^ and authoress 
of a popular novel Robert Elsmere, 1888. 

Warren (Josiah). American reformer, b. 26 June, 1798. 
He took an active part in Robert Owen's communistic experi- 
ment at New Harmony, Indiana, in '25-6. His own ideas he 
illustrated by establishing a " time store " at Cincinnati. His 
views are given in a work entitled True Civilisation. Died 
Boston, Mass. 14 April, 1874. 

Washburn (L. K.), American lecturer and writer,b. Wareham, 
Plymouth, Mass., 25 March, 1846. In '57 he went to Barre. 
Was sent to a Unitarian school for ministers, and was ordained 
in Ipswich, Feb. '70. He read from the pulpit extracts from 
Parker, Emerson, and others instead of the Bible. He went 
to Minneapolis, where he organised the first Freethought Society 
in the State. He aftewards resided at Revere, and delivered 
many Freethought lectures, of which several have been pub- 
lished. He now edits the Boston Investigator. 

Waters (Nathaniel Eamsey), American author of Rome v. 
ReoHin, a memoir of Christian and extra Christian experience. 

Watson (James), English upholder of a free press, b. Malton 
(Yorks), 21 Sept. 1799. During the prosecution of Carlile and 
his shopmen in 1822 he volunteered to come from London to 


Leeds. In Feb. '23 lie was arrested for selling Palmers 
Principles of Nature, tried 23 April, and sentenced to twelve 
months' imprisonment, during which he read Gibbon, Hume, 
and Mosheim. When liberated he became a compositor on the 
Bepuhlican. In '31 Julian Hibbert gave him his type and 
presses, and he issued Volney's Lectures on History. In Feb. '33 
he was sentenced to six months' imprisonment for selling 2he 
Poor Man's Guardian. Hibbert left him £450, which he used 
in printing d'Holbach's System of Nature, Volney's Ruins, 
F. Wright's Lectures, R. D. Owen's pamphlets, Paine's works, 
and other volumes. Died at Norwood, 29 Nov. 1874. 

Watson (Thomas), author of The Mystagogue, Leeds, 1847. 

Watts (Charles), Secularist orator, b. Bristol, 28 Feb. 1835 
Converted to Freethought by hearing Charles Southwell, he 
became a lecturer and assistant editor on the National Reformer. 
Mr. Watts has had numerous debates, both in England and 
.America, with Dr. Sexton, Eev. Mr. Harrison, Brewin Grant, 
and others. He started the Secular Review with G. W. Foote, 
and afterwards Secular Thought of Toronto. He wrote a portion 
of 2'he Freethinker'' s Text Book, and has published Christianity : 
its Origin, Nature and Inflnence ; The Teachings of Secularism com- 
pared with Orthodox Christianity, and other brochures. 

Watts (Charles A.), a son of above, b. 27 May, 1858. Con- 
ducts Watts's Literary Gazette and edits the Agnostic Annued. 

Watts (John), brother of Charles, b. Bedminster, Bristol. 
2 Oct. 1834. His father was a Wesleyan preacher, and he was 
converted to Freethought by his brother Charles. He became 
sub-editor of the Rcasoner, and afterwards for a time edited 
the Natio7ial Reformer. He edited Half Hours With Freethinkers 
with "Iconoclast," and published several pamphlets, L^ogic and 
Philosophy of Atheism, Origin oj Man,Is Man ImniortaU The Devil, 
Who ivere the Writers of the New Testament, etc. Died 31 Oct. 1866. 

Watts (of Lewes, Sussex^, author of the Yahoo, a satire in 
verse (first published in 1833), also The Great Dragon Cast Out. 

Webber (Zacharias), Dutch painter, who in the seventeenth 

century wrote heretical works On the TemptcUion of Christ and 

The Seductij t' Adam and Eve, etc. He defended Bekker, whom 

he surpasscu in boldness. Under the pen name J. Adolphs he 



wrote The True Origin, Continuance and Destruction of Satan, 
Died in 1679. 

Weber (Karl Julius), German author, b. Langenburg, 16 
April, 1767. Studied law at Erlangen and Gotlingen. He 
lived for a while in Switzerland and studied French philosophy, 
which suited his satirical turn of mind. He wrote a history 
of Monkery, 1818-20 ; Letters of Germans Travelling in Germany^ 
'26-28 ; and Demokritos, or the Posthumous Papers of a Laughing 
Philosopher, '32-36. Died Kupferzell, 19 July, 1832. 

Weitling (Wilhelm), German social democrat, b. Magde- 
burg, 1808. He was a leader of " Der Bund der Gerechten," 
the League of the Just, and published at Ziirich llie Gospel of 
Poor Sinners. He also wrote Humanity, As It Is and As It Shoidd 
Be. He emigrated to America, where he died 25 Jan. 1871. 

WeUhausen (Julius), German critic, b. Hameln 17 May 
1844, studied theology at Gottingen, and became professor in 
Griefswald, Halle, and Marburg. Is renowned for his History 
of Israel in progress, '78, etc., and his Prolegomena to the same, 
and his contributions to the Encyclopedia Britannica. 

Westbrook (Richard Brodhead), Dr., American author, b. 
Pike CO., Pennsylvania, 8 Feb. 1820. He became a Methodist 
preacher in '40, and afterwards joined the Presbyterians, but 
withdrew about '60, and has since written 2'he Bible : Whence 
and What f and Man : Whence and Whither ? In '88 Dr. West- 
brook was elected President of the American Secular Union, 
and has since offered a prize for the best essay on teaching 
morality apart from religion. 

Westerman (W. B.) During many years, from 1856—68, 
an active co-operator on De Dageraad. 

Westra (P.), Dutch Freethinker, b. 16 March, 1851. Has for 
some years been active secretary of the Dutch Freethought 
society, " De Dageraad." 

Wettstein (Otto), German American materialist, b. Barmen, 
7 April, 1838. About '48 his parents emigrated. In '58 he 
set up in business as a jeweller at Rochelle. He contributed 
to the Freethinkers' Magazine, 2 he Ironclad Age, and other 
journals, and is treasurer of the National Secular Union. 

White (Andrew Dickson), American educator, b. Homer, 
N.Y., 7 Nov. 1832. He studied at Yale, where he graduated 


in '53 ; travelled in Europe, and in '57 was elected professor of 
history and English literature in the University of Michigan. 
He was elected to the State Senate, and in '67 became first 
president of Cornell, a university which he has largely 
endowed. Among his works we must mention The Warfare of 
Science (N.Y., '76) and Studies in General History and in the 
History of Civilisation, '85. 

Whitman (Walt), American poet, b. West Hills, Long 
Island, N.Y., 31 May, 1819. Educated in public schools, he 
became a printer, and travelled much through the States. In 
the civil war he served as a volunteer army nurse. His chief 
work, Leaves of Gi-ass, with its noble preface, appeared in '55, 
and was acclaimed by Emerson as " the most extraordinary 
piece of wit and wisdom that America has yet contributed." It 
was followed by Drum Taps, November Boughs and Sands at 
Seventy, This " good gray poet " has also written prose essays 
called Democratic Vietas and Specimen Days arid Collect. 

Wicksell (Knut), Swedish author and lecturer, b. Stockholm, 
30 Dec. 1851, studied at Upsala, and became licentiate of 
philosophy in '85. Has written brochures on Population, 
Emigration, Prostitution, etc., and anonymously a satirical 
work on Bible Stories, as by Tante Malin. Represented 
Swedeu at the Paris Conference of '89. 

Wieland (Christopher Martin), German poet and novelist, 
b. near Biberach, 5 Sept. 1733. A voluminous writer, he was 
called the Voltaire of Germany. Among his works we notice 
Dialogues of the Gods, Agathon, a novel, and Euthanasia, in which 
he argues against immortality. He translated Horace, Lucian 
and Shakespeare. Died Weimer,20 Jan. 1813. His last words 
were " To be or not to be." 

Wiener (Christian), Dr., German author of a materialistic 
work on the Elements of Natural Laws, 1863. 

Wiessner (Alexander), German writer, author of an 
examination of spiritualism (Leipsic, 1875). 

Wigand (Otto Friedrich), German publisher, b. Gottingen, 
10 Aug. 1795. In 1832 he established himself in Leipsic, 
where he issued the works of Ruge, Bauer, Feuerbach, Scherr, 
and other Freethinkers. Died 31 Aug. 1870. 


Wightman (Edward), English anti-Trinitarian martyr of 
Burton-on-Trent. Was burnt at Lichfield 11 April, 1612, being 
the last person burnt for heresy in England. 

Wihl (Ludwig), German poet, b. 24 Oct. 1807. Died 
Brussels, 16 Jan. 1882. 

Wilbrandt (Adolf), German 'author, ^b. Eosbock, 24 Aug. 
1837. Has written on Heinrich von Kleist, Holderlin, the 
poet of Pantheism, and published many plays, of which we 
may mention Giordano Bruno, 1874, and also some novels. 

Wilhelmi (Hedwig Henrich), German lecturess and author 
of Vortrage, published at Milwaukee, 1889. She attended the 
Paris Congress of '89. 

Wilkinson (Christopher), of Bradford, b. 1803. Wrote with 
Squire Farrah an able Examination of Dr. Godwins Arguments for 
the Existence of God, published at Bradford, 1853. 

Williams (David), Welsh deist, b. Cardiganshire, 1738. He 
became a dissenting minister but after publishing two volumes 
of Sermons on Religious Hypocrisy, 1774, dissolved the con- 
nections. In conjunction with Franklin and others he founded 
a club and drew up a Liturgy on the Universal Principles of 
Religion and Moi-alify, which he used at a Deistic chapel opened 
in Margaret Street, Cavendish Square, 7 April, 1776. He wrote 
various political and educational works, and established the 
literary fund in 1789. Died Soho, London, 29 June, 1816. 

Willis (Robert), physician and writer, b. Edinburgh, 1799. 
He studied at the University and became M.D. in 1819. He 
soon after carne_ to London, and in '23 became M.R.C.S. He 
became librarian to the College of Surgeons. Besides many 
medical works he wrote a Life of Spinoza, '70, and Servetus and 
Calvin, '77. H© also wrote on The Pentateuch and Book of 
Joshua in the face of the Science and Moral Senses of our Age, and 
A Dialogue hy Way of Catechism, both published by T. Scott. 
Died at Barnes, 21 Sept. 1878. 

Wilson (John), M.A., of Trin. Coll., Dublin, 'author of 
Thoughts on Science, Theology and Ethics, 1885.] 

Wirmarsius (Henrik), Dutch author of Den Ingeheelde Chaos, 

Wislicenus (Gustav Adolf), German rationalist, b. Saxony, 


20 Nov. 1803. He studied theology at Halle, and became a 
minister, but in consequence of his work Letter or Spirit (1845) 
was suspended and founded the Free Congregation. For his 
work on The Bible in the Light of Modern Culture he was, in 
Sept. '53, sentenced to prison for two years. He went to 
America, and lectured in Boston and New York. He returned 
to Europe in '56, and stayed in Ziirich, where he died 14 Oct. 
1785. His chief work. The Bible for Thinking Readers, was 
published at Leipsic in '63. 

Wittichius (Jacobus), Dutch Spinozist, b. Aken, 11 Jan. 
1671. Wrote on the Nature of God, 1711. Died 18 Oct. 1739. 

Wixon (Susan H.), American writer and editor of the 
" Children's Corner '' in the Jruthseeker, has for many years 
been an advocate of Freethought, temperance, and women's 
rights. She was a school teacher and member of the Board of 
Education of the City of Fall River, Mass., where she resides. 
She contributes to the Boston Investigator. 

WoHliy (Dr. F.), German author of Principles of Psychology 
(Leipsic, 1887), in the preface to iwhieh he professes himself 
an Atheist. 

WoUstonecraft (Mary), English authoress, b. Hoxton, 27 
April, 1759. She became a governess. In 1796 she settled in 
London, and began her literary labors with Thoughts on the 
Education of Daughters. She also wrote a Vindication of the 
Rights of Man, in answer to Burke, and Vindication of the 
Rights of Woman. In 1797 she married William Godwin, and 
died in childbirth. 

Wooley (Milton), Dr., American author of Science of the Bible 
1877; Career of Jesus Christ, '77; and a pamphlet on the name 
God. Died Aug. 1885. 

Woolston (Thomas), Rev. English deist, b. Northampton 
1669. He studied at Cambridge, and became a Fellow at 
Sydney College and a minister. He published in 1705 The Old 
Apology, which was followed by other works in favor of an 
allegorical interpretation of Scripture. In 1726 he be^an his 
Six Discourses upon the Miracles, which were assailad in forcible, 
homely language. Thirty thousand copies are said to have been 
sold, and sixty pamphlets were written in opposition. Woolston 
was tried for blasphemy and sentenced (March, 1729) to one 


years imprisonment and a fine of £100. This he could not 
pay, and died in prison 29 Jan. 1733. 

Wright (Elizur), American reformer, b. South Canaan, 
Litchfield Co., Connecticut, 12 Feb. 1804. He graduated at 
Yale College, '26. Having warmly embraced the principles of 
the Abolitionists, he became secretary of the American Anti- 
Slavery Society, and edited the Abolitionist and Commomcealth. 
He was a firm and uncompromising Atheist, and a contributor 
to the Boston Investigator, the Freethinker's Magazine, etc. Died 
at Boston, 21 Dec. '85. His funeral oration was delivered by 
Col. IngersoU. 

Wright (Frances), afterwards D'Arusmont, writer and 
lecturess, b. Dundee, 6 Sept. 1795. At the age of eighteen she 
wrote A Few Days in Athens, in which she expounds and defends 
the Epicurean philosophy. She visited the United States, and 
wrote Views on Society and Manners in America, 1820. She bought 
2,000 acres in Tennessee, and peopled it with slave families 
she purchased and redeemed. She afterwards joined Owen's 
experiment ; in part edited the New Harmony Gazette, and 
afterwards the Free Inquirer. A Course of Popular Lectures was 
published at New York in '29, in Avhich she boldly gives her 
Tiews on religion. She also wrote a number of fables and 
tracts, and assisted in founding the Boston Investigator. Died 
at Cincinnati, 14 Dec. 1852. 

Wright (Henry Clarke), American reformer, b. Sharon, 
Litchfield co. Connecticut, 29 Aug. 1797. A conspicuous 
anti-slavery orator, he was a friend of Ernestine Rose, 
Lucretia Mott, etc. He wrote The Living, Present and the Dead 
Past. Died Pawtucket, Rhode Island, 16 Aug. 1870. 

Wright (Susannah), one of Carlile's shopwomen. Tried 
14 Nov. 1822, for selling pamphlets by Carlile. She made a 
good defence, in the course of which she was continually 

Wundt (Wilhelm Max), German scientist, b. Neckaran 
(Baden), 16 Aug. 1832. His father was a clergyman. He 
■tudied medicine at Tiibingen, Heidelberg, and Berlin, and 
became professor of physiology at Heidelberg in '64, and has 
aince held chairs at Zurich aaid Leipsic. His principal works 


are Principles of Physiological Psychology, '74 ; Manual of Human 
Physiology ; Logic, '83 ; Essays, '85 ; Ethik, '86. 

Wuensch (Christian Ernest), German physician, b. Hohen- 
stein, 1744. Was Professor of Mathematics and Physics in 
Frankfort on the Oder, 1828. 

Wyrouboff (Gr.), Count ; Eussian Positivist, who established 
the Revue de Philosophic Positive with Littre, and edited it with 
him from 1867—83. 

Xenophanes, Greek philosopher, b. Colophon, about 600 B.C. 
He founded the Bleatic school, and wrote a poem on Nature 
and Eleaticism, in which he ridiculed man making gods in his 
own image. 

Ximines (Augustin Louis), Marquis ^, French writer, b. Paris, 
26 Feb. 1726. Was an intimate friend of Voltaire, and wrote 
several plays. Died Paris, 31 May, 1817. 

York (J. L.), American lecturer, b. New York, 1830. He 
became a blacksmith, then a Methodist minister, then 
Unitarian, and finally Freethought advocate. He was for some 
years member of the California Legislature, and has made 
lecturing tours in Australia and through the States. 

Yorke (J. F.), author of able Notes on Evolution and Christi- 
anity, London, 1882. 

Youmans (Edward Livingstone), American scientist, b. 
Coeymans, N. Y., 3 June, 1821. Though partially blind he 
was a great student. He became M.D. about 1851, and began 
to lecture on science, popularly expounding the doctrines of 
the conservation of energy and evolution. He popularised 
Herbert Spencer, planned the *' International Scientific 
Series," and in '72 established the Popular Science Monthly, in 
which he wrote largely. Died at New York, 18 Jan. 1887. 

Zaborowski Moindrin (Sigismond). French scientific 
writer, b. La Creche, 1851. Has written on The Antiquity of 
Man, '74 ; Pre-historic Man, '78 ; Origin of Languages, '79 ; Ihe 
Great Apes, '81 ; Scientific Curiosities, '83. 

Zambrini (Francesco). Italian writer, b. Faenza, 25 Jan. 
1810. Educated at Ravenna and Bologna. He devoted him- 
self to literature and produced a great number of works. 
Died 9 July, 1887. 
337 X 


Zarco (Francisco). Mexican journalist, b. Durango, 4 Dec. 
1829. Edited El SigloXIX and La llastracion, in which he 
used the pen-name of " Fortun.*" He was elected to Congress 
in '55, and imprisoned by the reactionaries in '60. Juarez 
made him Secretary of State and President of Council. He 
was a friend of Gagern. Died Mexico, 29 Dec. 1869. 

Zeller (Eduard), German critic, b. Kleinbottwar (Wurtem- 
berg), 22 Jan. 1814. Studied theology at Tiibingen and Berlin, 
became professor at Berne, '47. He married a daughter of Baur ; 
gave up theology for philosophy, of which he has been professor 
at Berlin since '72. Has written a memoir of Strauss, '74 ; Out- 
lines of the History of Greek Philosophy^ '83 ; Frederick, the Great as 
a Philosopher, '86 ; and other important works. 

Zijde (Karel van der). Dutch writer, b. Overschie, 13 July, 
1838. Has been teacher at Rotterdam. Under the pen-name 
of M. F. ten Bergen he wrote The DeviVs Burial, 1874. Besides 
this he has written many literary articles, and is now teacher 
of Dutch and German at Zaandam. 

Zimmern (Helen), b. Hamburg, 25 March, 1846. Has lived 
in England since '50, and is naturalised. She has written 
lives of Schopenhauer and Lessing, and a paraphrase of 
Firdusi's Shah Nahineh. 

Zola (Emile), French novelist, b. of Italian father, Paris, 
2 April, 1840. By his powerful collection of romances known 
as Les Rougoji Macquart, he made himself the leader of the 
" naturalist " school, which claims to treat fiction scientifically, 
representing life as it is without the ideal. 

Zorrilla (Manuel Ruiz), Spanish statesman, b. Burgo-de- 
Osma, 1834, became a lawyer, and in '56 was returned to the 
Cortes by the Progressive party. For a brochure against the 
Neo-Catholics he was prosecuted. In '70 he became President 
of the Cortes, and has since been exiled for his Republicanism. 

Zouteveen (H. H. H. van). See Hartogh. 

Zuppetta (Luigi), Italian jurist and patriot, b. Castelnuovo, 
21 June, 1810. He studied at Naples, took part in the demo- 
cratic movement of '48, was exiled and returned in 1860, and 
has been Professor of Penal Law in the University of Pavia. 



Jhose which have already appeared are marked * 

Abd al Hakk ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Sabin. 

See Sabin. 
Abu Abd'allah Muhammad ibn Massara al Jabali. 

Arabian pantheist b. 881. He lived at Cordova in Spain and 
studied the works of Empedocles and other Greek philosophers- 
Accused of impiety, he left Spain and travelled through the 
East. Eeturned to Spain and collected disciples whom he led 
to scepticism. He was the most eminent predecessor of Ibn 
Rushd or Averroes. Died Oct. 931. His works were publicly 
burned at Seville. 

* Acosta (Uriel), the name of his work was Examen TradL 
torum Philosophicarum ad legem Scriptam. 

Acuna (Rosario de), Spanish writer and lecturess, b. Madrid 
about 1854. Contributes to Las Dominicales of Madrid. Has 
written The DoWs House, and other educational works. 

* Adams (Robert C), American Freethought writer and 
lecturer, the son of the Rev. Needham Adams, b. Boston 1839. 
He became a sea-captain, and was afterwards shipper at 
Montreal. Has written in Secular Thought the Iruihseeker and 
the Freethinkers'' Magazine, and published rational lectures 
under the title Pioneer Pith, '89. In '89 he was elected Presi- 
dent of the Canadian Secular Union. 

Admiraal (Aart), Dutch writer, b. Goedereede 13 Oct. 1833. 
At first a schoolmaster, he became in '60 director of the 
telegraph bureau at Schoonhoven. He wrote from '56 for 
many years in De Dageraad over the anagram "Aramaldi.'' 
In '67 he published The Religion of the People under the 
pseudonym " Bato van der Maas," a name he used in writing to 
many periodicals. A good mind and heart with but feeble 
constitution. He died 12 Nov. 1878. 


Airoldi (J.) Italian lawyer, b. Lugano (Switzerland), 1829 ; 
a poet and writer of talent. 

Albaida (Don Jose M. Orense), Spanish nobleman (marquis)j 
one of the founders of the Eepublican party. Was expelled 
for his principles ; returned to Spain, and was president of the 
Cortes in 1869. 

* Alchindus. Died about 864. 

* Aleardi had better be deleted. T am now told he was a 

Alfarabi- See Alpharabius. 

Algeri (Pomponio), a youth of Nola. Studied at Padua, 
and was accused of heresy and Atheism, and burnt alive in a 
cauldron of boiling oil, pitch, and turpentine at Eome in 1566. 

Alkemade (A de Mey van), Dutch nobleman, who contri- 
buted to De Dageraad, and also published a work containing 
many Bible contradictions, 1862 ; and in '59 a work on the 
Bible under the pen name '' Alexander de M.'' 

Allais (Denis de). See Vairasse. 

Allais (Giovanni), Italian doctor, b. Casteldelfino, 1847. 

Almquist (Herman), Swedish, b. 1839, orientalist ; pro- 
fessor of philology at the University of CJpsala. An active 
defender of new ideas and Freethought. 

Altmeyer (Jean Jacques), Belgian author, b. Luxembourg, 
20 Jan. 1804. "Was professor at the University of Brussels. 
He wrote an Introduction to the Philosophical Study of the History 
ofHnmamty, '36, and other historical works. Died 15 Sept. 

Amari (Michele), Sicilian historian and orientalist, b. 
Palmero, 7 Jul}-, 1806. In '32 he produced a version of Scott's 
Marmion. He wrote a standard History of the Musulmen in 
Sicily. After the landing of Garibaldi, he was made head of 
public Instruction in the island. He took part in the anti- 
clerical council of '69. Died at Florence, July 1889. 

* Amaury de Chartres. According to L'Abbe Ladvocat his 
disciples maintained that the sacraments were useless, and 
that there was no other heaven than the satisfaction of doing 
right, nor any other hell than ignorance and sin. 



Anderson (Marie), Dutch lady Freethinker, b. the Hague, 
2 Aug. 1842. She has written many good articles in de 
Dageraad, and was for some time editress of a periodical De 
livmtigste Eeuw (the twentieth century),. She has also written 
some novels. She resides now at Wurmburg, Germany, and 
contributes still to de Dageraad. Aspen-name she formerly 
used that of " Meirouw Quarles " and now " Dr. Al. Dondorf." 

* Anthero de Quental. This name would be better under 

Apono. See Petrus de Abano. This would probably be 
best under Abano. 

*Aqmla. Justinian forbade the Jews to read Aquila's 
version of the Scriptures. 

Aranda (Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea), Count, Spanish 
statesman, b. of illustrious family, Saragossa, 18 Dec. 1718. 
Was soldier and ambassador to Poland. He imbibed the ideas 
of the Encyclopasdists, and contributed to the expulsion of the 
Jesuits from Spain in 1767. He also disarmed the Inquisition. 
In 1792 he was elected Spanish minister to France. He was 
recalled and exiled to Aragon, where he died in 1799. 

ArgUleres (Antoine), at first a Jacobin monk and after- 
wards a Protestant preacher, was tortured several times, then 
decapitated and his head nailed to a gibbet at Geneva, 1561—2, 
for having eight years previously taken the part of Servetus 
against Calvin at Pont-de-Veyle in Bresse. 

* Arnould (Victor). Has continued his Tableau in the 
Positivist Revue and La Societe Nouvelle. From 1868 to '73 he 
edited La Liherte, in which many a battle for Freethought has 
been fought. 

Ascarate (Gumezindo de), Spanish professor of law at the 
University of Madrid and Republican deputy, b. Leon about 
1844. One of the ablest Radical [parliamentary orators; in 
philosophy, he is a follower of Krause. He has written Social 
Studies, Self-Govermnent and Monarchy, and other political works. 

Aszo y Del Rio (Ignacio Jordan de), Spanish jurist and 
naturalist, b. Saragossa, 1742. Was professor at Madrid, and 
left many important works on various branches of science 


In his political works he advocated the abolition of ecclesiastical 
power. Died 1814. 

* Auhert de Verse (Noel) had probably better be omitted, 
although accused of blasphemy himself, I find he wrote an 
answer to Spinoza, which I have not been able to see. 

Auerbach (Berthold), German novelist of Jewish extrac- 
tion, b. Nordstetten, 28 Feb. 1812. Devoted to Spinoza, in '41 
he published a life of the philosopher and a translation of his 
works, having previously published an historical romance on 
the same subject. Died Cannes, 8 Feb. 1882. 

* Aymon (Jean). La vie ct VEsprit de M. Benoit Spinoza (La 
Haye, 1719) was afterwards issued under the famous title 
Treatise of Three Impostors. 

* Bahrdt (Karl Friedrich). The writings of this enfant ter- 
rihle of the German Aufklarung fill 120 volumes. 

* Bailey (William Shreeve) was born 10 Feb. 1806. He 
sufiered much on account of his opinions. Died Nashville, 
20 Feb 1886. Photius Fisk erected a monument to his memory. 

* Bancel (Francis Desire). In his work Les Harangues de 
PExil,3 vols., 1863, his Freethought views are displayed. He 
also wrote in La Revue Critique. 

Barnaud (Nicolas), of Crest in Dauphine. Lived during the 
latter half of the sixteenth century. He travelled in France, 
Spain, and Germany, and to him is attributed the authorship of 
a curious work entitled Le Calnnet du Roy de France, which is 
largely directed against the clergy. 

Barreaux. See des Barreaux. 

Barth (Ferdinand)^ b. Mureck, Steyermark Austria, 1828. 
In '48 he attained reputation as orator to working men and 
took part in the revolution. When A^ienna was retaken he 
went to Leipzig and Zurich, where he died in 1850, leaving a 
profession of his freethought. 

Bartrina, Spanish Atheistic poet, b. Barcelona, 1852, where 
he died in 1880. 

Bedingfield (Richard, W. T.), Pantheistic writer, b. May, 
1823, wrote in National Reformer as B.T.W.R., established 
Freelight/70. Died 14 Feb. 1876. 


*BerigardTls (Claudius), b. 15 Aug. 1578. 

*Bertilloil (Louis Adolphe). In a letter to Bp. Dupanloup, 
Apil, '68, lie said, You hope to die a Catholic, I hope to die 
a Freethinker. Died 1883. 

* Berwick (George J.) M.D., Dr. Berwick, I am informed, was 
the author of the tracts issued by Thomas Scott of Ramsgate. 
with the signature of " Presbyter Anglicanus." 

Blein (F.A.A.), Baron^ French author of Essais Philosophiques, 
Paris, 1843. 

Blum (Robert), German patriot and orator, b. Cologne, 
10 Nov. 1807. He took an active part in progressive political 
and religious movements, and published the Christmas Tree 
and other publications. In '48 he became deputy to the 
Frankfort Parliament and head of the Republican party. He 
was one of the promoters at the insurrection of Vienna, and 
showed great bravery in the fights of the students with the 
troops. Shot at Vienna, 9 Nov. 1848, 

* Blumenfield (J. C), this name I suspect to be a pseudonym. 
Bolin (A. W.), a philosophic writer of Finland, b. 2 Aug. 

1835. Studied at Helsingford, '52, and became Doctor of Philo- 
sophy in '66, and Professor in '73. He has written on the Free- 
dom of the Will, The Political Doctrines of Philosophy, etc. A 
subject of Russian Finland ; he has been repeatedly troubled 
by the authorities for his radical views on religious questions. 

Bolivar (Ignacio), Spanish professor of natural history at 
the University of Madrid, and one of the introducers of 
Darwinian ideas. 

Boppe (Herman C), editor of Freidenker of Milwaukee, U.S.A. 

Borsari (Ferdinand), Italian geographer, b. Naples, author 
of a work of the literature of American aborigines, and a 
zealous propagator of Freethought. 

Bostrom (Christopher Jacob), Swedish Professor at Upsala, 
b. 4 Jan. 1797. Besides many philosophical works, published 
trenchant criticism of the Christian hell creed. Died 22 March, 

Boucher (E. Martin), b. Beaulieu 1809. Conducted the 
Rationaliste at Geneva, where he died 1882. His work Search 
for the Truth was published at Avignon, 1884. 


Bourneville (Magloire Desir), French deputy and physician, 

b. Garancieres, 21 Oct. 1840. Studied medicine at Paris, and in 
79 was appointed physician to the asylum of Bicetre. He was 
Municipal Councillor of Paris from "76 to '83. On the death 
of Louis Blanc he was elected deputy in his place. Wrote 
Science and Miracle, '75 ; Hysteria in History, '76 ; and a dis- 
course on Etienne Dolet at the erection of the statue to that 
martyr, 18 May 1889. 

Boutteville (Marc Lucien), French writer, professor at the 
Lycee Bonaparte. Wrote to Dupanloup on his pamphlet 
against Atheism, 1867; wrote in La Pensee Nouvelle, '68: is 
author of a large and able work on the Morality of the Church 
and Natural Morality, '66; and has edited the posthumous 
works of Proudhon, 1870. 

* Bovio (Giovanni), b. Trani, 1838, Dr. of law and advocate. 
Author of a dramatic piece, Cristo alla/esta di Purim, and of a 
History of Law in Italy. Signor Bovio delivered tlie address 
at unveiling the monument to Bruno at Rome, 9 June, 1889. 

Boyer. See Argens. 

*Bradlaugh (Charles), M.P. In April, 1889, he introduced a 
Bill to repeal the Blasphemy Laws. 

Braga (Teofilo), Portuguese Positivist, b. 24 Feb. 1843. 
Educated at Coimbra. Has written many poems, and a History 
of Portugese Literature. Is one of the Republican leaders. 

Branting (Hjalmar), Swedish Socialist, b. i860. Sentenced 
in '88 to three months' imprisonment for blasphemy in his 
paper Social Democraten. 

Braim (Eugen), Dr. See F. W. Ghillany. 

Braim (Wilhelm von), Swedish humoristic poet, b. 1813. 
He satirised many of the Bible stories. Died 1860. 

Brewer (Ebenezer Cobham), English author. Has written 
numerous school books, and compiled a Dictionary of Miracles^ 

Brismee (Desire), Belgian printer, b. Ghent, 27 July, 1822. 
As editor of Le Drapeau he underwent eighteen months' im- 
prisonment. The principle founder of Les Solidaires, he was 
the life-long secretary of that society, and his annual reports 
are a valuable contribution towards the history of Freethought 
in Belgium. An eloquent speaker, many of his Freethought 


orations were printed in La Tribune du Peuple. Died at 
Brussels 18 Feb. 1888. 

* Brothier (Leon), Died about 1874. 

* Brown (G. W ) Dr. Brown's new work is published at 
Eockford, Illinois, and entitled Researches in Jewish History^ 
including the rise and development of Zoroastrianism and the 
derivation of Christianity. 

* Bruno (Giordano), b. Nola, 21 March, 1548. The Avisso di 
Roma of 19 Feb. 1600, records the fact of his being burnt, and • 
that he died impenitent. Signer Mariotti, State Secretary to 
the Minister of Public Instruction, has found a document 
proving that Bruno was stripped naked, bound to a pole, and 
burnt alive, and that he bore his martyrdom with great 

Buen (Odon de), Spanish writer on Las Dominicales, 'of 
Madrid, b. Aragon, 1884. Professor of Natural History at 
the University of Barcelona. Has written an account of a 
scientific expedition From Christiania to Treggurt, has translated 
Memoirs of Garibaldi. He married civilly the daughter of 
F. Lozano, and was delegate to the Paris Freethought Con- 
ference, 1889. 

Calderon (Alfredo), Spanish journalist and lawyer, b. 1852. 
He edits La Justicia. Has written several books on law. 

Calderon (Lauresmo), Professor of Chemistry in the 
University of Madrid, b. 1848. Is a propagator of Darwinian 

Calderon (Salvador), Spanish geologist and naturalist, b. 
1846; professor at the University of Seville. Has made 
scientific travels in Central America, and written largely on 
geological subjects. 

Calvo (Rafael), Spanish actor and dramatic author, b. 1852. 
A pronounced Republican and Freethinker . 

* Canestrini (Giovanni), b. Revo (Trente), 26 Dec 1835. 
Cassels (Walter Richard), a nephew of Dr. Pusey, is the 

author of Supernatural Religion, a critical examinatiour of the 
worth of the Gospels (two vols. 1874 and three 79). Has 
written under his own name Eidolon and other poems, 1850, 
and Poems, '56. In '89 he published A Reply io Dr. Lightfoot's 


Castro (Fernando), Spanish philosopher and historian. He 
was a priest, and on his death-bed confessed himself a Free- 
thinker, and had a secular burial. Died about 1874, aged 60 

Cavia (Mariano), Spanish journalist and critic, b. 1859, 
editor of the Liberal of Madrid. 

* Coke (Henry), author of Creeds of the Day, is the third son 
of the first Earl of Leicester, and was born 3 Jan. 1827. He 
sei-ved in the navy during the first China War, 1840-42. Pub- 
lished accounts of the siege of Vienna, '48, at which he was 
present, also " Eide over Rocky Mountains," which he accom- 
plished with great hardships in '50. Was private secretary to 
Mr. Horsman when Chief Secretary for Ireland in '54-'58. 
Married Lady K. Egerton, 1861. 

Cornette (Henri Arthur Marie), Belgian professor of Flemish 
literature at Antwerp, b. Bruges, 27 March, 1852. A writer in 
VAvenir of Brussels and the Revue Socialite^ he has published 
separate works on Freemasonry ^ 1878; Pessimism and Socialism, 
'80 ; Frcethought Dariuinism, etc. 

Curros (Enriquez), living Spanish poet, who was prosecuted 
by the Bishop of Santiago, of Gralicia, for his collection of 
poems entitled Airs of my Country, but he was acquitted by the 

Czerski (Johannes), German reformer, b. Warlubien, West 
Prussia, 12 May, 1813. He became a Catholic priest in '44, 
broke with the Church, associated himself with Eonge, 
married, and was excommunicated. Has written several 
works against Eoman Catholicism, and is still living at 
Schneidemiikl-Posen . 

D'Ercole (Pasquale), Italian professor of philosophy in the 
University of Turin, author of a work on Christian Theism, 
in which he holds that the principles of philosophic Theism 
are undemonstrated and at variance both with reality and with 

Deschanel (Emile Auguste), French senator, b. Paris, 19 

Nov, 1819. He wrote in the Revue Independante, Revue des 

Deux Mondes and Liberie de Penser ; for writing against clericalism 

in the last he was deprived of his chair. After 2 Dec. he went 



to Belgium. He has been Professor of Modern Literature at 
the College of France, and written many important works. 

Desnoiresterres (Gustave le Brisoys), Frenchman of letters, 
h. Bayeux, 20 June, 1817, author of Epicurienes et Lettres XVIL 
and XVIII. Skcles, 1881, &nd Voltaire et la Societe Fran^aise au 
XVIII. Steele, an important work in eight vols. 

* Desraimes (Maria), b. 15 Aug. 1835. 

Diogenes (ApoUoinates), a Cretan, natural philosopher, 
who lived in the fifth century B.C. He is supposed to have got 
into trouble at Athens through his philosophical opinions 
being considered dangerous to the State. He held that nothing 
was produced from nothing or reduced to nothing ; that the 
earth was round and had received its shape from whirling. 
He made no distinction between mind and matter. 

Donius (Augustinus), a Materialist, referred to by Bacon. 
His work, Be Natura Bominis, in two books, 1581, refers the 
power of the spirit, to motion. The title of his second book is 
■*' Omnes operationes spiritus esse motum et semum." 

Dosamantes (Jesus Ceballos), Mexican philosopher ; author 
of works on Absolute Perfection, Mexico, 1888, and Modern 
Pharisees and Sadducees (mystics and materialists), '89. 

Druskowitz (Helene), Dr., b. Vienna, 2 May, 1858. Miss 
Druskowitz is Doctor of philosophy at Dresden, and has written 
a life of Shelley, Berlin, '84 ; a little book on Ireewill, and The 
Neiv Boctrines, '83, 

Dufay (Henri), author of La Legcndedu Christ, 1880. 

Duller (Eduard), German poet and historian, b. Vienna, 
18 Nov. 1809. He wrote a History of the Jesuits (Leipsic, '40) 
and The Men of the People (Frankfort, '47-'50). Died at 
Wiesbaden, 24 July, 1853. 

*Du Marsais (Cesar Chesneau). He edited Mirabaud's anony- 
mous work on The World and its Antiquity and Ihe Soul and its 
Immortality, Londres, 1751. 

*Fellowes (R.) Graduated B.A. at Oxford 1796, M.A. 1801. 
Died 6 Feb. 1847. 

Figueras-y-Moracas (Estanilas), Spanish statesman and 
orator, b. Barcelona, 13 Nov. 1810. Studied law and soon mani- 
fested Eepublican opinions. In '51 he was elected to the 


Cortes, was exiled in '66, but returned in '68. He fought the 
candidature of the Due de Montpensier in '69, and became 
President of the Spanish Eepublic 12 Feb. '73. Died poor 
in 1879, and was buried without religious ceremony, according 
to his wish. 

Fitzgerald (Edward), English poet and translator, b. near 
Woodbridge, Suffolk, 31 March, 1809. Educated at Cambridge 
and took his degree in '30. He lived the life of a recluse, 
and produced a fine translation of Calderon. His fame rests 
securely on his fine rendering of the Quatrains of Omar 
Khayyam. Died 14 June, 1883. 

Galletti (Baldassare), cavalier Pantheist of Palermo. Has 
translated Feuerbach on Death and Immortality^ and also 
translated from Morin. Died Rome, 18 Feb. 1887. 

Ganeval (Louis), French professor in Egypt, b. Veziat, 1815, 
author of a work on Egypt and Jesus d^vant Vhistoire na jamais 
vecu. The first part, published in '74, was prohibited in France^ 
and the second part was published at Geneva in '79. 

Garrido (Fernando), Spanish writer, author of Memoirs of a 
Sceptic, Cadiz 1843, a work on Contemporary Spain, pubtished 
at Brussels in '62, The Jesuits, and a large History of Political 
and Religious Persecutions, a work rendered into English in con- 
junction with C. B. Cayley. Died at Cordova in 1884. 

Gerling (Fr. Wilhelm), German author of Letter of a 
Materialist to an Idealist, Berlin 1888, to which Frau Hedwig 
Henrich Wilhelmi contributes a preface. 

Geroult de Pival, French librarian at Rouen ; probably the 
author of Doutes sur la Religion, Londres, 1767. Died at Paris 
about 1772. 

Goffin (Nicolas), founder of the Society La Libre of Liege 
and President of La Libre Pensee of Brussels, and one of the 
General Council of the International Federation of Freethinkers. 
Died 23 May, 1884. 

Goldhawke (J. H.), author of the Solar Allegories, proving 
that the greater number of personages mentioned in the Cld 
and New Testaments are allegorical beings, Calcutta 1853. 

Gorani (Guiseppe), count, b. Milan, 1744. He was intimate 
with Beccaria, D'Holbach, and Diderot. He wrote a treatise on 
Despotism, published anonymously, 1770 ; defended the French 


Eevolution and was made a Freiich citizen. Died poor at 
Geneva, 12 Dec. 1819. 

Govett (Frank), author of the Pains of Life, 1889, a pessi- 
mistic reply to Sir J. Lubbock's Pleasures of Life, Mr. Govett 
rejects the consolations of religion. 

Guimet (Etienne Emile), French traveller, musician, 
anthropologist and philanthropist, b. Lj^ons, 2 June, 1836. 
the son of the inventor of ultramarine, whose business he 
continued. He has visited most parts of the world and formed 
a collection of objects illustrating religions. These he formed 
into a museum in his native town, where he also founded a 
library and a school for Oriental languages. This fine museum 
which cost several million francs, he presented to his country, 
and it is now at Paris, where M. Guimet acts as curator. 
In 1880 he began publishing Aimales du Muse'e Guimet, 
in which original articles appear on Oriental Eeligions. 
He has also written many works upon his travels. He 
attended the banquet in connection' with the International 
Congress of Freethinkers at Paris, 1889. 

Guynemer (A. M. A. de), French author of a dictionary of 
astronomy, 1852, and an anonymous unbelievers' dictionary, 
'69, in which many points of theology are discussed in 
alphabetical order. 

Hamerling ^Robert), German poet, b. Kirchberg am Wald, 
24 March, 1830. Author of many fine poems, of which we 
mention Ahasuerus in Eome '66. The King of Sion ; Danton 
and Robespierre a tragedy. He translated Leopardis' poems 
'86. Died at Gratz, 13 July, 1889. 

Heyse (Paul Johann Ludwig), German poet and novelist, 
b. Berlin, 15 March, 1830. Educated at the University, after 
travelling to Switzerland and Italy he settled at Munich 
in '54. Has produced many popular plays and romances, of 
we specially mention The Children of the World, '73, a novel 
describing social and religious life of Germany at the present 
day, and In Paradise. 1875. 

Hicks (L. E.) American geologist, author] of A Critique of 
Design Arguments. Boston, 1883. 

Hitchman (William), English physician, b. Northleach, 


Gloucestershire, 1819, became M^R.O.S. in '41, M.D. at Erlangeriy 
BaTaria. He established Freelight, and wrote a pamphlet. 
Fifty Years o/Freethought. Died 1888. 

HoeflFding (Harald), Dr., Professor of Philosophy at the 
University of Copenhagen, b. Copenhagen, 1843, Has been 
professor since '83. Is absolutely free in his opinion and has 
published works on the newer philosophy in Germany, '72, 
and in England, '74. In the latter work special attention is 
devoted to the works of Mill and Spencer. German editions 
have been published of his works Grundlage der humanen Ethik 
(Basis of Human Ethics '80), Psychologie im Umries (Outlines of 
Psychology '87). and Ethik 1888. 

Hoist (Nils Olaf), Swedish geologist, b. 1846. Chairman of 
the Swedish Society for Religious Liberty. 

Ignell (Nils), Swedish rationalist, b. 12 July, 1806. Brought 
up as a priest, his free views gave gi-eat offence. He trans- 
lated Kenan's Life of Jesus, and did much to arouse opposi- 
tion to orthodox Christianity. Died at Stockholm, 3 June, 1864. 

Jacobsen (Jens Peter), Danish novelist and botanist, b. 
Thistede, 7 April, 1847. He did much to spread Darwinian 
views in Scandinavia, translating the Origin of Species and 
Descent of Man. Among his novels we may name Fru Marie 
Grubbe, scenes from the XVII . century, and Niels Lyhne, in 
which he develops the philosophy of Atheism. This able 
young writer died at his birth place, 3 April 1885. 

Kleist (Heinrich von), German poet, b. Frankfurt-on-Oder, 
18 Oct. 1777. Left an orphan at eleven, he enlisted in the 
army in 1795, quitted it in four years and took to study, 
Kant's Philosophy made him a complete sceptic. In 1800 he 
went to Paris to teach Kantian philosophy, but the results were 
not encouraging. Committed suicide together with a lady, 
near Potsdan, 21 Nov. 1811. Kleist is chiefly known by his 
dramas and a collection of tales. 

Letourneau (Charles Jean Marie), French scientist, b. Auray 
(Morbihan), 1831. Educated as physician. He wrote in La 
Pensee Nouvelle, and has published Physiology of the Passions, '68 ; 
Biology, '75, translated into English by W. Maccall ; Science and 
Materialism '79; Sociology based on Ethnography, '80; and the 


Evolution of Marriage and the Family, '85. He has also trans- 
lated Biichner's Man According to Science^ Light and Life and 
Mental Life of Animals^ Haeckel's History of Creation and, Letters 
of a 7 raveUer in India J a.nd'H.erT.en' 8 Physiology of the Will. 

Lippert (Julius), learned German author of works on Soul 
Worship, Bel-liny 1881; The Universal History of Priesthoods/ 83; 
and an important Culture History of Mankind, '86-7. 

Lloyd (William Watkiss), author of Christianity in the Cartoons, 
London 1865, in which he criticises Eafael and the New Testa- 
ment side by side. He has also written The Age of Pericles, 
and several works on Shakespeare. 

Lucian, witty Greek writer, b. of poor parents, Samosata, 
on the Euphrates, and flourished in the reign of Marcus 
Aurelius and Commodus. He was made a sculptor, but applied 
himself to rhetoric. He travelled much, and at Athens was 
intimate with Demonax. His principal works are dialogues, 
full of wit, humor, and satire, often directed against the gods. 
According to Suidas he was named the Blasphemer, and torn 
to pieces by dogs for his impiety, but on this no reliance can 
be placed. On the ground of the dialogue Philopatris, he has 
been supposed an apostate Christian, but it is uncertain if that 
piece is genuine. It is certain that he was sceptical, truth- 
loving, and an enemy of the superstition of the time which he 
depicts in his account of Alexander, the false prophet. 

Maglia (Adolfo de), Spanish journalist, b. Valencia, 3 June, 
1859, began writing in La Tronada at Barcelona, and afterwards 
published V Union RepuUicana. He founded the Freethinking 
group " El Independiente " and edits El Clamor Setahense and 
El Pueblo Soberano. Was secretary for Spain at the Anti- 
clerical Congress at Rome in '85, and in '89 at Paris. During 
this year he has been condemned to six years' imprisonment 
and a fine of 4,000 francs for attacking Leo XIII. and the 
Catholic dogmas. 

disciples, whom he conducted from faith to scepticism. He 
was the most eminent predecessor of Ibn Roschd or Averroes. 
Died Oct.— Nov. 931. His works were publicly burned at 

Mata (Pedro), Spanish physician, professor at the University 


of Madrid. Author of a poem, Glory and Martyrdom, 1851 ; a 
Treatise on Human Reason, '58 — 64 ; and on Moral Liberty and 
Free Will, '68. 

Mendizabal (Juan Alvarez), Spanish Liberal statesman, b. 
Cadiz, 1700. Was minister during the reign of Cristina, and 
contributed to the subjugation of the clerical party. He 
abolished the religious orders and proclaimed their goods as 
national property. Died at Madrid, 3 Nov. 1853. 

* Meredith (Evan Powell), b. 1811. Educated at Ponty- 
pool College, he became a Baptist minister, and was an 
eloquent preacher in the Welsh tongue. He translated the 
Bible into Welsh. Investigation into the claims of Chris- 
tianity made him resign his ministry. In his Prophet of 
Nazareth he mentioned a purpose of writing a work on the 
gospels, but it never appeared. He died at Monmouth 23 July, 

Miralta (Constancio), the pen name of a popular Spanish 
writer, b. about 1849. Has been a priest and doctor of 
theology, and is one of the writers on Las Dominicales. His 
most notable works are Me^noirs of a Poor Clerical, The Secrets 
of Confession, and The Sacrament Exposed, His work on the 
'ihe Doctrine of Catholicism upon Matrimony has greatly encouraged 
civil marriages. 

Moraita (Miguel), Spanish historian, b. about 1845. Is 
Professor of History at Madrid, and one of the most ardent 
enemies of clericalism. Has written many works, including a 
voluminous History of Spain. In '84 he made a discourse at the 
University against the pretended antiquity of the Mosaic 
legends, which caused his excommunication b}^ several bishops. 
He was supported by the students, against whom the military 
were employed. He is Grand Master of the Spanish Free- 

Moya (Francisco Xavier), Spanish statistician, b. about 
1825. Was deputy to the Cortes of 1869, and has written 
several works on the infallibility of the Pope and on the 
temporal power. 

Nakens (Jose), Spanish journalist, b. 1846. Founder and 
editor of ^El Motin, a Republican and Freethought of 
352 -^* 


Madrid, in connection with which there is a library, in which 
he has written La Piqueta — the Pick-axe. 

Nees von Esenbeck (Christian Gottfried), German naturalist, 
b. Odenwald. 14 Feb. 1776. He became a doctor of medicine, 
and was Professor of Botany at Bohn, 1819. and Breslan, '3L 
He was leader of the free religious movement in Silesia, and in 
'48, took part in the political agitations, and was deprived of 
his chair. Wrote several works on natural philosophy. Died 
at Breslau, 16 March, 1858. 

Nyblaus (Claes Gudmund), Swedish bookseller, b. 1817, has 
l)ubli8hed some anti-Christian pamphlets. 

,Offeii (Benjamin), American lecturer, b. England, 1772. He 
emigrated to America and became lecturer to the Society of 
Moral Philanthropists at Tammany Hall, New York, and was 
connected with the Free Discussion Society. He wrote 
A Legacy to the Friends of Free Discussion, a critical review of 
the Bible. Died at New York, 12 May, 1848. 

Palmaer (Bernhard Henrik), Swedish satirist, b. 21 Aug, 
1801. Author of Ihe Last Judgment in the Crow Corner. Died 
atLinkoping, 7 July, 1854. 

' Panizza. (Mario). Italian physiologist and philosopher; 
author of a materialist work on Jhe Piiilosophy of the Nervous 
System, Rome, 1887. 

Perez Galdos (Benito), eminent living Spanish novelist, b* 
Canary Islands lived since his youth in Madrid. Of his novels 
we mention Gloria, which has been translated into English, 
{ind La Familia de Leon Roch, 1878, in whioh he stoutly attacks 
clericalism and religious intolerance. He has also written 
Episodes nacionales, and many historical novels. 

Regenbrecht (Michael Eduard), German rationalist, b. 
Brannsberg, 1792. He left the Church with Ronge, and 
became leader of the free religious movement at Breslau, where 
he died 9 June, 1849. 

R^Aert (Roberto). Spanish anti-clericat satirist, b. 1817. 
Becqrae famous by his mordant style, his most celebrated 
wor^ being The Rogues of Antonio, The Times of Mari Casania, 
Ihe fudmmer of the Centuries. Died in 1870. 

^3 Y M 


Rupp (Julius), German reformer, b. Konigsberg, 13 Aug. 
1809. Studied philosophy and theology, and became in '42 a 
minister. He protested against the creeds, and became leader 
of the Free-religious movement in East Prussia. 

Ryberg (Y. E.) Swedish merchant captain, b. 16 Oct 1828. 
He has translated several of Mr, Bradlaugh's pamphlets and 
other secular literature. 

Sachse (Heinrich Ernst), German atheist, b. 1812. At 
Magdeburg he did much to demolish the remains of theism in 
the Free-religious communities. Died 1883. 

Sales y Ferre (Manuel), Spanish scientist, b about 1839. 
Professor at the University of Seville. Has published several 
works on geology and prehistoric times. 

Schneider (Gcorg Heinrich), German naturalist, b. Mann- 
heim, 1854. Author of ^Ihe Human Will from the standpoint of 
the New Development Theory (Berlin, 1882), and other works. 

Schreiner (Olive), the daughter of a German missionary 
in South Africa. Authoress of " The Story of an African 
Farm," 1883. 

Serre ( la), author of an Examination of Rclifjion, attri- 
buted to Saint Evremond, 1745. It was condemned to be burnt 
by the Parliament of Paris. 

Siiner y Capderila. Spanish physician of Barcelona, b. 
1828. Became deputy to the Cortes in 1829, and is famous for 
his discourses against Catholicism. 

TOCCD (Felice), Italian philosopher and anthropologist, 
b. Catanzaro, 12 Sept. 1845, and studied at the University of 
Naples and Bologna, and became Professor of Philosophy at 
Pisa. He wrote in the Rivista Bolognese on Leopard i, and on 
'*■ Positivism " in the Rivasta Contcmporanea. He has published 
works on A. Bain's Theory of Sensation, 72 ; Thoughts on the 
History oj Philosophy, '77 ; The Heresy of the Middle Ages,' 84 ; 
and Giordano Bruno, '86. 

Tommasi (Salvatore), Italian evolutionist, author of a work 
,on Evolution, Sciener, and Naturalism, Naples 1877, and a little 
pamphlet in commemoration of Darwin, '82. 


Tnbino (Francisco Maria), Spanish positivist, b. Seville, 
1838, took part in Garibaldi's campaign in Sicily, and has 
■contributed to the Rivista Europea. 

Tuthill (Charles A. H.), author of Ue Origin and Development 
of Christian Dogma, London, 1889. 

Vernial (Paul), French doctor and member of the Antro- 
pological Society of Paris, author of a work on the Origin of 
Man, 1881. 

Wheeler (Joseph Mazzini), atheist, b. London, 24 Jan, 1850. 
Converted from Christianity by reading Newman, Mill, Darwin, 
Spencer, etc. Has contributed to the National Refor mer 
Secularist, Secular Chronicle, Liberal, Progress, and Freethinker 
which he has sub-edited since 1882, using occasionally the sig- 
natures "Laon," ''Lucianus" and other pseudonyms. Has 
i^whW^hedi Frauds and Follies of the Fathers '88, Fodt steps of the 
Past, a collection of essays in anthropology and comparative 
religion '86; and Crimes of Christianity, written in conjunction 
with G. W. Foote, with whom he has also edited Sepher loldoth 
Jeshu. The compiler of the present work is a willing drudge 
in the cause he loves, and hopes to empty many an inkstand 
in the service of Freethought. 


E E E A T A . 

Preface V. line 30, for Dal Volta read BaWa. Volta. 

Page 8, line 17, fur translated read translated. 

P. 16, line I, for Anaxagorus (some copies) na</ Anaxagoras 

P. 2iJor Rennaisance read Renaissance. 

P. 30, line 18, for National Science read Natural Science. 

P. 85, line 15, for Count read Count. 

P. 101, line 29 read lived near Wiesbaden. Died 19 Feb. '87 

P. 102, line 3, for Ouida read Rumee. 

P. 105, line 12, ./or 1836 read 15 Aug. 1835. 

P. 107, line 18, for Dj^ons read Lyons. 

P 107, line 26, delete "before." 

P. 112, line 17, /or Williams read William. 

P. 122, line 27, after Toronto insert 1839. 

P. 131, line l8, for 8 May read 3 May. 

p. 158, line 18, for Hon^on read Hontan. 

p. 162, line 16,./''r surveyor read surgeon. 

P. 171, line, 4,. /or Hidenix read Hedix. 

P. 172, line 7, ./or de voilee read devoilee- 

p. 182, line 24, after Massara insert in Supplement. 

P 217, line 28, for Dupins read Dupuis. 

P. 229, line 26. for Herzogenbusch read Herzogenboscli. 

P. 230, line 18, for Pelusuin read Pelusium. 

P. 249, line 6, insert 11 Aug. before 1805. 

P. 255, line 21, for Dijp read Rijp. 

P. 259. line 17, for National read Natural. 

P. 282, line 2, for Laland read Lalande. 

P. 284, line 33,/or 1715 read 1745. 

P. 289, line 25,/or 1821 read 1851. 

P. 313, line 36, for Guiseppe read Giuseppe. 

P. 318, line 18, /or Monk read work. ^ 

P. 319, line 35,yor 1642 read 1842. 

P. 320, line 7, for Tilia read Titia. 

1 1012 01236 9981 


Date Due 




JN U. S. A. 

f #